Newspaper Page Text
U h wrin s . f ,nBHl0., PEASA., Advert! sing- iitoH. The !t and rel'J Ma clrcolatloa et the Caw sua Kbsbmab counter it te ta faverak -oamderstion ofa1 rovers whose tavars will 'verted at th lollo fits; low rates: 1 inch, S times ...........( Is 1 Inch, a months. ................... 1 loch, 6 months.. ........................ S4) I inca lvear.. s,t X locheji. 6 months.... ............. (.10 a Inches, I year !. Inches. months . .... ....... 8.C a Inches. 1 year . . 1 X.SO l-i eo in ran, S months is.ee e'luun. 6 month.... ....... .............. 20.00 4 column. I year . ... ......... S5 M ; colons, monthi.. ...... ...... . 40. OS I column, I year Ts.O Hosinees Items, Mit insertion. KM. per Una subsequent Insertion. 6e. ter lne Administrator's anl Executor Notices.. f3 M Auditor's Notice 2J0 Stray and similar Notices 2 OS a- Kesolut ion or proceed mm ot any corpora tion or society and communications desian.d to call attention to any matter ot limited or indi vidual Intercut diom he paid tor ar adrertiimeata. Book and Job Pno-.:n.r of all kinds neatly and a'1 ... t vsn. -T Ji ' 0 Si Si ,lW.ult.on. 1,200 i Rain. s" . . ... i - v .n ..lvancc.. '. ". 7 . ..on i K.itiio 3 tnonttis. i vt, .1 within H mouths. 2 K, iL -' ii i irJ xitbio Hie year.. 2it do ' 1 -5..lin outside of the county ,,s-' r year will be chanced to JjjlWO"' l'c J t'M above terms be 5o- i r.'eM 1on 1 oonsult tnelr TX ni '"ri in a.'.vance must not ex VV the -atue looting those who di-tinrtly unaerstood trocx I i and Proprietor EI IS A FREEMAN WHOM THK TRUTH MAKES FREE AND ALL. ABE SLAVES BE8IDK." SI.SO and postage per year In advance. ".: i. .. .,.. tef.ire yoa Slop it. ir F to j -jVOLUrEXXIX. w Tl'J' , , .... :twaica to olnerwise ., .rinrt. EBENSBTJKG, PA., NOVErBEll 15, 1S95. NUMBER 45. . w - exe.ilon.iy executed at the lowest pricea. And n iff Vfi TOP ' Mrlfill' w. . a sa e v a w am. m sav v a m y u nrr rm up im JAS. C. HASSON . . " f iv onu roriri Arras- 1 K I 1 HANDFUL Uf umi 1 A W AT T J af t TT rjL Or bttrtivic. SAPOLIO FARMERS! When- want GOOD FLOUR take your trrain to ieOLD SHENKLE MILL in Ebcnsburg. The FULL ROLLER fir the in:inuf;ifture of Flour has leent put in the Old Wnkle Gri-t Mill in Ebensburg and turns out nothing bat FIRST CLASS WORK. Brin? in your grain and give us a trial. Each man's riio in rroiin.l separately and you get the Flour of your own vincai. ii i.tiuicia visii vr:in 1 o. lhe JNlill is BEST OF POWER. I i i PROPRIETOR Ittls c IVER fail, I : ;, lJi.4tr.-ia after i :s.r :i t:.e N ' : VhiM tii.nrtuca4 aiuc exctrf li- !a shvirii ill cuiuig cisijuiel'Wei i.v..a ii Uiey only S3 5 KS - ti Lunt; bi:tfor:u- --;.:;: '.:.' .-! -.:. t.mi ii. re.atul thoc i-jT4trr ..: :;r:.l :ho. l:ttlo pills Talu Trrirta; ..:.-,- w;!! not bo ri I .c:t liu: ai'.oraliaick boaj t: Our ;.:iia cure it whila :r JiTr r.it arn vry pma!l anU " t--- : a: Rl.t frriji or 'ViNE CO., New yor!c. SMALL DOSE, SLLFRiCc UAI I O VfKrtHble Hioilian IIHLLOHAIR r;povnlar1tT r.f thi propamtion, ':of many years, s-hould be an .at.)t:. lii.-t ,.V.i.ti,.i. that 7 prori"'i. Th..-e who have S HaIK ilFAFVl tu L- rtnur that p'w "w!i of Tis!r on bald I "1..M J 1 1 . uv r:o pray ( r fa.j. .1 hair; pre timlihful and clear of I -- "r lauinir on or f"W; kee;t U oft, pliant, lu- k' I h"'-'!!ful inSuf-n.-e of lt -r. ,n"'' wli1' 11 Invt-'orat "! n.-.t a dve, and ia . toliet use. Cor. '.'r'r 11 d'-"' evan dry up th natural olL fL; - j-r uiu-611 ana brlule. aa 4 klngham'. D F TBI " ! Whiskers -1 (T' natural color: and! 'dZl rl'''' Eiore coo-i-"CAt!on ttkn any other. ALL A r r. - Ia-eri la MediciAaa, f H 'tiin.. 1 Ja, J.. t-,. M :sU- forFarty - -iijm.: or tip - -r-i tstrumtr.tj . --."-it rjoscr, to-- k "-. Sr.-. ( Picuist. 0RK!LSICLECHOCO.S , tidy's lavingParIor tHr.t-, ;,! r,; Sbanpo. t,,, , r ., et . A Ss KiikikTi.,.. l wi,. ; J1"'"1 "! nil tn. t'-" "' -HI U, to,a (. MAY BE A HOUSE- A Va W W . . . MUUbE WITH iv eAunange grain lor Flour running everv ilv wWVi ih. FOR ARTISTIC RSNTISMG TRY THE FREEMAN. DURE rlrv:-i n;: -ioMs'y int.. :ri ii.'i hnliit ami yp ! rri. i.1. r- li-icrintr iu ui.lit t. mauwr af fuirs rouinn,' a i.-f r Uaio. A Jour weeks PITT5Bri?5 Vi-r.LEY INSTrTCTE. X". iii". I-irth Avenne, TC-.rr to t)i,-r a-1 tjj,. ;, tv.-ts, Trital find l:iVM-al. k--iri.s t a'.:iinunl uvpetite, and ix: r.- th in .a ;'.ic e&r. '.:(!!! thew wi-re in lie-fon-tlw-v iful-ilin? I in i ji.i,.inrj. Tiishasliwn i!ii::t- II !!..; ;,;,-, r,V-.; a:-.'S tp'at)) hT, anl urn .it-; til. .f 7 a-r r,m CiiisT'ibors, to v,-h:.-i -hi r. -i-.-r w t i '.'jiiii.:cti-e us to Ifio ii:.- :..iu-iy i..;. 1 .f i h; K?oley (tiro. Fii.- f!i!li.i vi ?ii,.t s -arc S-i'T i..v- tiinttioit is : - :t'- : Tor lut uli' -t. iviiiK lull iiilonna- h.-w en.fi.Tod a coimtAnt pAtronajre for oxer siity yr&rs. It la wonderfnliy efllcacioua in all (aunful di3caui. such a 1 hfBmitll.n., l.imbi(0, Nriratcta. It M-Lai-ke and other ailmt-nfit whpre pain Is an atteiul ni. Try it. At lniir iti.rM, or ly mall on r'--'i;.t of uame. tatldrtnw nlid i ctrnUl. WINkHLMANN & BROWN DKUO CO., RultlMore.' Md.. I". H. A. 117 itSlv. Caeat. and Trade-Marke obtained, and all !' eiit htniinrna concocted for Moderate FS. Our Office is Opposite U. S. Patent Office, and mnnwrnre patent in lees time than thosw remote from Waehinirton. . Send model, drawing or photo., with descrip tion. We advise, if p-itcntable or not. free of charire. Our fee not due till patent i aernred. A Pamphlet. -Uow to Obtain Patente." with nnmi ofarto.nl rlientu inyourState, county.o" town, eeDt free. Addre, C.A.SNOW&CO, Opeosito Patent Office. Washington. O. C J'LVS CATARRH CREAM BALM t'trtnrs the M M-im m 1 1 ion. Jfrtl the &nrr rn4rcm tit sitiHitinwil Wrf JtnttwrvM th firnm jc nf and m It Will Cure COLD 'N HEAD A particle applied nKirei au.l i aureo.Me Pri-eSO cer ta at imiif if lt r ty mi i tlY IfKliTHLK-s, MS Warren Street. New or. DoY.10.M.Jy THE ACCIDENTS OF LIFE Write to T. S. Quiscet. Draw.! 106. Chicago, Secre tary of the Star Accidkst Compasv, for information regarding Accident Insur ance. Mention this paper. n m doine yon can save membership fee. Has paid over fXO.CXW.00 for accidental injuries. Be your own Agent. NO MEDICAL EXAMINATION REQUIRED oct.ll.6m . c 7 - LASS. Alllbtf w - - j.fc. ulr pri.-.-, ,,nyir.K).l."i'pl-''oi'. '-Jvl-lualvi t.-rtl-en'rnTfoV"' w7a. COHKEVCO. Publisher Chicago- UU PROOESS JOB P THE KEELEY cSBALrVX KA11S1N VINEYARDS. A Great Industry in the State ol California. Treatment of the Orape Tinea to Keep Thetu In Hearing Irrigation Is Moat Kaaentlal I'ortlon of the Work. Fresno county, of California, is pre eminently the raisin center of the United States, its exports alone during the past year having amounted to sixty-five millions ot pounds. This locality, comprising- an area of eight thousand square miles, lies in the heart of the justly celebrated 5an Joaquin valley. Two-thirds of the county is level vineyard and orchard land; the remainder, spurs of the snow-clad Sierra Nevadas and their luxuriant and fertile foot hills. Fif teen years ago this vast tract of land was a barren plain, fit only at its best for sheep pasturage and grain farming on a small scale. To-day the desert literally "blossoms as the rose," and its "milk and honey" of soli 1 comfort and wealth are its raiain vineyards. Hut these in turn are the product of the irrigation supplied by the two magnificent rivers. Kings and San Joaquin, which flow westward from the melting snows of the Sierras. This supply is ceaseless, the water being conducted by about two thou sand miles of canals and five thousand miles of lateral ditches to thousands of small farms and vineyards in Fres no valley. The county is supposed to have.the most extensive irrigation sys tem in the world certainly in the state and the system is as essential to its vital existence as is the warm blotxl rushing through the veins to the health of the animal. The cost of supplying a vineyard with water is but sixty-two cents per acre per annum, and the labor of ap plying it, if the land has been properly leveled to receive it, is slight No Venetian canal, with its graceful gon dolas sailing between the marbled walls of the old palaces, is half as beautiful to the Fresno raisin vine yardist as the ribbon-like and limpid "ditch," upon whose quiet surface are mirrored earth and 6ky and the tangled leafy loveliness which lies be tween. A raisin vineyard is in full bearing in three years, but the grape has not reached its perfection until the vine from which it springs is six or seven j-ears old. The Muscat and Thompson seedless .ire the best variety of raisin grape cultivated, the latter having only been introduced within the last few years, but the Zinfandell and Sultana have also large claims upon popularity. Standing before one of these vines, upon which inverted cones of count less perfect spheres are hanging each cluster weighing several pounds a vision of the Hebrew spies, with their maenificent crapes of Kshcol. borne "on a staff between the two," rises tie fore us, and involuntarily we exclaim: "Is not this also the Promised Land?" Few sights are more disappointing to the eastern tourist and stranger than a ride through a raisin vineyard in March or early April. Nothing greets the eye but acres of level land covered with brown soil, from whose arable surface thousands of small horned stumps prtrnde. about four or five inches high and standing ten feet apart. The pruning- of the vines is done be tween the middle of November and the Jst of March. Soon after the wooing sunWams of May coax open the folded bud.- the cultivator begins its work. Soon the laterals throw out their long arms, upon which already appears the em bryo grape cluster, and until the leaves of the vine meet and shut out the pos sibility of getting a plow between them the cultivation continues. In this constant vigilance lies the secret of success. Slowly the forest of vines expands. As far as the eye can reach is a dead level of living green interspersed with silvery isles ofrunning water. About the first of Septeinlr the long sunn)' daj's, the dewlesa nights and the percolated soil have perfected their marveious work, and the first crop is ready to be gathered, liy this time the laterals have run riot, and the vineyardist-can scarcely see over the top of his vines. The prcess of grape-gathering for raisins requires the most delicate handling and cleanliness. Hundreds of shallow wooden trays, about five 'eet square, are distributed among dozens of trained pickers. The bunches are carefully cut irom the vine, and as carefully laid upon the base of the tray to avoid bruising them. There they remain untouched for ten days and nights. One-half the grape is by this lime cured; but instead of turnintr them with the hand, an empty tray is placed over them, the lower one is in verted, and the turning and transfer have been made. In twelve more days the curing is completed. The trays and contents are then stacked about twenty trnys high, where th.-y remain :r five days sweating, when they are ready to be graded and packed in boxes of five, ten, twenty and fifty pounds for the eastern market. Vines 6ix years old yield one and a half tons of raisins per acre, giving a net income of two hundred dollars per acre. While the supply of raisins is as unfailing as thegrowingdemand, there is an aesthetic as well as an economic side. A fewwomen have not only found raisin vineyards a source of comforta ble revenue, but their cultivation a most elegant and healthful pastime. The approach to some of their homes, with the vineyard in the rear of the dwelling house, is throug-n avenues of palm and magnolia trees, and if they iie. as many do, against the foot-hills of the Sierras, a ride through the col umnar glories of giant redwoods is a fitting introduction to the beauty and utility which is sure to be beyond. Nellie Blessing Eyster, in Harper's Weeklv. Strengthening CbararUr. An excellent way to strengthen character is to cultivate candor to acknowledge it when you are wrong. It will inspire self-confidence, open the door of knowledge for you. and you will have the sweet consciousness ol always being right in excluding at once all the spurts of wrong.-Detroit Free Tress. THE SWARMING OF THE BEES. Napoleon Regained Ilia Empire Twenty Days After Leaving Elba. At nine o'clock a mighty shout is heard without. "The emperor! The emperor!" The palace echoes the cry, as across the bridge of the palace and along the Seine embankment in through the Tuil leries gate, thronged about by a elam orous crowd, aud surrounded by his soldiers and his generals. Napoleon enters the coortyard. Paris is wild with joy. The veter ans fling themselves upon the emper or's carriage. They seize him in their arms. They drag him out, and, bear ing him on their shoulders, they rtsh with him through the doorway even to the foot of the great staircase. The palace rocks with the shouts of weleome. The trowd bearing the em peror, and the throng pouring down the staircase to greet him, block the way. Progress is impossible. People are everywhere, and Philip, standing at the top of the noble stairway of honor, laughs as he cheers, to see Cor poral Peyrolles sitting astride the great silver statue of peace, his chap eau on the end of his cane, his face red with shouting and wet with tears of joy. At last & passageway is broken through the crowd. Philip and M. de Lavalette back their way aloft to keep the passage open, and so, up the elumoring stairway, along the gallery of Diana, through the blue room aud into the emperor's stud)-, amid tears and cheers and shouts, and tossing of hats and waving of handkerchiefs, the emperor somes to his own again. In twenty days after leaving Elba Napo leon has regained his empire. With but a thousand grenadiers he has con quered thirty millions of people. The Swarming of the Bees ends in a carni val of joy. Elbridge S. lirooks, in St. Nicholas. BLATANT PATRIOTISM. An American Who Remembered His Country He fore Everything Elae. A couple of Englishmen, en route for Rome, were joined by an American, whose blatant patriotism first amused, then bored them. No matter what was admirable, rih or rare, there was always something in America to eclipse it, according to our countryman. The Britishers determined to teach the Yankee a lesson, and taking advantage of the chronic thirst of their aoinpan ion, the) plied him with all the liquor that he could be induced to absorb, and then proposed a visit to the cata combs. Before they reached their destination they were obliged to guide his errant steps between them, and at length, overcome by drowsiness, the American begged to be left alone to lie down at his ease. When sounds as of a discharge of musketry issued at regular intervals from the nose of the prostrate patriot, his eompanions con cluded that ho was dreaming of the Fourth of July, and would therefore be oblivious of anything at hand. Pro ducing a sjieet, purloined lrom their hotel and until now carefully con cealed, they wrapped the sleeper like a mummy in its folds, and tiien left him to "do" the catacombs on their own account. Returning an hour later they found him still sleeping. One of them then drew from under his eoat a tin fish horn, and blew upon it a blast that only elicited a grunt and produced a fluttering of the eyelids of the sleeper. A second blnst, however, longer and louder, brought him to a sitting pos ture, with eyes wide open ami senses all alert. A moment of bewilderment, and then he exclaimed, joyously: "Ga briel's trump! Resurrection day! First man up! Hurray! America still ahead!" Harper's Magazine. Nature' Kuektrim. It .seems to lie a law of nature that the rougher the material with which she has to do, the more effort she puts forth to lieautify it. The wastes of dreary swamplands are brightened by the flame of the cardinal llower and the deep blue of the lobelia, while overhead nod the cat-tails and the blue flags. Where the bare and ragged rocks jut out from the hillside in ledges and bluffs, nature, with a lavish hand, scatters her choicest flowers and trails her rarest vines. Flowers never seem so beautiful nor graceful as when seen in contrast with rough rocks, whose hardness and eolduess they seem to defy. Who. after once seeing it, can ever forget the charm of the wild columbine, that with airy lells fringes the clefts in the solid wall of the overhanging cliff, or the wealth of ferns at its base? It is this sharp contrast of strength and rough ness with beauty and grace that makes popular the ever-present hickory of our cities and suburbs. And it should be remembered that the most impor tant point in arrancing a successful rockery is to carry out the ideas of na ture, where the graceful vines and plants are now to be admired in wild natural beauty. Philadelphia Times. New I m-s for Kleetrlclty. A well-known New York eaterer who owns a large restaurant gives to the electric fan the credit of saving him from bankruptcy. The smell of his kitchen In-came so pervasive that it was driving all his customers away. After vainly trying different remedies he had a largo fan so fixed that all the fumes of the cooking were drawn up a shaft and passed into the outer air. The difference of the at mosphere of the restaurant was not hst on the publie; the business re turned and soon went leyond all form er records. A writer in an electric jour nal teds of an exix'rienee in a factory gallery were huge vts were simmering. The coolest man in the factory was the attendant standing over the vats, who was briskly blown upon by a little fan motor. Iter I ndertaiiding of It. " A woman living In one of the fashion able avenues had a bit of statuary War ing th inscription: "Kismet."' , The housemaid was dusting the room one day when the mistress appeared. "Shnrc, mam. what's the manin' of the Yitin'on the bottom of this'."" asked the maid, referring- to the inscription on the statuary. " 'Kismet' means Fate,' " replied the mistress. Bridget was limping painfully when she was walk ing with Pat not lonyr afterward, and he a.skcd: "Phwat's the matter, Brid get?" "Faith," was her answer, "I have the most terrible pains on me kes-met!" NAMING CHARACTERS. Trouble Experienced, by Novelists in WritineT. The Old Style Patronymics Not Vp to the Ideas of Modern Reader Cp - to - Hate Style Demanded. All the mechanism of novel writing nas a fascination for the general pub lic, and no part more so than the fit ting of names to the characters. Why certain appellations are chosen whose aptness ami quaintness at once strikes the reader is a question of great in terest. The old-fashioued tales and plays, with their Sneerwells, Back bites. Belairs, etc, and the later case, Thackeray's Neweones, follow the simple rule of descriptive names, but the raison d'etre of the many thousands which constantly absorb the public in terest is utterly uncertain. Dickens, it is well known, ransacked old London for quaiut and curious names. Shop signs were his special hunting ground, and in this he had a French counterpart, Balzac. The story is a twice told tale how the great nov elist dragged his companion through Paris one memorable night in search of a name to fit some one of his stu pendous creations, and just as the dawn was beginning to break and the companion's strength was failing a bign was found which bore a name sufficiently outlandish to suit even Balzac's taste. The name once given, he was wont to declare it grew to the character so that separation was to him utterly impossible. Such a separation was recently en forced on an author. Miss Anna II. Walker, well known from her many charming books, and even more famous as the bister of Susan Warner, who wrote "The Wide, Wide World," planned a book which was to treat of West Point life. In searching for a name for her hero, which would not be likely to appear in any army regis ter, an old name came to her mind one that she had not heard for more than fifty years, and then only once the owner having been a client of her father. She recalled hearing him com ment of the strangeness of the name, and only that circumstance impressed it on her memory. The lxk was written, with the hero bearing the quaint old name, but when she submitted it to the publishers she was informed that there was some one living of that name who decidedly ob jected to having it appear "in a book." distinctive as it was through its odd ness. With inward protest the patient author then set about to find another name, but the personality of her hero had become indissolubly bound to her first choice, and no other one seemed to fit it. N. Y. Herald. WUe Old King Ceernps. Did I say that the people who lived there (Athens) at that time were sim ple minded? Rather childlike thev were in some ways, ana not so worldly wise as they might have been had they lived some thousand years later; but they were neither simpletons nor alto gether savages. They were the fore most people of Greece. It was all ow ing to their king, wise old Cecrops, that they had risen to a condition su perior to that of the half barbarous tribes around them. He had shown them how to sow barley and wheat and plant vineyards; and he had taught them to depend upon these and their flocksind herds for f ood. rather than upon the wild beasts of the chase. He had persuaded them to lay aside many of their old cruel customs, had set them in families with each its own home, and had instructed them in the worship of the gods. On the top of the Acropolis they had built a little city and projected it with walls an 1 forti fications against any attack from their warlike ncightiors; and from this jHiint as a center they had, little by little, exteutled their influence to the sea on one side and to tiie mountains on the other. But, strange to say, they hail not yet given a name to their city, nor had ' they decided which one of the gods should be its protector. J runes Baldwin, in St. Nicholas. A Fire-Born Hug. There are some bad bugs and worms in the southern forests, but there are certainly none that are quite equal in endurance and toughness to the worm that developed himself from the great forest Ores of the northwest. Scarcely had the fires cooled sufficiently for the owners to make inspection of losses when they found that this new worm had got there first, and was already completing the destruction of what the flames had spared. Both standing and cut timbers were attacked, and the most vigorous measures have been re sorted to and with only partial suc cess. This worm seems to have evolved from the heat, and, so far, the cold and snows of the winter do not appear to have affected his health or lessened his voracity. He certainly is a new and junpleakant feature in the timler ques tion, and a nut that scientists have not yet cracked. Chicago Chronicle. The Warrior and Ills Otiiftttoa. At some maneuvers of the volunteers in Dumfriesshire the troops were divid ed into two parts, an attacking and a defending iorce. The former were posted behind a hedge during some skirmishing, when one of the defend ers suddenly burst through and was immediately surrounded. "Down with your arms you're my prisoner!" cried the sergeant. "Nae, nae, mon." re turned the intruder, coolly, "I'm nae preesoner." "I tell you we are the enemy," cried the sergeant. "I dinna care whether ye're the enemy or nae," retorted the intrepid volunteer; "I hae lost ma snuitbox and I'm ne gann back without it." Amid general laughter the valiant warrior was allowed to look for "ma snuffbox," and when he had found it he departed in peace. N. Y. World. Directions Followed. Mistress Maggie, I wish you would wash eggs carefully before breaking them in the cake. I always keep the shells to clear the coffee with. Maggie Shure, mum, an ye towld me thot same yisterday. It's notmesilf that's fergettin, an here they all are, to dry on the rack, scrubbed inside an out wid the sand 6oap an as dry as the flat o yer hand, mum! One more victim of the Emerald isle is trying to pluck tip courage and try again. JmLre CLUBS IN ANCIENT TIMES. Some Notes on the Social Organisations of Cent uric Ago. Clubs are not modern institutions. In the ancient days of Greece the men of Athens combined for social inter course. In Rome the earliest clubs were the trade guilds founded by Numa I'om pilius in 720 Ii. C, similar to the guilds of the craftsmen which played so im portant a part in the history of the middle ages. At one time there were eighty of these guilds in Rome alone and they were not confined entirely to the metropolis either. Very closely allied to the masonic society of our day were the societies formed throughout the Roman empire for the practice of religious rites un known to the states, except that our masonic societies violate no laws. Even the slaves in Rome formed clubs of their own, which somewhat retembled trade unions. Although military clubs were prohibited, yet they were tolerated among the officers of regiments in foreign service. The rules of a club in a regiment on duty in Africa have been discovered on the site of a Roman encampment. They showed that the annual dues were about one hundred and twenty-five dollars. Even women's clubs are not of recent date. The Roman matrons had many such gatherings, some for religious, some for social purposes. The most celebrated of these was the "Senate of Matrons." Connected with it was a debating society in which momentous questions of dress and etiquette were discussed much as they are at the pres ent time. In both Greece and Rome political, clubs were common anil the aristocrats and democrats advanced their views much as they do to-day. Club houses were few in numtier because the meet ings were usually held out of doors. From the time of Christ to Henry IV. is a long step, but investigation fails to show that there were any clubs during that period. The first definite infor mation we have concerning an English club is given by Thomas Occleve, the poet, who, with Chaucer, belonged to a club called "La Court de Bone Com pagnie." In the reign of Queen Elizabeth clubs liecame very numerous, and some of them were famous owing to the great men who belonged to them. Chicago News. THE COURAGE OF WOMEN. It Is Pasnive Fortitude Rather Than I'hyalcal Demonstration. Let us consider in what the physical courage of woman has hitherto most differed from that of man, for the difference is one not only of degree, but quality, and the re suit partly of physiological condi tions, partly the influence of here dity, and partly of the necessities of her social life and the education which is habitually assigned to her all of which must affect the future as well as the past. Broadly speaking, it is in passive fortitude and endur ance, in continuance rather than vehemence of effort, in self-abnegation and vicarious pleasure that the cour age of woman excels. She will face with equanimity a necessary danger, but will rarely seek or delight in it Joys of contest and peril have for her little meaning, and no attraction; they threaten the home; they are physically prescrioed during a great portion of her life; they conflict with her special province of being beauti ful, and her special glory of Wing chosen and protected. I doubt whether there lie a woman iu the world who does not in her heart of hearts still like being fought for, who does not admire even an ordinary feat of strength or daring more than all the honors of the schools. How strange it would lie were this not so, when we remember that for centuries ujn centuries the progress of civilization, the evolution of sex, has Wen founded upon the contest of male for female. When we think of the course of history, the necessities of structure, the influence of maternity, the slow inheritance of one uniform tradition of conduct, of all these di verse and potent factors alike tending in the same direction, there is no rtKm for wonder that a radically dif ferent conception of courage should be held by men and women, and we must require very strong evidence to Wlieve that such a conception in harmouy, as it appears to tie alike with nature and reason, is erroneous or destructible. Fortnightly Review. It Is l'oor In l'iithes. The Colorado basin is the largest in the United States, draining not less than two hundred and twenty-five thousand square miles, yet, according to a paH-r prepared for the I'nited States fish commission by Messrs. Everman and Rutter, it contains but thirty-two sjHM-ies offish of eighteen genera. These Wlong to the following five families: Catostomidae or suckers, eight sjH'cies; Cypriniilae or minnows, ninetit-n; Salmon idae or trout and while fish, two; Poecilidae or top min nows, two; and Cottidae or blobs, one. All but seven of the species are thus far known only from this basin. In comparison it is stated that eighty dif ferent species are known from the basin of the Rio Grande, one hundred and forty from that of the Missouri and one hundred aud thirty from the Wabash basin. The Caynie aa a I'eMt. The Indian cay use is the worst pest that inflicts this country. The Indian horses spread all over the ranges, and are not confined within the reservation limits. It is estimated that fifteen thousand worthless wild ponies range unrestrained over the hills of this coun try and devour the gixxl bunch grass. These cayuses each eat enough good fodder to fatten a four-year-old steer, and one steer is worth more than ten glass-eyed broncos. If we could enact a law to declare every pony of an as sessed value of less than one dollar a public nuisance, it would add material ly .to the prosperity of this country To I'tllise caim Ncarly a hundred schemes have boen devised for utilizing culm, the' name given to the fine dust or refuse of coal that is shipped from the mines. Many of these schemes have proved useless. It is now suggested that electrical power plants W established at all coal mines where culm accumulates and that it W used as fiiel for generat ing power, which could then bo conveyed by wire to neighboring cities. SPIDER RAISING. The Unique Enterprise of a Penn sylvania Farmer. Wine Merchants liny the Insects and Place Them In Their Cellars to Weave Webs About the Hottles to Cilve Them Age. Although entomologists have often raised spiders for purposes of scientific observation and investigation, spider raising as a money-making industry is something rather novel. One has only to go four miles from Philadelphia, on the old I tineas ter pike, and ask for the farm of Pierre Grantaire to see what can W found nowhere else in this coun try, and abroad only in a little French village in the department of the Ioire. Pierre Grantaire furnishes spiders at 60 much per hundred for distribution in the wine vaults of merchants and the uouveaux riches. His trade is chiefly with the wholesale merchant, who is able to stock a cellar with new, shining, freshly laWled bottles, and in three months see them veiled with .filmy cobwebs, so that the effect of twenty years of storage is secured at a small cost. The effect upon a custom er can W imagined, and is hardly to W measured in dollars and cents. It is a trifling matter to cover the bins with dust, but to cover them with cobwebs spun from cork to cork, and that drape the neck like delicate lace, the seal of years of slow mellowing, that is a dif ferent matter. The walls of Mr. Gran taire's spider house are covered with wire squares 'rora six inches to a foot across, and Whiud these screens the walls are covered with rough plank ing. There are cracks between the boards apparently left with design, and their weatherWaten surfaces are dotted with knot holes and splintered crevices. Long tables running the length of the room are covered witli small wire frames, wooden boxes and glass jars. All of these wires in the room are covered with patterns of luce drapery, in the geometrical outlines fashioned by the spider artists. The sunlight streaming through the door shows the room hung with curtains oi elfin-woven lace work. It is not all kinds of spiders that make webs suitable for the purposes of the merchant, and those selected by Mr. Grantaire are species that weave fine, large ones of lines and circles. They are the only webs that look artistic in the wine cellar or on the bottles. The spiders that weave these are principally the Epeira vulgaris and Nephila piamipes. When Mr. Grantaire has an order from a wine merchant, he places the spiders in small pater boxes, a pair in a box, and ships them in a crate with many holes for the ingress of air. The price asked, ten dollars a hundred, well repays the wine merchant who, at an expenditure of forty or fifty dol lars, may sell his stock of wine for a thousand or more dollars above what he could have obtained for it Wfore the spiders dressed his bottles in the roWs of long ago. Mr. Grantaire has on nana, at a time, ten tnousana spiders, old and young, the eggs of some of which, the choicest, he obtains from France. When the mother spider wishes to lay her eggs she makes a small web in a broad crack, then she lays, say, fifty eggs, which she covers with a soft silk cocoon. In two weeks (or longer in winter) the egirs Wgin to hatch, an op eration that takes one or two days. The eggshells crack off in flakes and the young spiders have a struggle to emerge. Then they Wgin to grow, and in a week look like spiders. They often moult and shed their skins like snakes. The brood has to W sep arated at a tender age, else the mem Wrs of the family would devour each other until only one was left. Phila delphia Times. No "Three Extates of the Realm." For all practical purposes there are only two estates in the English parlia ment, lords and commons. Thus the phrase of the three estates, which had a meaning in France, Wuaine mean ingless in Englaud. For centuries past there has Wen no separate estate of the clergy; some of their highest mem bers have Wlonged to the estate of the lords and the rest to the estate of the commons. Hence has arisen a com mon, but not unnatural misconception, as old as the long parliament, as to the meaning of the three estates. Men constantly use those words as if they meant the three elements among which the legislative jower is divided, king, lords and commons. But an es tate means a rank, or order, or ciass of men. like the lords, the clergy, or the commons. The king is not au estate. Wcause there is no class or -order of kings, the king Wing one person alone by himself. The proer phrase is the king and the three estates of the realm. But in England, as I have al ready shown, the phrase is meaning less, as we have, in truth, two estates only. C. A. Freeman's Growth of the English Constitution. A 1'ralrie ScUMner. A novel adaptation of the house-boat idea to overland pleasure has been worked out by a wealthy Kansan. With his wife he starti-d from his Kansas home a week or two ago on a summer pleasure trip to the far northwest in a big prairie schooner, built expressly for the trip, and fitted with most of the conveniences and comforts of a sum mer cottage. The wagon is of more than ordinary size, even for a prairie schooner. The lied of the wagon is floored over, and on this is constructed a substantial house of canvas, with strong wooden framework. It has win dows in the sides and doors at each end, and is compactly and cozily fitted. The wheels are low and have very wide tires. In this conveyance the people will travel over the prairies and the western trails, as fancy dictates, just as a house Wat party lazily drifts among the Florida bayous. la -" o uanger. Judge Andrews, of Georgia, once, when a candidate for governor of his state, was explaining to the crowd of people that had assembled to hear him how his friends had pressed him to be a candidate, and that the office was seeking him; he was not seeking the office. "In fact," he exclaimed, "the office of governor has Wen fol lowing me for the last ten years." At this point a tall countryman at the rear of the audience rose. "But here's yer consolation, judge!" he shouted; "you're gainin on it all the time! It'll never catch you!" This prophecy proved to be correct. Chicago News. PUNGENT PARAGRAPHS. Cholly Chumpey T see that ear rings are coming into fashion again. Have your cars ever Wen lored?" Miss Caustic "What a question! Haven't I often listened to your twaddle?" Syracuse Post. BlobW "I'm going down to At lantic to-morrow. I'll look up your sister." Slobbs "Yes, do. She's hav ing such a dull time; she wrote me sho would W glad to see anybody." Phil adelphia Record. "Ah," said the jovial friend of the man with the vaiise. "going for a lit tle rest, are you?" "No," was the re ply, with a hurried glance at the time table. "I'm going away on my vaca tion." Washington Star. He "What a pity that Miss Vere de Vere should have lost her good name." She (rreatly shocked) "In Heaven's name, what do you mean?" He "Why, marrying a man named Jones, of course." N. Y. Sun. Violet "I've just had a letter from George, and he says he's going to W married." Vivienne "Going to W married! Why. 1 thought Well, you seem very cool about it. Who's he going to marry?" Violet "Me." J udy. Cleff "They tell me your daughter Julia is quite a singer. Has she a (rood voice? Is her method " Staff ''Can't say so much about her voice, but her method is superb She nerer sings when 1 am at home." Boston Transcript. Stranger "Do the people do much hunting around here?" Native "They do for a fact- Iead loads of it." Stranger "What do they hunt deer or quail?" Native "Nope. Money to meet their notes in bank with." Flor ida Times-Fnion. Port Officer "What have you on board, captain?" Captain "Our cargo consists of one thousand cases of or anges." Port Oiiicer "Yes." Captain "One thousand cases of eggs." Port Officer "Yes." Captain "Three cases of yellow fever!" Tit-Bits. The Kind to Have. Jack "My landlady is a young widow and good looking." Dick 'loes she ever say any teDder things to you?" Jack "You Wt she does. She says 'Wef steak and 'chicken and " Dick "Hold on. That's the kind of a one I'm looking for. Any room for an ex tra eater there?" Detroit Free Press. Mrs. Cumso (severely) "Johnny, I heard you ue that expression "those kind,' after I told you it was wrong." Johnny Cumso "But, mamma, it was rhrht this time. I'm sure." Mrs. Cumso "It is never right to say 'those kind. Johnny." Johnny Cumso "But, mamma," persisted Johnny, "I was speaking of those kind girls who helped me up when I fell off my bicycle." Harper's Bazar. "Here is an item." said Mr. Chng water, w ho was looking over his morn ing paper, "about a man that fell from the thirteenth floor of a -ky-scraper the other day." "lid it kill him?" asked Mrs. Chugwater. "Kill him? He never knew what hurt him." "1 might have known it," rejoined Mrs. Chug water, Tabbing her nose thoughtfully. "Thirteen is such an unlucky numWr" Chicago Tribune. CALIFORNIA UNDER SPAIN. Trade Restrictions Which Were Deadly to the loan? Colonies. England was a careless parent. Her children, neglected by the mother coun try, forced to tarn their own living while yet young, though having thus a sorry youth, still early developed strength, energy and ambition to do for themselves, and W free from parental rule. Spain, though she even fed and clothed her colonists, kept them strictly dependent upon her for the smallest as well as the greatest needs, diseourairiag freedom of thought as well as action, governing by a mass of rules to which was exacted implicit oWdience. She thus kept a strong hold upon her most remote settle ments, which rendered it dilSeult, al most impossible, for the cuiouists to. develop into independent citizenhood. Spanish trade restrictions were deadly to the young colonies, and at length almost suicidal to the parent land. No trade was allowed with other coun tries, and only with Spain herself through the one port of reville, where it was rigidly inspected by the "house of trade" that Ward of regulators with the narrowest ideas and instruc tions. All commerce had to W carried in Spanish vessels, so why should the settlers build ships? Trade Wtween sister colonies was forbidden, and no foreign vessel could enter a harbor of a Spanish possession, or land a man without carrying a special permit- To prevent colonists trading with foreign ers, death and forfeiture of property were the penalties. To strengthen further her peculiar trade policy, Spain forbade the cultivation in the colonies of such raw products as came into di rect competition with hime industries. The culture of hemp, tobacco, olives, grapes in vineyard, and many other ar ticles, came under this list. --Overland Monthly. MUCH IN LITTLE, Is simple manners all the secret lies; W kind and virtuous, you'll W blest and wise. Young. No wild enthusiast ever yet could rest till half mankind were like him self ptjssc-ssed. Cow per. A rational nature admits of nothing but what is serviceable to the rest of mankind. Antoninus. Whex the fight Wgins within him self a man's worth something. The soul wakes and grows. Browning. IIoxtst designs justly resembles our devotions, which we must pay and wait for the reward. Sir RoWrt How ard. TirERn is nothing that wears out a fine face like the vigils of the card ta ble, and those cutting passions which attend them. Steele. ITEMS FROM THE ORIENT! Uxtil forty years ago Japanese were vaccinated on the tip of the nose. At a Japanese banquet it is a com pliment to ask to exchange cups with a friend. Thk seed of the plant "pride of China" grows a fruit called "madWrry" which intoxicates birds that feed upon iL Til K Siamese have a great horror of odd nuiuWrs, and were never known to put five, seven, nine or eleven win dows in a honso or temple. h r : J V I i X I r -s r ! I I t - c . i : M ;.! t t i i : i if i i " -r t - j ; i 1 r. ' t , I r - I - t I rJ , L (?