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Clearfield Republican. [volume] (Clearfield, Pa.) 1851-1937, March 22, 1865, Image 1

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W. MOORB, Editor and Proprietor.
From the United Sutoi Magntine. (
IE Oil) 1-8 T UEi'UllLIC IS T1IR
About the middle ofthe Gftb century
(coording to tome authorities in 4 11, and
rtlifr iu a native ot JJalmatia,
(bile employed in building the bridge
jfKimini, attracted by his piety the no
lice ot Uirudentius, Bbhop of liie&eia, by
,hom he was made a deacon.
boon alter be retired to Mount Titano.
icrgy and almost inaccestiblo mouutuin
illumed ou the coast ot tbo Adriatic, be
iweeo Ancona an1 Florence, in latitude
iwU'narlh. nnfl lrtnoitiiHa 15 9 I N M'
Mil,fiUn tue uesign 01 leaaing a hermit
ii. .ninlrii .An.ii.1:.,. t.
Muoii'y. ana ina iiaiun irincess whOi
i -i i. . .
owdsu the territory, gave it to biia. -i'uuiuiiibiu -ni anoneneu ueyond
Thereupon a considerable number of .f 6 narrow limits of thi3 petty prov
fuiiiie took up their residencu on the mp.e'
,rot, and a reublican form of govern-
neot was instituted; thus lay ing the !
undation of iho town and Unpublio of
Mirino. or .San Ma iuo, which, though
wsseMingthesunllesl terriiory of any
Sule in Europe, and superior iu popula-
lion to but lo, lUeobtmistein, iu Uer-
ainy. and Melltngen.t in Switzerland. I
Jim reserved its independence to this day,
i period of 1,400 years, doting which the
Venice, Verona, Genoa,.rv., Lave fallen.'!
irvuuest Jtepuuitcs or iNoiiaero Italy,
In tact, the Contentions which dilated
these more powerful Slates, and which e-
( Teutaally produced iheir destruction,
msy have contributed in some measure to
I the conliunance of their weaker 'neigh
!bori Sao Marino Laving always been a
jilace. of refuge for nil who sought peace
, mid the turbulence of the feudal age ;
4 and who, there, like our Pilgrim fillers,
flight be expected to aim at the cstiib-
liibaieot and maintenance of ioatitutioDa
tfrafrotu thoso elements of discoid and
iliifo which chaioclerized the Govtro-
arnt under which Ihe hd lived, and
j (iota which they had fled. The social or
i douHslio htstory of so remarkable a Slato.
tculd it be wiitieo, would be curious and
, initructive ; but, unforfuiiaiely.tliat very
I itigciCcf.i ce v.h,th has ojeittcd to pre-
irv ita independent existence, U al-
K a suuivieub reiwun wur room tnea
J pi record exist lroai which to learn par
hicuUrly of its growth, or of the iiuer-
uiil n.ODBccnitiil of ite ofluirs. Jin tjofltoi
. . . l i a i t .v
1 history may be briefly told. Iu the year
; I1UU the l.epuunc purciiaseu the Lust I o
I of 1'eiiDurobta, and in 1170 that ot Casolo.
Durit g the wars of the Guelpha end Ghi-
Uliues, in the tellth and thit tuenth cen-!
Hints, tt.etopio ot ti.n Jianno took
trt wi'.h the latter, supporting tho rve-
j Wiftotis of Emptror, Henry lv of Ger
juisny, in oj. position lo the ambitious
j tiheuits ofj Gitgcry VII, ctid were incon
j (rqance excouimunicaled by Innocent
j IV. In the frui teptf b century, Giacnma
j l'eliiw plotted with the I'odcata of fires
jnsitidthe Archbishop of Montafultre, to
Oliver Sail Muriuo into thoir Lauds.
j Happily hr the Iiepublic, his dan was,
jilircumed. lit confessed his crime and j
uifered death asa traitor, luward the
tad of the same century, too commune lJJ E,vcs n vcry Pnanl thouaii nnper
beiogiurauioued to pay certain dues end fect.account of it. 0. W. Irving, former
tm to the i'anal Governiuout, refused; United States Minister to .Spain, in
ai tho mv.ter I oini referred to a learned t
of Rimini, called Palatneda, he de
nied that the communo aud men of San
XnriLO were exempt from payment, hav-
. iag been of old independent of all foreign
ioaiiiiion a decision which was confirm-
"td by tho Vicar Theixloric.
' lo ll'iO, Tope Pius II, being engaged in
icoutest witu Mulatcsta, Loid of Himiui,
:ectjivii tha assistance of tho inhabita'its
jfMarlno, and in return presented to
bem tbe four small castles, or forts, of
rale, Faetano, Mont Giurdiuo, and
! Tho S'ate was at this time in a Gouritb
ot condition, and became un object of
suitiou to the adventurous or uvan
' nis ; and it was compelled for years to i
i'rugglo for its iudependence. In 173'J,
l nuble but intricuing Cardinal Alberon!
iting failed, ia bis ambiti nis scheme
i'ilh other Siates. turned his attention to.!
; rd this tiiinialurd Uopubl.o
'uich gave ri-e to tbe celebrated
Jf the good-humored and jocular, but tern-
TheCardiual alleged that the Govern-
asnt had beci'uo a nurrmw oligarchy,
nicontrive 1 n i!iiDrei tho Court nf
Ijme with tlu b.diuf llut the pe iple do-
irsd the protection of tho Uiiurch thore.
lai. Having received the coosent of
i;be deceived 1'ontitT, ha repaired thithor,
wd conquered the proviuca wilh a aingle
mpany of soldiers and a lew olllcors of
slice. The people appealed to Clement
Xir, who restored iU former freedom and
sieges. Indaed, inclosed ai U the
...!.. iu . ftl. ,i.l, ii l.-
?orizingaod otitic 1'ontilt Ueueuict AlV ,wuu a uaruy young stripling, wno proven anally to be lostereu onu encourugeu m a
iiberoni is a like glutton, who, afer hav- lo bo a political fugiiive that had taken State, is tho possibility of liberty an 1 in-
agmiten a Urge salom, cannot help cusl- refuge in San Marino ; nnd the Iiepublic, dependence weakened. Tho s'rp from
(i wishful eve at a minnow." I bko a true "City of Kefuge" had shelter- individual slavery, as victims of our own
snerally boen under the protection of upper part of tho mountain, the summit j run, " two roads) tro dm worltl WO
its Pope, which, perhaps, accounts la of which is crowued by an old castle with f ono am ft broatl and natTO'.v road that
muit-.uie, at least, tor its long con tin-' lb fee towers, on one of which tho.tandatd j icluis to j)mlition, Mu tho odor a uar
,ce. I of the Uepublio waves. row an(l bl.oaj road that icud3 l0 aci.
J according to some auinoruies, itie;
( ute was icloieu to ireoaitn, in tneiore-j
;'wg iu. uincs;, luiuugu
i-mneror ot Germany. Charles VI.
leon, during the period of his success
Italy, preionied thorn with four small
4UD0D, and o.Tered to increase their ter-
) itci r,'. ;1 tR soistlstt oftbs Prlnoipali
of tho Gf iniSfllo C( cfcderstioo, has an
'" nrHftj-thrss sqnsro miles, aad s pupulatlun
.ifiboul irrco tiiousaad.
tiycn, la Switserlsnd, contains eigat
uiireil inbsliltasts, (Including women and
llireo) all Catholns, and for the most fart
wki'iiith, farriors and locksmiths. They
'prist a Itsuablio undor tbe erotsotion of the
'tdt tncisot cantons, bat dcpondinn upon none
They have a town-houss aJoraed with
sius of tbe eight cantons. Tbe Orsnd Coun
0D(i(it of foarteen psrsous, the Little Coun
' it Ub, and tbe Priv; Council of tbree. Tbe
ruiie is rsprssentedby lo Adngirs.
ritory. His present was
nniiPrnnal t n
lpn!o,l K.,t . vvnijf I,
Hi'in.i t ii i"j'"n rospeciiuuy The territory is industriously and skillful
VC' i ., wotleratl.on ou this jy cultivated, aud yields fruits, silk, oil,
S Z'J6 PrfTed. b Rn : cor, and wtne-th latter particularly in
iurh ,?nW ?Ti - l. 6 ,n8ec.ur,t.v r greU abundance, it forming their priori-
ut h ? 'f,Cllll,ef possessions, or pe artielo of commerce. 1
SZ..?.? d"te.rm,nl,0. Government win the hands of a Senate
foSI Jn y V Vr hen 0W" limiU ' of luree hundred elders, and an Kxecu
intrHIn P!et for,f)lher P"e to 'tire Council of twenty patricians, twenty
ft ? 1 ,U,r'' lll7 Ur? d0U.bJ- burghers, and twenty plants.
vMS f f7h W"' ith To.?,,.mm. elected quarterly, are
of V?eHnay ' U,nr"8 ai the head of the Executive, and it is
Ki..,.' . , I mentioned as a singular fact that the oath
l" "' " ."r.""' ' "P'80n. iromjof tie Executive power is taken on the
France an
iu nonce me scepter ot Book of Statutes, and not on th Evangol
the iron crown of Lorubardy , 0n important occasions, an Artnno.
r vuoch uovon-ea me recon
""'' u ai'iiuriiuiiiiieni 01 inn unni i
ercd and mmiv timAi il!im.ml.iiM,i ii
l:kll Alulae
uenosnna its territories were assigned
l. ,Me K'g of Sardinia ; Venice and its
aepentencies, to the house of Austria;
u n ,,he "Jopendflnce of San Marino,
'bo last of Italian Uepullics, wss formally
ec.lnrl- In 1802 the citizen remodel -d
w","nun)Di lucreasing mo numlKr
oi iueir councilors. J heexnennnp.. nf
the laie revolution in Italy tend to con
vey the impression that though the io
babhants of Marino are doubtless in the
njoymeut of liberty ami tranquility, but
noihii g f the iii it of Kej ub icunism ex
ibis amarg mem, aavciu name.
U'lien the little band of patriots undo
Garibaldi were retrpuiinu before theco u
bined Aiutrian and Erench ainiies, on
their arrival at S.m Marino, they wie
closely prised by iheir pursuer, hem
med in, and a'l attack threateueii ;
tho ichiibitanU of tho ancient Kepublic
manifested but little sympathy in their
cause, though as fellow "republicans"
(nominally, at least,) eomo expression
might have Ue.n expected. On the other
baud, their isolation, the ineflicieiicy of
iaQy B'1' lupy wight bo able to furnish, aud
ttie almost certainty of fruitletsly endau-
gering ibeir own indeiHlenoet might be
regarded as a sulhcieut excuse for iheir
teeming indiffeience.
Nevertheless, tho opinion urevails that
tr.ey ae a, much under the control j : i'.i.i umi . .md m:iy jireserve them an in
of Hie Tope' eminsuribs as the inhabitant t depenloi)i and dis'.iuci people centuries
of the countiy around, and not uiui h ! looirei .
ibeir euiiors in education, or freedom:
lf.,im..i.,n..iii.An 'I'l. :.. r . ... . .. 1
Irom sui orstiliou. I his fuel is not with
ou Jimpoitance, ns the existence of an
iuarino nas oeen poinieu out us an evi
dence ol Ihe compatibility, or at least the
noH - coinpahbility of l'apacy with an in-
U'liigcni scii-governtuuut ana treo icstitu-
lii Or, It it a utile remarkable that tr u
eleis in Iuly, either anrieut or niodurn,
have iu so few iuawnces bestowed even a
parsing glance upon tirs nuerestips on-
munity. Maximilian Mission, a French
lawyer of some celebiity, who h ave ed iu
Ituly in the seventeenth century, return K
concerning tho Iiepublic: " 1'his little
swtiiru ol beet hath maintained itself very
hrppily for many ages not being exposed
lo trie envy or jealousy of any of iis
neighbors." Addison, wl o vinited about
tul"J'3 B P"g"ni;e to 'ho spot, and
is veiy enlbusibstic in his ' praises of the
place and people. Ho found that but one
American before him, W'ru. Hunter, of
South Caroliua, iu 17'Jti, had visited il.
Mr. Irving ppesks in the warmest terms
of the delight, with which ho was received
as an American ; and compliments tho in
telligence of the inhabitants, and toeir
acquaintance wii h tho ii.siitutions of our
country. Another of our countrymen,
Mr. II. T. Tuckeriuan, visited the Repub
lic at a later date, uud gives a glowing ac
count of the tree anil happy coudition of
iis favored inhabitants. Ho narrated a
circumstance which at once heightens our
opinion of ihe intelligence and indepen
ae,it "I'1"1 tue pcoj le cl the Kepublic,
,R" excites our wonder at lha fobetiranco
of the buiiounding Governments, lie
pn', w,,en returning from his vUii, on
reatliina the little bridge which divides
annctwie iepuDi;can terriiory inru iumiui,
ion mot' be observed a venerable woman leaning
upon the parape', in eurncst conversation
ed many Mich.
i iius iiiueu are w o uo.o
to Larn of the history of this lemaikablojsubnrdinaiion ti the succrsui extension of
Slato. lis temtory, originally limi.n.j to,
tbo sing'e mounluin of I'ilano, has been Uentior.hl l i)dage to political is !iit,
gradually snd tquitably increased by gift ! ur.d has ever been enily tsken. As re-
and purchase, and at the present time; publican, we have interest in the
ousists of the capital, San Marino, built : lesson imparted by this miniature State,
on the mountain, and four villages round ' ond ns iutelligont men we shall not dis-
Ihe footof it, vis: Serravallo, Faetano, Acduin to-receive instruction fioui any
q'laviva, and Feglio togaher covering au , souice, however htimMo.
aroa of twetny-tivo square miles, and num- vin.,nv Tl-em"rpr " snid
beting, in 1845, 7.000 inhabitants; m M.anO StftMOS.-- Uf 1
IS.10. H.40J. The canlta stand on tho ft. Sab!? OriUOl'. Oddl'CSHinff fllfl 1)1 OtU-
The town is built with little regularity,1
and is badly paved ; the streets are steep,
anu praciicauie oniy iur muies biiu uuu-
accessible by only oneroad;and they have
a bin forbid.linunnwnnnnr thoir on mm.
munity to enter the town by another path. 1
lest a new avenue should be open ou the'
town hall, tho square before which is
Iarie and command! a fine view of tho!
neighboring Appenines ; six churches, ono
having the tomb and a handsome marble
statue ofthe founder, St. Maiino, (who is
venerated as greatest of the Saints, next
lo tho Virgin Mary,) and further adorned
by fgu res in stucco of tbe Twelve Apos
tles, placed in niches j two convents, a
theater, the Governor's jilaco, with
sohools, museums, and two vast cisterns,
which os tbt town affords no spring water,
1 - it .i m . . . .
are inuwpcnsuuie lortnousooi iliopubic.
or Ureal Council, is convened, to which
every family baa tho privilege of deputing
a representative. In this. Artngn the sov
ereign power was origamilly lodged, but
ii was found to be productive of too great
Justice is administered by a Commissa
ry, who must ahojjs be a foreigner, and a
resident only three years. Great impor
tance has been attached to this arrange
ment, as lending to promote equity and
fairness in t tie judgment pronounced,
and lo prevent the feeling of jealousy
likely to be awakened by tho selection
from ho small a community of ono of them
selves to adjust legal difficulties in which
tin aibitrntur could be hardly less inter-ei-tml
from the parties at variance.
The Slate supports a hospital, the phys
ician of which must bo 35 yeprs t.f nge,
and remain in ollice three years; it is his
duty, ni addition to visiting the sick, to
inspect all the drugs tliut are imported.
four superior and two t-Iementary
schools are ii!.o maintained at the public
cunrgf. une or ine rniet aootrmes requir
ed to be instilled into the minds of the
pupils is that of satisfaction with their
cuudiiiiin, love of llu-ir country as of thoir
own luuHe, and nf their fellow-citi.ons as
of thir own families.
il is this system of education, j'limied
for many generuiions, which fostering the
conviction that everything valuable is cen
tered on their nativt rock, has prevented
their embroiling lheueNea in the aL'iiiis
of neighlioring Slates, checked tho growth
of that love of unlimited extension co pie-
judicial to the strength of republican iu-
The military forco of the State consists
r ... I . l .
jof some e.ight or nine h.imlred men, each
family being obliged to furnish ono capa
ble of bearing anus. The number on du
ty in ordinary times is, however, but fony
or fifty, while, in cases of grant emergency,
the entire community serve tho Siate ia
ibis cjpncily.
Tim populutioo if the ItrptibllC has lu
creaJud legul.nly and moderately. l)e
ites ihe naturul increase among them
selves, accessions, us has been iniimaied,
are frequently made from iho le.-s j.eace
ful and prosperous communities around
them. Strangers are permitted In settle,
and afier six years residence, may bo nat
r ilized, and hold inferior offices.
One of tho rhi?f attrac'ions olleied by
San Marino to scholars, next to its histor
ical ussociatiiins, is the suiiorh cabinet
rich in consular and inipeii.il exumplos
meUU, numbering upward of forty
thousand, colleo'ed by theCavaliere Ilerg-
hes an adopted i i.iz.Mi, and ono of the
liist echolars of model n Italy.
S'o cannot closn ibis bi ief narrative
without considering' in a few lines, tho el
oments which have ci nbin -d to preaorvo
in imlppendent happinets, for so many
eeii'.tuies, this intero&tinK people. Altei
uinking due iilloauce lor the favorable
(irc'iiii-t!niees of their itiu'aiion undsiuall
cit ss of populution, il must bo admitted
tliut the L'ieut and sullicient causo is to be
found in lht universal senliniontof content
and fraternal regard pervading tho entire
comaiui'y, and the absence of arijinordi
nate ambition, rivalry, and love of con
quo'l and gain, luxury and ostentation.
These peculiarities tniy ba imitated
with great advantagoby every State ihe
Ir.rger and more prnqierous. ihe more es
sential are they. We have npiilir time
nor inclination lo attempt the not diffi
cult task of proving from hii-tory that just
iu proportion as the qualities we ueprect
ate are permitted to lake root, ond come
vices ond passions.
the mm t vi-cit i-i o'.hen- from sociul and con
r)ilt js Jat'iiJ ono of Lin liOu-
r kjj t ..
" I say, my Irotlircn, there aro two
ro:uU ll'O disWOrlJ tllO OnO am U
broad narrow road that leads toper
ditioti : tho odcr a narrow and broad
road that Icnda to destruction
If thntamdocaso," Baid hisBablo
qiicstoincr, "discullud individual takes
to do woods.
8i-jr,''Fatlier, I don't like the Bishop."
"Why, my child I"
"Eecauso he sprinkled water all over
my new dress, and said, "Fauny, I des
pise thco.'' '
fcjrWheii is a tooth, not attooth
a lien it is a king-
not MEN.
Sherman Retaliating for the Killing of.
His Foragers-Reply of tho Confeder-'
ate Qeneral Wado Hampton.
IIcADQUiaTF.Ks. Militarv Divicjau .
Tin Misssssii'i-i, is tub Field Fob 21 I'l" r' ;n 1 e Iuedn,i"ie 1 shall hold
Lieutenant General Wade Hampton Comm'aZ 1 Uln of vour hostages for thoie
dinj Cavatru llrm, C 8 A General! ' "'""D you have ordered to bd executed. I
It isoffldaily reported to me Uial ihe for-l"mw0urii ' '
aging parties aio murdered after caoturo' marro. Lieutenant General.
and lahujieu, "death t) all forauera." One,M
instance of a: lieutenant and seven men,
near cnestoiriehi, and another of twenty
"near a ravine, eighty rods from the main
road," about three miles from I-VimIpp.
... . . .. viuuou niiuiMur numuer oi
prisoners in our hands to bo dn;osed of
in a like manner,
-1,. hlt.iitout one thoufund.. pi isoners
capturd in various nayn, nod can stand
il as long as you; but I hnrdly think these
minders are committed with your kiio.vl
edg; and would suggest that you give
notice to the people m large that oiery
life taken by theiu simply results in the
death of one of your Confederates.
Of course you cannot question my rijrht
to forage in the country. It U a war ri"ht
ni old ai
cixing it
history. Tho manner of exer -
varies with circumstances, and
if the civil authorities will supply my re
quisitions, i win imiijiu all loi aging. Uut
I find no civil authorities who can re-pond
lo calls for forage or provissions, and there
Cue must collect directly of the people.
1. lluvo noiloubl this 18 the neeusinii of
I much niibbehuvior on the part of our!denl '.race-i himself and the nation by
llllf.li lull. I oiinnnt ..f;i .... . . I B l) I IGlkt'llJ Lf in a t ftl fl rtf in Inv inl inn . t
limn ; Out 1 cannot permit an enpnw to
jodjjti or punish with wholesale minder.
personally I i egret the bitter fcelinc
engendered by this war ; but they wore to
be expected, and I simnlv a'.lon thnl
thore who struck the first blow and made
war inevitable ought not in fairness to re
proach ue for the natural consequences,
I merely assert our war right to forage,
aud my retolve to protect my foragers to
the extent of life for life. I am, with res
pect, yourobsdient servant.
IV. T. Snr.HMAN-,
Major General U. S. A.
Headquarters in the Field, Feb. 27.
18t;r).- M,ijr Uoicral H T. , Sherman, U.
S. . I rmy General Vour commu n ioat ion
of the 21th inst. reached me in-day. In
il you state that il has been oHioially re
ported that your foraging parties were
murdered" uft-jr cupture, anil yr.u go on
to say that you had "onleud u similar
number of prisonen in you' hands to be
disposed of in like manner." That is to
say, you have ordered a number of Con fed
crate Ruhheis to be "uiuidered."
Vou characterize your order in proper
terms, for your iublio"voin. evtn in your
own country, where it seldom dure to
express itself in vindication nf truth, hin
or or justice, will surely agree wuli you
in pionouoeinc vou iruiltv cf mu.d. r. if
your order is curried out.
Ili-fore dismissing this portion of your
letter, 1 bog toassure you forovory to il or
of mine ' murdered" by you I shall have
execu e i ai unco two oi yours, civmg. in
ail c isis, preference lo any oflicers alio
may be in my hand.
In reference to the statement you make
regarding the death of your foragcis, 1
have only to say that I know nothing of
it; that no orders given by mo authorize
tho killing of prisoners after capture, and
Unit 1 do not believo that my men killed
any of your-", except under ciiciuustauees
in which it was perfectly legitimate and
proper they should kill Uliem.
It is a part uf ihe system of the th eves
whom you designate as your foragers, to
lire the dwellings of those cit:zeiu wii jni
they hu ve robbed.
To check this inhuman system, which
is justly execrated by every civilize 1 na
tion, I have directed my men to bhoot
down all of your nu n who are caught
burning houses. This oid u- shall remain
in forco as lonii as you disgrace the pro
fession ot arms by allowing your uicu lo
d.-stroy private duellings.
You say that I cinnot, of crur5 ques
tion yojr right lo foiago on tho country.
"It is a right ns old as histoiy." I d ) tint,
sir, rpicslion this right. l!at thnro is n
tight older even than this, and one more
inalienable the right that overy man has
lo defend his home and protect lhoehsi
are dependent upon him ; and from my
heart I wish that every oid man and boy
iu my couniiy who cin fire a g in, would
shoot dow n, ns he would a wil l be.-nt, the
men who are desolating our land, burj
ing their houses aud in-juhiog their wo
moo. Vou aro particular in defining nod
claiming '"war rights." M-iy I tk if you
euuuieralo among them the l ight lo lio
upon a defim-'uless city without notice, to
burn that city lo the ground alter it h ul
been surrendered by tho authorities, w ho
claimed, though in vuin, that protection
which is alays accorded in civilised war
faro to non-cjinbtitaiits ; to fire the dwell
ing houses of citizens after rnLVmg tlmm
and to perputra'e even darker crimes than
these crimes loo black lo be mentioned.
xounava penumeu, ir you have not J
ordcieJ, the cjmmis6ion ot tueje ollonsea!
against humanity and tho rules nf war. ? U.-oM.OjS. and the total ordinary expen- tho oilier members were to demntid his ro
ou Died into the city of Columbu wuh- K0, weie .22.1 ,000, nnd extraordinary.' l"so. but they were not to kill anybody,
outa word of warning. After iu s'irrrm. ?2, 1 3-1,21 -total, 5H).0'J.1.91l; leaving 1 believe it was considered desirable to gut
der by the Mayor who domandel ! pro- i"r tot fRining3. f t,035 .113, which is over all tho drafted men in tho club. Tho idea
teotion to private property, you laid the 1 .) p0r cent, on tho cost of the roads and was that tho club would bo stronger so that,
wholo city jr. fishes leaving nmid us nuns j canals. A report has been published of in case a member was nrrested thero would
thousands of old men and helple3 women imnrly all tho roadi of Pennsylvania, by I bo wore to secure his rulcae. Vi'o wero
and children, who ore likely to perish of i which it sppears that they transported in sworn to help each other. Patrick Curley
starvation and exposure, Your lino or; ISO , 1 1,232 C18 pajsengors, that the total ' sworo ia Ja-:oh Wilhelm st'iod in front of
march can bo traced by the lurid lieht of . expense of tho road were. $30,5 17XA, tho desk, and Patrick Curloy ttooj at tho
burning houses, ond in mora than ono nnd tho reoiinls. S)2.033.8G7 leavinc r.: sido when tho n.mor were read to rue.
household there is an agony far more bit-'
ter than that ot Heath.
The Indian scalped his
victim regard-j
Icsi of sex or ago, but with all his barbar
ity be always respected the persons of his
fotfiole captives. Your soldiers, more sav
age than the Indian, insult thowwho-ie
natural protectors aro absont.
In conclusion, I have only In request
that whenever you have any cf my men
"dinpobod of," or "rnurdeaed for th.
tormppcar'to be'syZ S?o wifh ,Sj
y" wil1 ,rt n10 of it, in order that
1 ma knovv t action ti take in the
ADE bami'.-on tbankko vor, nis
From tho aiclimonJ Sottiuel, Murcli OJ
The corruf pondeoco between Oencfaln
Sherciau and Hampton in to-day's paper
i muuse iuo luanlitiess or every ono
; who reada it. General Hampton witlte.
ceive the Ihunks of every CoufeJeraie for
Ins spirited and oppropmta answer to the
x mm w uruie. ' '
This co-respondaoea rev-al the fata of
the beautiful ci:.y of Columbia. Fired in
to without warning, ond laid in ushex ar
t(T snirrnder. Sheimao hasoatned for
himself the hate of mankind, utid the
treatiaent due to a wild beast. His Lnr.
barity will hnvo art effect opposite to that
Which he designed, find will nrnnia .run
lthe old nieti and bors to alinnr ilnn l.mi
ftud hi? so-called foro'er.4 At pvopo in.m'.
I . J t I V
Vice President Johnson.
(From the Pittnturg Qatctte, Rcjiublican
We Lave hit hoi to refrained from com-
UlCI)tini UDOn the fact Hint the V1..A Prr.ai-
appearing in a slate of intoxication at the
time of his induction iuto office and in
flicting upon bis hearers a maudlin, drunk
en speech, not becauso wo hoped thereby
to hide the unpleasant fact upon ftur rea
ders, or slu ink from condemning ihe
grievous fault comrnmitted, but because
we hoped thai ,t little delay would bring
us somo mitigation or tho report, nnd ren
der tbe transaction less disgraceful lhan
was at first state 1. We have waited, how
ever, in vain ; and now that tho facts are
beyoud dispute, we join with the Repub
lican pns of ihe county in telling Hie Vice
President that having ulter'y disgraced
himself, subjected his party to the keen
est mortification, an 1 made bis. eouutiy a
lauj-hing btcck in the eyes of the wot Id,
tho least reparation bo can make is to rc
ig:i. After this exhibition of himself; be
CHunot occupy that placo any longer with
honor or credi His good name is lost,
and ha cannot regain it by holding or. to
u place he has disgraced" If ho attempts
to hold on to it he will thereby show him
self insensible to shame, and therafore all
tho more unfitted foi that high position.
liut what irheuoei not resicn ? Thar.
let him be impeached, or imohrd in some
o.iier way tiy the ac'ion of ihe Senate-
A Sad Cask. The Ceiitralin .SVir:.
hd says 1 1 nil on Friday evening last
w.ien liij train from Cairo Mopped at
that place, four i cfuees wero taken
off tho cars--dead ! They were ap
parently all of one family, and con
Msted of a woman, between llienn-n of
forty nnd fifty yearn, a young woman
probably eighteen or twcnty.iuid two
children respectively aged about ten
and two years. There was nothing
to indicate their names uud former
abodoabont them. They were among
a large number of refugees, who
were being transported North, to be
takun charge of and supported by the
Immune residents of Illinois. Like
thousands of others who have gone be
fore, it is reported that they had been
exposed fomo thirty-six hours, to the
c.d 1 and wind, in coming from Cairo,
and in their famished condition un
able to endure it. Truly this is n
sad and deplorable case, ihiven from
their homes, or what answered lo
them as such, by the relentless kind
of war, lo hi taken at the public ex
pens",orllu cr.irlesy oftransportation
companies, far away into tho land of
strangers, where, although surrounded
on every side by aburnhuioe, they per
ish front starvation and cold!
JryThc des.tioy of tho colored race
seems to In wanted Out by one of our
loyal!" exeliane.s with says'-' the lit
tle darkies swarm the r. venue, the Ca
pitol, the hotels, and every where clso!
ia usinglOn, plticlviiig cast away ci-;
gar stumps out ol spittoons and eor-l wcr3 admitted at a tunc. I was admitted
acn, to sell to Iho tobacconists to t,!rce ,ol1.,e"- 'hcn we got ia Patrick
make into lino cut, s:mT," &o. Whatl,r;'0"Vre,,"1.,1"! larcra to ,,s-
rrlm-ioiM u-ii" iliis is ieiiK- Unit i, -1'.! our choice to sign ovuot. Hisinstroo
agioiious uai ti.H i3,li ul, hut i3 tlon asfar nsI C)ul(, onjerstnnJ tb m
bringing Ihese busy' Mvanns to hucIi Wero to the effect that thoso drafted men
a brilliant and useful dealmy. All 10-1 who chose to go to tho war could do so, and
baceo-using humanity ought to bless those who did not choose to go, would bo
the war and tho liUlo nigger not-' protected by the other members. Weworu
forgetting tho tobacconist?
The cost of ihe roods belonging to fo, and tho.-.e who did not want to go could
insylvar.iti R.tilroa 1 Company, to-i join. Wilhelm said the same thing. Cnr
witli their canals, is 3I,0--1,W1. ;ley said if nny J'rovost. Marshal come to nr-
thn Pen
.,i, r
rim Pf,ruio,M nf th,. Cmimnv tor lSd I.
t,m hallanco of 22,at:C,530. Among thfl
item nf I'm freielil I rntiennrlcil id on of
ll.yij.jso tons of coal. i
Ci3Tho report thit Andy Johnson .member who was Presidont. Thero wore
pa.-scd iiirougli Uourbon county, Ken-. probably twenty or thirty persons prei
tucky, oa his way lo Washington is denied; Ci,t. did not hear the object of tho meet
but it iseulmUied that a great deal of jngetutcd. I was sworn ui. Tho oblig
r.nurbon county parsed Ihrough him. f iii wss 0 siiek lo ihe Iemcrfltfa party, I
W'oiU. believe (lint ,s all. I uirlvrston 1 till
' - ' 1 iT7'r;cer-2i
$2 00 Per Annum, if paid in advance
f '
THE oSmnSSf ii q
' Wo hare Icon furnished with tho full
notes ofthe evidence takcu befort! tho Mili
tary Com mission, at Ilanislurg, in the cases ,
from tliis county. Wo intend to publi.s1i
Q Proceedings in each case, commencing
with that of Uaj.Wilhclni, tho Erst ono
tried. '
The Conmussion consisted of Cot. Ew'.
wo Treadcnr, Oou Zww, aod Caw.IIap.
PKn, and Capt. H. h. Jounson Judo Ad
vocate. Tho pcrona ti-iod were all defended '
by ewinont, and diritinguished conm-ol, and
all tho witnesses they desired were brought
at the expenso ofthe Government. ,
Maj. Wilhelm was defendcJ by Senator
Flemihxo, of Dauidiio County. The o
dor convening tho CouH was first fcni to
him, when ho Was asked if ho hud any ob
.tectum to bo tried by the Court as constitu
te! He replied that ho had not. ilo was '
then arraigned, and plead "not guilty" to
tho several charges and specifications, of
which the following is an ubstraet ;
t CnAUOEj. Entering into, confedera
ting and assisting in forming combinations ta
resist certain provisions ot an "act for eq.
rolling: and calling out the national forces,'
and the several supplements thereto.
Specification l.Vniting, confederating,
and combining with Patrick Curlcy, Jaco
Hublor, nul other disloyal persons ia
Clearfield county, to resist the draft, and
prevent persons who had been drafted from
entering the service ; resisting and evading,
and counseling others to resist and erado
the execution of tho act of Cougress. A1J
this about the 3d of Oct., ISO-!, nnd at oth
er times mid places.
Specijicvtian -Unltim?, confederating,
and combining, with Hublcr, Curloy, and
other disloyal persons in a society by tjrti
tiatuo of "Democratic Castle," the object of
which organization was nnd Ls to resist tho
draft, nnd prevent persona drafted from en
tering the eervicc.
Tho sections of tho Act of Congress, of
which these speeificationa constitute a viola
tion provide, as follow:
wIf any person shall resist any draft of
men enrolled under this act. or whall ennn
sc.l or aid any person to resist such draft, or
shall counsel cny drafted men not to appear
at the place of rendezvous, or wilfully dis
suade theiu from the pcrformence of milita
ry duty, &,c., ha shall be punished by a iiuo
not exoeedinu $5i)0, and imprisonment not
exceeding two years. Again, nny person
who shall forcibly resist any enrollment, or
shall incite, counsel, encourage, or shall con
spire or confederate with any other porson
to re-ist or oppose sueh enrollment, or slmll
assault, obstruct, hinder, inmedo or threat
en any officer or other person em ployed in
iiicjierioruiaiieeor in aiuiug in Hie penorm
unco of any service ni uny way relating
thereto, cr in arresting or aiding to arrest
any spy or deserter, shall be jmnishej by
a line not exceeding ?.),0(M), and imprison
ment not exceeding five years.
Before commencing the testimony, it is
proper to explain, that in Military Courts,
all the witnesses are excluded from the room,
and are called in nnd examined separately.
Each witness is therefore bjtiorant of what
has been stated by the others.
rJaeoh Kiiiehart, was the first witness cal
led for the prosecution. Ho testified as
follows :
1 reside in Graham township, Clearfield
county ; am a larmer, and know Jacob Wit
helin, the accused. Un Monday ficforo the
State election last fall, 1 attended a secret
meeting, at the Polk School llousj, in Gra
ham township. Jacob Wilhelm, Samuel
Laiisberrw lle.nvv Huhler. I'utrinlr CWtoTT
WilhimViihclm, and others, twenty or
twenty-five In all, werc present. Jacob
Wilhelm was President, I went there n littla
uftcrdark. 1 liven few rods distant. I sup
pose there wen? u dozen or more there when
1 arrive.!. Uifieers were first appointed.
Jacob illiulni was lVesident, and Amos
ilublor Vice J 'resident., and Patrick Cnrlev
.Seerefaiy. Then nil the men except W il
helm, Hublcr, nnd Curley went out. Eour
t.islii'l' foanlhiiS Mini linln niiK ntlirt I
Iv.'w.v.. ..uv...'. Ill, . ,IVI' VUlllUlllVII VUI
ley said those that chose to report could do
'rest a drafted man nnd member of (he e.Iuh.
There were several men present who -bad
been draf ted
I attended a meeting at Jacob JlVJor'n.
1 1 think V ilheliii was uio.ro. J il not ru-

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