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The Potter journal and news item. [volume] (Coudersport, Pa.) 1872-1874, January 24, 1873, Image 1

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Jno. S. Mann,
Proprietor.
VOLUME XXIV, NO. 26.
The POTTER JOTTRRAL
AND
NEWS ITEM.
PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY AT
COUDERSPORT, PA.
(Ojti'X in O!rusted Block.)
Ti KMS, S 1.75 i'Kit YEAR FN ADVANCE
Jno. S. Maim, S. F. Hamilton,
Proprietor. Publisher.
C. J. CURTIS,
Attorney at I .aw and District Attorney,
Office "ii MA I A St., lover the Post Ojjice,
CO I'D KID PORT, PA.,
Solicits ail business pretalnlng to his profession,
special atteution given to collections.
J ll* S. KKJ ARTHUR B. MASS. ,
JOHN S. MANN & SON,
Attorneys at Law and Conveyancers,
cm'hKltSl'hKT. I' A.,
CivlLffVtions promptly ntnudpd to.
Arthur B. Mann.
i• i.• ra. 1 luur*uc \g%ut & >oi*ry Public.
S. S. GREENMAN,
ATTORNEY A.T XsA-W, !
(.ITFICE OVER PORSTKR'.S STORIt,!
COUIIERSPOKT, PA.
n
I iW VSTKII O. C. T.ATIKAHEK j
OLMSTED & LARRABEE,
ATfnKNKYS AND C*M'NSKI.OKS AT I.AW
(Ofllc In Olmitc.i Block,i
f'OUDKUSPORT, PENN'A.
SETH LEWIS,
.ifloinoy at Taw and Insurance Agent,
I/F.WISVILT.E, PA.
A. M. REYNOLDS,
Dentist,
(orriCK IS "l.*flTKl> 81.0CK,)
COUDEIISP* )RT PENN'A.
Baker House,
ltnowN ft. Kr.t.LEY, Prop' is.,
( tuner of SECOND and EAST Street-,
t'DI'DKKSPhKT, PKN.V.L. I
_
1 teiy atteiiiiou paid to iiie ••onvcnience and j
comfort of guests.
Aa'Good Stabiing at'acl'.ed.
Lewisvilie Hotel,
Corner of .MAIN and NOttTll Streets,
LKWIsV 11.1 Ja PA.
*&-•: > >1 St sibling attached.
JOHN 8. PZAfiSALL,
HOLM. PAINTER and GI.AZIFR,
CDI DKKtiI'ORT, PA.
All kinds of CKAININO, VAUMSHISO. AC., done,
orders .U-ft at the Post office will be promptly
attended to.
M. Tnoil! BOM J. 8. MASK j
THOMPSON & MANN,
OKVI.KI'.S IS
Times, Medicines, Books, Stationery,
T; <uf GOODS PtltTS. OILS. WALL PdPEK, iC., :
Cor. Mainmul Third St?..
COUDKRSPORT, PA.
S. F. HAMILTON.
BOOK AND JOB PRINTER,
(Corner J/f to and Thir l.)
COl' DERSPORT, PA.
C. M. ALLEN.
Surgical and Mechanical Dentist,
LEWISVILLE, I'A.
k! work guaranteed logive satisfaction.
D. J. CROW ELL,
MiLi'r. D. H. Ball Jjinter 1' B Itinj Uacliine, j
SIN MIM AlioNlNll, Cameron *•<., Pa.
n.l the SIDE < 'VTsJII .V (JLK MA' UISE c |
ant from is i., fC,
Macliiuov aud General Custom Work j
rtl*-r. I
John Grom,
II ous P s4 i n ,
CVnamrntdl, pcronitivc & .frfsro
PAINTER,
COUDEF; SPORT, PA.
DRAINING and PAL EK HANGING done
with neatness and dispatch.
Satisfaction guaranteed.
- eft iih
UAKKIi IIOISK
W ill IH* promptly attended to.
I). H. N EEFE,
CARRIAGE FACTORY,
€(fUDEItSPORT, PENN A.
All kinds of Wagon-making, niacksmithtng,
I'alntlng, ( aiTlage I riinining and hepalrlng done
with neatness and durability. Ciirgea
reasonable. MK-ly
C. BREUNLE,
M AIiHLE WORKER.
COUDERSPORT, PA.
Headstones, Footstones, etc., finished ta order
as cheap as at any other place.
Orders left at office of Jot b>*l i NKW g ITXM
*lll receive prompt arsentlon.
THE POTTER JOURNAL
-^LISTD
WE"WS ITE33VC,
2*oftry.
A Christmas i.hyme.
One Christmas Evening, lontt aito—
Just how long I to. get—
iiie funds of Santa ciaus ran low
So he ran into debt.
Could, he his usual gifts bestow
And ail those bills be met ?
HP A !:L S 'npawVy. 1 Scratched " is he^
' u^; ,e . me world," he said
That money cannot buy-
Things needful as one's dai y bread •
fins year thuse gifts I'll try." '
And so to one he gave a friend.
And to anotJier hea th.
Of nfe W lianefui end
Ot blessings won by steaali—
Who. W,IU loss their footsteps tend
lie lw mubii liable lor uuaitu.
For one he won a husband's life
rsacK from t.ie drunkard's dootn;
Abu for another liojie.ess wife
Opened toe peaceful tomb :
! "v ,;,ny :l , v ';iage rank wiih strife
Bade lioaers of eoneot d bioom.
sore-tried soul he made so brave
I hat light tue victon won :
with tears upon a new made grave
Saw uigher die begun ,-
Back to a widowed m doer gave
An erring, sorrowing son.
lie brought t > many a household band
A we.come little guest ;
To more tuan one the heart and liaud
Ot her he loveti the bc'4 ;
TO work-worn fiames, unougli all the land,
iiie blessed boon of rest.
An opening rose-bud, sweet as June,
Soothes one poor suoe.er's woe ;
A st; ain from some torgoiten tune
Be vivos the twidgnt g.ow
"'"11 dps, w hose music died so soon,
Eiuraneed toe iong ago.
A good day s work ! " ciied Santa Ciaus.
Vet won he ntt-e fame ;
Men look ids guts ike .Nature's iaws,
.Not heeding whence tuey came ;
Aud some avened tiiey hud uo cause—
J iieir logic was so nunc.
To you who own small store of gold
i have a woni to say:
Great u.es ,nigs in your hands you hold
lo gladden Cliiistmas hay,
Since ,ove cannot be oougut and sold
o kiiitincivs thrown away.
For, should no other soul be blest,
lour own win purer glow.
And each .a .I Cini.tioo, oc your best,
II such gifis >ou ucsloW •
For Cinist wi.i be your Cniisiinas guest,
Begnioing Heaven beiw.— J intern,out.
GOVERNOR'S MESSAGE.
Ow .ng t > the disarrangement of the otftce oe.
casiouetl l>y moving, the jiui i cat ion of the ine .
of the (ioveinor was unavoidably postponed
hist wcvti, ami Ms nu> linglh ir
sary to omit some parts of it in this issue. We
give what seems most valuable.
la On: Senate and JJnu.sc <>J lleprctseiUn
lives oj (In; (Jontmon tccullli of
Pennsylvania:
GENTLEMEN : In obidience to the
requirements of the Constitution L have
the ltoiior of transmitting to you un !
sixth annual message. Since your last ,
meeting the general course of events, !
both State and National, has lieen so;
propitious as to afford abundant cause!
for mutual congratulation, and ot
thanksgiving to tnat Almighty IVovi
di nee whose will controls the destinies
of all. While we have been exempt
from the calamity by lire that bus be
fallen the meuopohs of a great sister
her misfortune lias inured to tin
benefit of our people by the enlistment
of tuat sympathy for tlie suffering
which is one of the most ennobling
sentiments of the human heart. The
seasons, though not so favorable- for the
produetions of our soil as in some past
years, have he-en sutliciently fruitful;!
and no general epidemic has appeared !
to disturb the pursuits, or till with sor
row the hearts of our imputation. Our !
mining industries, manufactures and I
internal commerce are being constantly 1
enlargtd and extended, and their enter
prising proprietors are generally receiv
ing remunerative returns.
A gnat political coiitlict has occurred,
resulting in a signal triumph of the,
same principles that were asserted in
llie lestorat ion of the Union, the amend
ments of the Constitution, and tin- re
construction ot Hit- States. Toe victory ,
111 Pennsylvania was decisive of the 1
victory in the Nation ; and will ever be j
renit inhered as an inestimable eontri- :
button to the harmony, prosperity and
glory of the country. The election ot
tut* soldier, who "is lirst in war," to the
oliice tnat makes him "lirst in peace,"
was an appropriate exhibition of na
tional gratitude, a. d inspin s the deep
est let lings of satisfaction "in the hearts
of his countrymen."
While the Constitution wisely with
; holds from the Governor all power of
1 interference in legislation, it imposes
: upon hiui the duty of laying befoie the
i General Assembly such information of
: the state of affairs, and recommending
i to their consideiation such measures as
: In- may deem expedient and important
j to the public welfare.
1 am happy to inform you that peace
I and good order have been maintainid
i by the enforcements of just and equal
J laws, and the legitimate exercise of
! authority continues to find an enduring
basis of supiMirt in the intelligence,
affections and moral sense of the
j people.
FINANCES.
The credit of the State remains tin
j questioned abroad, because her public
j faith lias l*-en inviolably maintained at
home. The following condensed state
! mi nt of the receipts, expenditures and
indebtt duess of the Common wealth is
J resfiectfully submitted:
Jt> cij-U.
Balance in Treasury Nov, 3, 1871. #1,476,808 59
Uruinary receipts during toe nscal
year ending Nov. 30, i".2 7,H5,637 45
| Total in Treasury dm ine year end
lug Nov. 3u, 18i2. J #8,625,446 04
Dixtnirsemeritx.
Ordinary expenses paid duiine year
; end inn Nov. M, 1872 *ASWwtoi 55
Loans etc., redeemed, 2,476.326 uo
Intel est on loans jxaid, 1,700,032 88 __
Total disbursements, #7,141990 iS
i Balf'ialu Treasury. Nov 30, 1872, • 1,482,446 61
COUDERSPORT, PA., FRIDAY, JANUARY 23,1873.
Public Debt.
Pub'ie di lit on Nov. 30, IS7I, was, i|28,f>,071 73
Add Cliainbersburg cei tllicates 2y9,74S yl
Add Agricultural College Land Scrip
fund, held in trust, as per Act ap
proved April 3, 1872 SOO.fiOO 00
♦ 29,779,820 &
Deduct amount paid by Commission
ers of the Sinking Fund during the
year ending Nov. 30, 1872 2,476.326 00
Pubiie debt, Nov. 30,1872 827,303,494 84
Deduct assets in Sink
ing Fund 89.300.000 00
And cash balance in
Treasury 1,482.47-5 61
Amount asseu and cash 10,782,466 61
Ba'ance public debt unprovided for 816,521,039 03
wiiicii can be extiuguisned in ten years by tue an
nual payment of 81,60u,000.00.
During the last six years payments
on the debt have been made as follows:
Amount paid in 1867 81,794,644 50
Do., 1808 2,414,816 64
Do., lßt>J 472,406 18
Do., 1870 1,702,879 05
D"., 171 2,131, 90 17
Do., 18',2 2,47 ,326 00
Total payments 810,992,662 5s
being a little over twenty-ni nt per cent.
on tire debt due Deoeinlier 1, lbtiti, which
was then 837,7u1,4t9.77.
SINKING FUND.
In remaiking upon tnis subject, 1
t.ust it will lac instructive to r. fer,
hi ieily, to some of the facts relating to
the accumulation and payment of the
public debt, and the origin of the assets
arising 1 rom tne sale oi t.,e public im
p.OVtlfKUtS.
However wise our predecessors were
in opening avenues for trade and eoiu
mcice, and however great were the
o. uciiLs rtsulling to tne people lroin
tire internal improvements of the State,
n is obvious, that while those of otlu 1
states rarely failed to become sources oi
revenue, the management of ours was
such as to produce lesults widely dirim
ent. A large majority of tuei tax-pay
ers, therefore, after long and patient
endurance, becoming dissatisfied with
tneir management, demanded ti.ey
should be sold ; assuming it would be a
measure ot economy ....a mevent
an increase of tue obligations.
Tiie construction of the improvements
resulted in a public debt which in lSo_
readied its maximum, $41,524,875.37.
Tne interests, piem.uuis and otner ex
penses that have been paid upon the debt,
from its ineipieiicy to Nov. 30, LS72, sum
up $70,84-5,744.99; and make the enlin
exieiiditure on account of the public
works $ 1 15,370,620.30.
In pursuance of law the State canals
and railroads were sold in 1557, for eleven
millions dollars in bonds ; upon which
the State has received $ 1,700,000 in casn
and $9,300,000 remain in the hands of j
Lie Commissioners of the ."sinking f uiid,
as follows:
ii.intls f iiie Penn.ylvania Railroad
Uoiiii-any, seci.eil try iea on Die
l'..i .ale.pai l illld (JoiUlnlda li. 11., 8". 800.000 0".
Tlii. .y-iivr i,..n,1> of tiie A.leghcny
\ a."ey li. U. C., eocli fo. 810-.IMJ.
guiiiairU'd by t.ie IVnusylvania It.
ii. Co., .Su.tiiciiic'enini. it. W. Co.,
anil lot- I'ni ad a. and Kiie 1i.1t.C0.,
p.t.,al)ii: 8i oaMl .aiuii.i. y, begin
ning Jan. 187 , Ilea, ing per cent,
interest lroin Jan. I, 1872 3.500.000 90
Amuuut ol assets 9.300.000 in..
Tiie Governor speaks of liie reduction of the |
Stale debt and the ieduction of taxation as hav
ing "gone liand-in hand lliiocgnoui Ids adnniii -
liatioii," and reeoiiiniends a eoiitiiinanec of thai
poiey. lie mentiaiis various items of taxation
Uiut niigiit \\ ise.y be lC.iiinuisbeil,and conclude..:
It is confidently believed that with
these proposeil reduetioiis, winch amount
to $1,041,901.51, the State can still pay
all Iter e'l!!Tt'bt expenses, the interest on
the public debt and make an annual re
duction ot . t least one million live hun
dred thousand dollars U|>on the princi
pal.
GED LOG 1C A L SUItV EY.
N unu-rous conimuuications, signed by
many entei prisitig and intelligent citi
zens, continue to reacii me on tiie sui
iject ot a geolrrgical and mineralogicai
.survey i urging me to commend it to youi
careful consideration.
In my annual messages of '7O and '7l,
I laid before the Gciier. 1 Assembly tiie
necessity for a continuation of tne sur
veys already made, in order tiiat tiie lnni
. lalogieal resources of tne State siiould
ut- more fully and perfectly ascertained;
and express* it Lie opinion Unit tne results
would be inter* sting and valuable, no*
only to our citizens individually but to
me entire country.
Assurances nave been given by the of
ficers of lite "United States Coast .Sur
vey" ot tue great interest tuey will take
tu our Stale, in tne event tne-} cany oui
men intention to cross tne continent to
connect tue "Ocean fines of Coast Sur
veys." Tuisconnection will pass through
Pennsylvania and will materially assist
.n d*-lei mining tiud establishing one or
morepoiiiisiueaclicount} tnrougu WHICH
Lie hue will pass, aid iu inanguiaUug so
tar ;*s to enable us to rectify our county
maps and connect tin m in a correct map
ol ti.e btate. And as tne State Geolo
gist progresses witn nis slutlits and ex
aminations lie should cause to be accu
mteiy represented upon the corrected
maps, by colois and other appropriate
means, tne various areas occupnd by the
different geological format ions and place
tlu-m in tne possession of tiie people, for
their information, prior to tiie comple
tion and imbLication of a full account of
the survey.
A slate map of tlifc kii.d indicated, witli
all the discoveries marked in iwopei col-;
orb thereon, would give to the thousands
of visitors from our own country and j
from foreign lands who will attend thej
Centennial celebration, some approxi
mate idea of the incalculable wealth be
neath tire soil of our State; and would
have an imjrortance in their sight that
could be conveyed to them in no other
possible manner.
The expenses of a geological corps,
projierly organized, and such as would
lie competent to perform the duties re
quired, have been carefully estimated
and will not exceed forty-five thousand
dollars for the first year, and need not be
quite as much annually thereafter. In
recommending this measure two years
ago, I said: "For want of a proper bu
reau of statistics, and a corps of obser
vation and publication to collate and re
late the facts of our geology and mine
ralogy as they have appeared, the state
has already suffered severely. Much
valuable information has been lost, never
to be recovered; and but little certain
knowledge of past mining, and other
scientific operations, has been preserved
to govern and assist the flit ure engineer.
It is, therefore, neither wise nor just
policy to delay this work under the pre
text that it may be more perfectly ef
fected at some future time. There is a
present necessity for it, though the time
never will eotne when such a work can
be considered perfect. A'ew develop
ments in mineral resources, as well as
additional acquirements in scientific
Knowledge, will constantly be made its
long as the world exists. The sooner,
therefore, in luy opinion, a thorough sur
vey is authorized the better it will iie for
the prospective interests of the State, as
well as for its present necessities."
The golden destiny of the Facitic States
may well be envied ; but our coal, ore,
lumber and soil tire a much better foun
dation for wealth and permanent great
ness than the products of till their/Joeir*,
and the transient prosperity they have
ptoduced. Let us buikl upou an eudur
■ng btisis and the world will forever pit}
a golden tribute to our products and m
—ll in true wealth of Pennsyl
vania.
EDUCATION.
With great propriety, the Superinten
dent, in the opening of his able report,
congratulates the iieople upon the con
tinued growtn and prosperity of oui
public schools.
Tlieir progress is clearly indicated by
comparing tlie expenditures of the last
,ix years, with those of the six years
prior to I$U7, viz:
Total cost for tuition from '67 to '72 821.578.258 61
iotui cost lor lui.ioli lioiu 0i to '66. 12.71...0C1 71
Increase *. soo. lou IA,
t'otal expenditures of the system
from irio7 10 iS72 • . 842.9C2.152 11
fotai expeuuituies 01 uic system
from ,soi to 1306 19. .90.149.1
lacrease 83.5..aii.9u2 to.
Pennsylvania, less fortunate than
many oi her sister states, has 110 school
fund. The legislative appropriations
amount only to about six hundi td thou
sand dollars auuually; but tiie people, in
the several districts, voluntarily vote all
other moneys necessary to support the
schools. The foregoing sta.emeiits
urielly exhibit, the deep and increasing
interest entertained in behalf of popular
education.
Intelligence and virtue are conceded
to lie indispensable conditions of the
permanent existence and prosperity 01
any form of government. Tiie necessity
ol these supports increases in proportion
as the area of freedom and privilege t.-.
enlarged. It follows, from these un
questioned maxims, that the demand
tor general education is mot- imperative
111 the United ."states than in any otner
country. Our Constitution recognizes
the people as the inherent source of ali
power. All participate in Lie great act
or creating tne country's rulers. The
ballot decides till questions of clio ee.
and lills all official positions, from that
of tne chief magistrate ot tue nation to
mat of the lowest town otlicer. This
supreme and resistless power of univer
sal sinrragc, at once suggests the abso
lute ince.-.sit} of universal education.
JL'ue truth 01 these premises admitted,
110 argument is required to establish tne
conclusion.
Tue common school system doubtless
owes its origin to a common conviction
mat no people can be proper!} and per
manently self-governing, wnose intelli
gence is unequal to the comprehension
of their l'ignis, privileges and res;4>nsi
bilutes, or wnose virtues are too feeble
and imperfect to restrain tnem from a
violation ut those duties which they owe
to their creator and to e-act other.
Wlien tiie system was introduced
thirl}-eignt years ago, it was generally
view id in the ligut of tin *XicrnuenL
Tue act creating it made- its adoption
dependant upon tne vote of the people
in tlieir resi<ective districts. Their ie
iuctant and tardy acceptance of tne
priceless boon is neither matter of sur
prise to us, nor reproach to llieui, when
all me circumstances are duly consider
ed. Its present popularity is indicated
by the- entire absence of complaint, and
a still more significant readiness by ttie
people to assume tiie expenses requisite
ior its constant improvement and efii-
cjejit application. .Doubtless m;iny years
must elapse before the lull fruition uf
its influences uui be received, but auau
wh{le it will be gradually moulding the
popuLir unnd into more perfect conform
ity with the requirements of our free
institutions.
Fortunately the old prejudice against
the system no longer exists; but indif
ference to a lamentable extent occupies
its place. From the report of the Super
intendent it appears that the number of
children in the State, who do not attend
school, exceeds 75,U00. This criminal
neglect is most prevalent iu cities. In
Philadelphia twelve per cent, of the chil
dren between the ages of five and fifteen
do not attend school. Rut more signif
icant and alarming still, of the whole
number registered as attendants, forty
six per cent, are absent from the daily
sessions. 11l this State tit large the un
registered amount to six per cent., and
the absentees to thirty-three per cent.
And, as was naturally to be expected,
Hie resulting ignorance from this neg
lect has proved a fruitful source of
crime. .Sixteen per cent, of the inmates
of the State prisons are unable to read.
Obviously, therefore, it is not stilli
eicnt that the State makes ample pro
vision. Such measures should be imme
diately adopted as would secure a uni
versal participation of the benefit. The
children are not to blame. They nat
urally prefer freedom and amusement
to the confinement and studies of the
school loom. Parents and guardians
arc the parties with whom the State
mu. t deal. She owes it al ke to her own
peace and security, and to the highest
welfare of the children who are to be
icr future citizens, to see that they shall
be rescued from the perils of ignorance.
After careful and anxious deliberation
upon all tiie facts, and their inevitable
consequences, I recommend the adoption
of a compulsory system of education.
That a law to this eftect will encounter
objections is not to be doubted; for in
view of the proliability of such a meas
ure, its opponents have already com
menced to marshal their forces.
In Norway, Sweden and Prussia this
system was first adopted, and such have
u-i ) hiui'v effects that oilier
European governments have made haste
to follow their example. Austria, ad
monished by the defeat at Sadovva,
France by the crushing disaster at se
dan, and England by tne possibility of
a real "battle of Dorking," have decreed
by statute that ali their children shall lie
taught tolead and write, influenced by
a conviction that knowledge, gives in
creased prowess iu war as well as capac
ity and integrity for the peaceful pur
suits of life. And ii is a/act t>i striking
significance that none of the states that
nave- p;u>s.d such enactments have aban
doned or repealed them.
In passing from this topic, of para
mount importance to the future- well
being of the Commonwealth, I unhesi
tatingly express the hope that tiie da}
is lied far distant when through the iiu
reau of National Education, seconded
ny the concurrent legislative action ol
the states, every ci ild iu tue American
Uuion, without reference tucieed, caste,
color or condition, will be thoroug.dy
and effectually instructed 111 all .the ele
mentary branches of Eirglis.i education;
itiid that uniform text books, setting
fofth .the true history and theory of our
National and State governments, will
lie provided and introduced into all the
schools of the country. Approximation
of thought and opinion of these subjects
is of vital consequence to the perma
nence of tiie Union and the stability of
our republican institutions. Had such
ii measure been opportunely initiated,
the war of the rebellion would scarcely
have been possible.
snould you deem your powers inade
quate to enact suitable laws upou this
subject, the Constitutional Convention,
now in session, should not hesitate to
nabiliute you with such authority,
itiid thus lend their, aid and influence
iu making Pennsylvania the vanguard
in the great mission ul universal edu
cation.
x rom the report of the Superinten
dent of Sojdieis' Orphans' schools, and
other sources, I 1* el fully authorized in
assuring you they uere never before in
a more flourishing and prosperous con
dition.
Every child, legally eligible, and hav
ing made application, is now admitted
to these schools. The whole number of
admissions since lsti-i is 1)129; the dis
cliarges from till causes 2902, leaving in
attendance 35-7. No larger number
will probably hereafter U- attained, and
it may confidently be expected that this
number will be subject to an annual re
duction of at kast -500, until the system
shall have accomplished its mission.
The entire- exjense* of these schools to
the Stale, since they weld into operation
iu 16U5, is $3,107,543.11. Tlieir cost
during the last year was $475,245.47.
it is estimated by the suiierintendent
that the future expenses, to the pe-riod
of tlieir final extinction, will not exceed
$1,500,000.
The health of the children lues been
extcllcut. Their exemption from small
pox, while it was prevailing all arouxjd
them, is re-tnai kable; and uo stronger
evidence of good management pnd the
propitious results of systematic vacci
nation could be- adduced. The exeui
pfiuy conduct of the pupils after their
discharge is one of tfie most gratifying
circumstances connected with their his
tory. The following statement of the
Superintendent will be highly satisfac
tory to the Legislature and the people:
" From the beginning of these schools
to the present, the greater part of the
children who have received their advan
tages have been honorably discharged.
And from facts in possession of the de
partment it appears that more tfuin niue
ty-eiyht per cent, ore doing well, and sceni
likely to become upright ami useful citd
-2i115."
Among the States of the American
Union, Pennsylvania stands pre-emi
nent in her "care for the soldier who
litis borue the battle, and for liis wid
ow and orphan children." Her noble
scheme for clothing, educating, main
taining and adopting tbe orphan child
ren of her soldiers who gave tlieir lives
in defeuseof the .National Union, is net
own invention. In this the generosity
of her people lias been imitated, but
not equaled, by those of any oilier state.
To her will ever be accorded tiie leader
ship in this work of patriotic benevo
lence, It will form the brightest page
of her history. It w ill seal iiie devotion
of her people to the common country;
and our legislators, in view of its benign
intluenees, will continue to accoid a
cheerful and liberal support ton system
so faithful in blessing to the orphan
children of our martyred heroes.
Upon no material interest of the .State
is the influence of education more salu
tory than that of agriculture. Pennsyl
vania by wise legislation litis authorize d
the purchase of three experimental
farms, and the establishment of a col
lege, all of which are now iu successful
operation, and the results of the scien
tific working of the farms have alread\
added much practical knowledge upon
the general subject.
The Agricultural College has just
closed a most prosperous year —the
number of students being 150 —which
exceeds that of any year since the open
ing ul' the institution. Any one ol' three
courses is optional to the students, viz.:
agricultural, scientific or cl.issieal, to
ail of winch is added a general course
of military instruction.
The admission of females, which was
first permitted sixteen months ogo, lias
thus far worked exceedingly well. —
Thirty young women have availed
of the opportunity thus af
forded to obtain a first^-class education.
All students are taugiit to regard la
ir vs beneficial and honorable. The
rule of' tiie college requiring ten hours
;manual labor per week from studems is
cheerfully complied with, and results
advantageously to their health and
comfort.
Tuis state institution is pre-eminent
ly the PaqAcCollate. Its preparatory
department receives students at a low
grade, as will as those more advanced.
This school is "cheap enough for the
poorest and good enough tor the rich
est," either in mind or estate; and it
affords healthful exercise, instruction
in useful labor, and free tuition in eve
ry branch of its ample courses of study.
• HOARD OK I'ULIC CHARITIES.
The eminent and philanthropic gen
tlemen composing the Hoard of Public
(Charities have carefully investigated a
number of subjects which they de< iut d
of sutlicient importance to lay before
the Legislature. Among them may be
specially noticed Prison Discipline,—a
question now generally occupying the
attention of statesmen and philanthro
pists throughout the civilized world;
the condition and treatment of the in
sane and the workings of that class of
institutions known as local charities,
founded and conducted for benevolent
purposes. These asylums are located
in Various parts of the State, mostly,
however, in Philadelphia and Pittsburg.
They are performing an excellent work
—relieving the sick, indigent, infirm
and neglected portions of our popula
tion. The General Agent has devoted
a considerable portion of his time to
their inspection, the results of which
will appear in iiis able report to the
Board, in which he exhibited their
character and the large amount of pri
vate charity bestowed upon them.
This Board was organized during my
administration, and 1 have entertained
a deep and lasting interest in its labors.
The gentlemen who compose it volun
tarily devote their time, without com
pensation. to this noble work of benev
olence. The impress of their intelligent
efforts is everywhere iierceptible; and
the large annual contributions of the
State to charitable institutions have,
under their supeivision and examina
tion, been properly and systematically
applied.
The third volume of their reports w ill
be submitted at an early day. It will
present a large amount of statistical in
formation. and many interesting facts
and valuable suggestions upon subjects
of great importance. I cannot too
strongly commend this Board—the
great regulator of state charities—to
the favorable consideration of the Leg
islature, and recommend such appro
bations for excuses and additional
enactments as may be necessary to in
crease its efficiency.
PENITENTIARIES A REFORMATORIES.
From a personal inspection qi the pen
itentiaries i am able to bear testimony
to the evidences that were everywhere
8. F. Hamilton,
$1.75 A YEAR
manifested of their general good man
agement and excellent discipline.
The Eastern ]>enitetiary has long been
deservedly regardt d as the model prison
in which the ''separate" or "'individual
treatment " system of imprisonment is
a]plied, and the annual reports of Its
faithful Hoard of Inspectors, embracing
their observations and investigations,
show that they have elevated the subject
of crime punishment almost io the dig
nity of a science.
Among the circumstances that at
tracted my attention was the insulfici
ent number of cells to carry out the
"solitary confinement" principle, and
the incarceration there of a number of
boys and vouths for first offences, and
of females untrained in crime. Some
times two or more in one cell were thus
unavoidably brought into associations
which could scarely fail to produce con
tamination of character and morals. 1
would, therefore, recommend that the
Legislature enable the courts to sentence
minors and females to the county pris
ons, wherewith proper teaching—train
ing in some handi-eraft business —and
with due attention given to discipline,
the object would be more effectually at
tained ; and the penitentiary, thus re
lieved. would have cells sufficient for all
ordinary purposes. Ii is a great mistake
in almost all cases of minors convicted
for their tirst. and often trivial, offence,
to send the m toa State's prison; because
the punishment is less in its effect than
the idea of degrada* ion in the after-life
of the prisoner. Such persons should
be punished in the locality where the
crime was committed, and the disgrace
would not be so likely to permanently
affect the character after the discharge
of the prisoner.
Frem 1829 to 1871, inclusive, only three
hundred and forty-six females were re
; ceived in the Eastern penitentiary, and
| of this number one. hundred and twen
ty-seven were minors. These facts would
fully justify the propriety of such action
by the Legislature as has been suggested.
The Western penitentiary contains
ample space for present dt mauds. It is
i conducted on the "combined 1 ' system of
* "solitary" 1 and "congregate 11 imprison
j ment, the workings of which are giving
I entire satisfaction to all concerned.
The commissioners from this .State to
j the International Prison Congress, late
ly In lil in London, England, report that
j twenty-one governments were reprcsent
i ed. principally by men who l:nv< made
: criminal legislation and penal treatment
ja study. America sent soventv-three
.'delegates, representing penitentiaries,
| asylums and reformatory institutions.
I Among these were many t xperls in every
branch of penology. The deliberations
|of the Congress occupitd ten days. Its
I results are difficult to estimate: but it is
jhojNd the great interests of humanity
i involved in the proljer treatment of ci hue
i wil be happily subserved among all civil
ized nations.
The managers of the " Pennsylvania
Refoiin School" (late the Western
House of Refuge) propose io change
their location lroni Allegheny City to a
farm, containing -sU3acn s, in Washing
ton county, seventeen miles from I'itts
! burg, near the Chartiers Valley railroad,
j and adopt for its government the best
features of what is known as the "family
■ system" of juvenile refonnatorses.
These will mail ly consist in the aban
donment of walls, holts ami bars for
' conlining the children: and in an ear
| nest effort govern them through sympa
thy and kindness, and prepare them for
useful occupations.
The Board will ask an additional ap
propriation to pay for the land and im
provements.
SAM 1 ART REGULATIONS.
Of all my official recommendations, I
deem those most important which relate
!to the public health. Facilities for the
material devi iopment. and Lie aecumu
| lation of wealth, estimated at their
highest value, are of but minor eonse
; quince when compared with the preser
vation of life itself. "Ali that a man
I hath will he give for his life!" At the
• lime of presenting my last annual mes
, sage, small-pox was fearfully prevalent
i in Philadelphia and in many towns and
populous districts of the Mate. I then
caikd attention to the subject, and in
j the strongest terms at my command,
j urged the iin|'iative necessity of adopt
ing such measures as would arrest tue
; disease and pre vent its re-appearance.
My suggestions, however, wen utterly
unheeded by the Legislature. The
I dreadful scourge extended list If into
the iirst half of the past year, and, in the
j absence of well known preventives, if
I would he pi t sumption not to i .\[t et its
annual return. Neither tlie ixlent of
its ravages, nor the fatal character of
i the disease, last year, is generally known
i to the public, or, I am confident, there
I would have been such an outcry as
would have compelled immediate atten
tion and relief. Among the luivaccin
ted. the ordinary proportion of deaths
has been thirty-three per cent.; but the
i recent death-rate in Philadelphia
] amounted to nearly forty-seven per cent.
. This is fearful to contemplate, and vet,
j more fearful still—the fatal percentage
\ has lrii marly sixty-six in the country
jat large. This is mainly the result of
jan indifference, so reckless, as to be

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