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THE ANTI-SLAVERY BUGLE.
THE COUNTY COURTS OF ENGLAND.
(Tli following nrticlo (attributed to the pen of
Richard II. Dana, Jr., of Huston,) bears testimony
to the propriety of tbo reform, in relation to tlie
admission of parties to tostify in their own suits.
It also shows tlmt Courts of Conciliation arn prac
tically and successfully in operation in England.
The article is full of useful information nbout the
judicial system if England.
From lh. Ronton Law Reporter f')r NoTtnitar.
A court, without lawyer nnd without n jury, is
ft novelty, if not nn nnomily. Such, practically,
ii an English County Court.
By the- invimtion of Mr. Adolphns, known to
the profession as a learned reporter nnd lending
barrister, nnd now n county court judgo, I attend
ed ft sessiuu of his court, in the Mary-lc-bono dis
trict of London. Tlio court hoiie is a large build
ing, with its namo primed on a lure sign over the
door, and cailv found by the poorer class of suit
ors who nmy seek for it. The loner story is oecn
pied by tho offices if tho registrar nnd of bailiffs,
nnd the upper by the court-room. It was about
noon; the court room was well tilled with parties
aud witnesses; the judgo si.t uiou the bench, in a
barrister's wig and pwn; tlie registrar fat below
him, as does the clerk of our courts, and there was
reasonable nttendauce of buililf and other offi
cers. The course of proceedings may be best presented
to the reader by u familiar description.
The registrar calls a case. John Lucas against
William Brown. "John Lucas John Lucas ! is
John Lucas in court !" culls the hniliu". John Lu
cas appears, and takes bis stand in the witness
box, on the left of the judge, nnd is sworn. Sir.
Brown is called in the same manner, and tal cs his
place at the opposite bj'X.- They nio in full sight
of each other, separated by the registrar's desk.
There are no written pleadings, but only tho name
and descriptions of the parties, and tho plaintiff's
bill, ma ie out like a shop-bill, and sworn to. The
Judge reads over the bill to the plaintiff, and ex.
amines him upon it, nnd requires him to tell bis
story, when and how the contract was made, the
f oods delivered, and why the bill was not paid.
Ie then nsks defendant if he wished to ex-nmine
the pluintiil', Mr. Brown is quite ready to do so,
and a series of questions is put nnd replied to,
which dcvelopes the real issue quite us well as the
best specialpleading. Perhaps tho very first ques-
tion by the defendant shows that he has no defence I
except as to the moje ol payment; or else, that
the dispute torus on tho value or conditio.! of some
of the articles.
"Mr. Lucas, didn't my wife tell yon that the
yitcher was broken, and that the piates were not
worth a.ore th"n two shillings?"
"Then you admit," says tho judge, "that you
received all these articles, Mr. Brown?"
"I don't deny that, your honor."
"Have you got them now V
The judge then intervenes ns a dny's-man be
tweeu them, and after a little talk between the par
ties and the judge, and perhaps nn examination of
Mrs. Brown ns to the condition of the pitcher and
plates, tho plaintiff deducts a little from his bill,
and takes a judgment by instalments, at XI 10s.
The ntxt case is not contested. Tho defendant
has been duly summoned, but does not appear.
Still judgment is not gitcn by default, but the"
careful and conscientious judge examines tho
plaintiff under oath, and, if need be, his witnesses
and gives judgment in fmo conscieuliiv, perhaps,
too, by instalments, unless the plaintiff shows that
the defendant is well able to pay at once, or isi
open to a suspioion of absconding or of concealing
Several intermediate cases are rapidly disposed
of, there being no defence, or a defence easily yield
ed to, or easily broken down by a few inquiries;
and then conies one of moie difficulty, whether
carton .prvines wrR oritmttnis or for nav. Both
. . . " . ,i,i n
.npt.0B .inn hp r vivm tiTA extimmpil. lnuecu alt
r- . , . ... ,, ..'.., .,.i
of both households. Here again the earnest and
i-.i . . .- c .i i .i ....,,.
linakilf.il Ip.tnnnnv rif tlift w-lvps fintl toe linfutnr-
, . .-
rl ftupflt.ons nut hv tho rinrtipa nn ,-ross-PX tnnna-
.. ' , . ' .. . i .i i
linn lot mncli Inrhr. ,nti. thp pnsp. nnil top l.wlfp IS
1 . ' i. ...:.. J i!i,i
uu.e iu Hi r.vw ui sane. lu.o. y uoiiu.ue.ou. iuui:cu
with u. liulp atnh ainst irrelevance, tho c.9e
' ...t .,, . l.
it is s on plain enough that an assault w as com
mitted, but after a provocation offered, und that it
is only a question ci damages.
In another case, the defendant owns that he
ought to pay the debt, and complains that the plain
tiff, being a rich man has pressed hiin. This ttate
nient, the rich man, who is a grocer at the street
corner, denies, and to show bis truth, offers alargo
extension of payment by instalments w ithout in
terest, which the judgo advises tho defendant to
be satisfied with; and judgment is entered accord
ingly, and both parties go away better satisfied
than they came.
Then come the case of a man who had obtained
a judgment somo time before, which the defendant
does not pay, nnd a sort of chancery examination
is made into the state of the defendant's nllairs,
00 a chaige that he has secreted property.
After this fashion, iu a session of six hours,
from ten o'clock in tho morning until four in tho
afternoon, '.he learned judgo despatched a trial
list which I am quite sure cue of our courts, aided
by two counsel on each side, and by twelve citizens
culled from their business on purposo, would hnvo
needed as many days to dispose of.
There was but one lawyer in attendance, and he
appeared only in two cai.scs, and rather shabbily
in those. Iu one, he cross-examined tho plaintiff
and his witnesses severely, nnd when culled upon
for the defence, had none to offer. His only hope
was tu break down the plaintiff's case. In the oth
er, he attempted a defence by calling witnesses to
eoino indirect matter; but tho judgo told him that
if he did not call tho defendant nnd his wife, who
Itnew all about the main facts.be would not trouble
him tu go into an indirect defence. Iu each enso,
1 am quite sure there would have been no defence
but for tlie attorney, and the only effect of his in
tervention was that his clients had his services to
pay for, and a large bill of costs adjudged against
If the amount ntstakn exceeds Co. either party
may require a jury as a matter of right; and the
judge may in any case, at bis discretion, order a
jury, on motion of cither party; yet in no ense on
the entire docket for this term, was a jury demand
ed, and I was told that it is very rarely that one is
called, although the jurisdiction of the court ex
tends to o0, which, on a comparison ol the condi
tion of the humbler classes in tbo two countries,
is worth more than f'J.'iO in America. It would
not be just to sny that this results solely from
rreater confidence in a judgo s ducision. The de
lay, increased costs, and tho expense of counsel
which a jury renders almost necessary, also con
tribute to the result.
I could not but be struck with the evident and
decisive advantage of ndmitting, which usually
mounts to requiring the testimony of parties. It
prevents many suits being brought at all. prevents
many defences being attempted, and. shortens tri
al. - When Ihii system was introduced,-making
revolution in the common law, it was opposed by
many of the judges of the superior courts. The
last Parliamentary , examination showed that
twelve of the fifteen judges of the Westminster
courts were satisfied of its advantngo, and now.
believe, all doubts are removed. One of the most
eminent of these judges told me, at th(TCauibridge
assizes, that he bad been the last or one of the last
to give in to the change; but that the balance of the
advantages, as developed by several years experi
ence, was so decidedly in its favor, that nothing
would justify a return to the excluding either of
aartiei or interested persons. Mr. Adolphus told
rue that the practice of admitting wives to testify
in their husband's cases was almost essential in
large portion of small contract causes in cities,
which such affairs are often managed by the women
olely. Lvfco under the stricter rule of the old
law, married women could trade in their own
right by the custom of London. He said that the
wives were usually biasel witnesses, but that be
ids bein often necessary witnesses, their earnest
tvnd unskilful testimony usually brought out the
truth. One would hesitate long before breaking
4own entirely the rule of public policy and hu
manity -which secures to the relation of husband
aad wife the reposal of absolute conGdenco, even
in ease of misconduct. This is often of more im-
portance to society thnn is tho (lull development
of testimony. Nor is it a small mntter that tho ;
wife is protected ngiinst the means a husband may
employ to secure or prevent or qualify her testimo-!
ny, nnd that bo is saved from the temptation. Hut
it cannot ho doubted, that in merely civil causes'
not of momentous interest to the parties, the ad-j
mission of this tostimnny works well.
Leaving the court room. 1 pnssed into tne regis-1
trar's oflico. Ti.is presents a scene something be-;
tweonn lame collecting attorneys olheo, nnd
savings bank, ns the court room reminds one of a
Prohulo Court. The course id' proceedings is the
best explanation of tho system.
When n t'crsun lias n demand for which he wish
es tho nid ol the court, he goes to tho registrar's
oflico and presents bis bill. Tho names of the
parties nnd thvii residents, with a brief jieinornn
duni of the case, is entered iu tho books, after tho
manner of an attorney's collecting-book. The
plaintiff makes nn affidavit to his demand, pays a
small fee, and goes his way. The registrar tiles
the bill, issues a summons to the defendant, and
tho bailiti serves it. Payments must lie made in
to the registrar's oflico. If tho defendant pays
tho debt, or any part of it, it is credited to the
plaintiff, nnd notice is sent to him. If he declines
the tender, or if the defendant makes no tender,
aud the phiintilf chooses to proceed, the enso i
put on the trial list for a certain day, nnd the par
tit's notilied to be present with their witnesses.
W hen a judgment is rendered, it is entered in
these books, nnd the costs taken. Each payment
mado by the defendant, where judgment, is by in
stluients, is duly credited. These small accounts
require a good many assistants to the registrar,
nnd tho books nnd business of paying and receiv
ing, remind one of our savings bank. If the de
fendant fails to pay any instalment, execution
issues for the whole debt; but the registrar of this
court, who was n barrister, nnd n man of charac
ter and intelligence, told me that the plaintiffs
seldom required it, and found it usually for their
interest to extend tho time, in the arrangements
between par'ies nt this office, the registrar often
exercises an advisory jurisdiction.
This system discloses the secret of the non ap
pearance of attorneys. The provisions requiring
tho registrar to receive and file tho demands in the
first instance, nnd to issue tho summons without
formal written pleadings, nnd requiring that ull
moneys shall be paid to him, whether voluntary
payments or on executions, leavo nothing for the
attorney to do. If not so intended, it yet has had
tho eli'oct of kcoping dvwn a class of practitioners
that these courts of largo business in small
amounts would inevitably have generated. There
j ""'".'j1? to prevent the employment of counsel
lors, either in advising as to the commencement
or prosecution of a claim, or in conducting the
trial and arguing the cnuse to the court, but attor
neys, as such, nre not needed; nnd even counsel
lors, w here there is no jury, no pleadings, small
amounts at stake, and nn intelligent jurist on the
bench, arc hardly worth their charges, except in
n lew peculiar oases. And the judge, somewhat
liko our Judges of l'robnto, is expected to be the
uuviscr oi uoin panics.
These County Courts, which are of recent legis
lative creation, nnd must not be confounded with
the Sheriff's Courts of the old law, were establish
ed in the year LS 10, by tho act of 'J and 10 Victo
ria, with a jurisdiction to tho extent of 20. Be-
ing found to work very well, this jurisdiction was
raised to X50, and extended over n larger class of
causes, ty tho act oi Id and 14 ictoria. There
is a still further enlargement of their jurisdiction
over classes of causes, though not of the limit of
yccuniaty value, in the act of this your.
As '.he courts now stand, their chief character
istics are the following:
The general jurisdiction extends overall "per
sor.ul actions," when the debt, damage or demand
does not exceed the sum ol JLou, whether on bal
ance of account or otherwise." From tine gener
al jurisdiction, have heretofore boon excluded cau
ses in which the title to land, or to "anv corporeal
or incorporeal hereditaments, or toll, fair, market,
or franchise, shall be in question, or in which the
validity of nny devise, bequest or limitation, under
" " " u uisyu eu or .or....,
.. :n a: t
malicious prosesution, or lor any libel or slander,
. . 1 J . .
or tor criminal conversation, or ior seduction or
. . . . . : ,, . .
breach of promise of marriage. But by the act
ot tins year, the County Courts may try any caus
J - ' . J J . -i
es, except lor criminal conversation, which may
. . . J
be brought in nny superior Court of Common Law
. - - , . . .
upon u written agreement to that ellect bo ng sign-
ed by both parties or their attorneys, nnd Died in
court. And if the title to
And if the title to land, or to any corpo-
real or incorporeal hereditaments, toll, fair or fran
chise, comes incidentally in question, the judge
may decide the question upon the written consent
of parties, but such decision incidentally given, is
not evidence of title in another suit. A man can
not split up a larger demand so as .to bring it
within 50, but tho court has jurisdiction if the
phiintilf waives the excess over jC50 in his original
hill; or ii a demand originally exceeding that lim
it, is reduced to X50 or lens by credits, or by an off
set admitted by the defendant.
In any case exceeding Xi20, if upon contract, or
Xo if tor lort, the defendant may, before trial, re
move the case to a Superior Court, upon giving
security. Tho judgo uiny change the venuo to
nny other County Court, for good cause shown;
nnd any Superior Court may order a ease pending
before it to be tried in a County Court, on
the application of cither party, if the demand did
not originally exceed XGO, or if it be reduced to
that sum by tender, admitted offset or other
wise. The jurisdiction of tho County Courts is not ex
clusive of the Superior Courts, but suits in the Su
perior Courts for causes within the jurisdiction of
tue Lounty Courts and discouraged uy penal pro
visions ub iu costs, excepi in cases wuere tne plain
tiff lives more than twenty miles from the defend
ant, or where tho cause of action arose' out of the
county in which the defendant lives, or where nn
officer of the County Court is a party, and other
similar cases in which a special cortificato is
The jurisdiction of the County Courts extends
to some cases not of common law cognizanco in
Kngland, ns cases of demands not exceeding XOO
respecting the or pnrt of an unliquidated bnluncn
of a partnership account; a distributive share of
the personal estate of a person deceased intestate,
or for a legacy under a w ill, nnd in suits of inter
pleader. They have nlso jurisdiction forsumniary
relief whero houses, lands, or other corporeal he
reditaments nro unlawfully withheld by a tenant
from bis landlord.
In all cases of a debt, or liquidated money de
mand, exceeding X20, the defendant must give
written notice in court of bis intention to defend,
before the return day. If he fails of this, ho is
liabltf to be defaulted, with costs. In nil other the'
plaintiff must como to court prepared to prove his
claim, if ho hears nothing from the defendant af
ter summons. All judgments may be fur pay
ment by instalments, at the discretion of the
The annual returns of the County Courts to
Parliament, show the following table of causes en
tered (which includes all in which a summons is
issued) in all the County Courts of the Kingdom
since tneir estaunsnincnt.
. - 395,191
. . 390,793
1852 - -
1854 - -
Of th?Be, the numbers, which have been enter
ed for trial, and in which judgments have been
rendered, either by defuult, or ex parte hearing, or
otter trial, are as toiiows :
1847 .... 207.4-10 1852 .... 240.133
IK 48 - - - 2-W.1I8 1853 - - 254.734
184!) .... 22G,4(3 1854 .... 284,224
1850 - - . - 217,173 1855 .... 285,171
1851 .... 233,040
In each year the number settled, either by pay
moot, compromise, or withdrawal, after summons,
and before the opening ot the court for trial, seems
to hnvo been somewhat loss than one-halt. In each
of these eight years, the gross amounts for which
judgment has been decreed in court has been bo
tween 810,000 and 020,000, without any mate
rial variation, or regular increase or diminution.
The salaries of the judges are liberal, and are
arranged in classes according to the business of
the courts, as shown by the returns; and the judg
es and assiutants must be barristers' of a certain
rank and a certuiu number of years' practice. Al
though the title is preserved, some of the larger
counties aro subdivided into districts, each haying
its court, nnd for the contenier.ee of suitors, the
court make circuits through the regions of their
'jurisdiction, holding courts at tho large towns, at
times previously announced in tho newspapers,
Such are the English County Courts, which have
directly nnd indirectly, wrought so (Treat change
in tho judicial system of all Kngland. At lcat,
it may bo said that there is much in them worthy
tlie attention oi mo American legislator ami ju
THE PAINTER OF SEVILLE.
BY SUSAN WILSON.
'Tivas morning in Seville ; nnd brightly bo.tm'd
Tho early sunbeam in ono chnmber there,
Showing where'er its glowing radianco glaam'd,
Bich, varied beauty, 'Twas the Btudy where
Murille, tho famed painter, came to share,
With young aspirants his long ohorish'd art,
To prove how vain must bo the teacher's care,
Who strives his unbought knowledge to impart,
Tho language of the soul, the feelings of the heart!
The pupils came, nnd glancing round,
Mendos upon his canvass found,
Not his own work of yesterday,
But, glowing iu the morning ray,
A sketch so rich, to pure, so bright,
It almost seem'd that there were given
To glow beforo his dazzled sight,
Tints and expression warm from Heaven.
'Twas but a sketch the Virgin's head,
' Yet w as unearthly beauty shed
Upon the mildly beaming faco ;
The lip, tho eye, the flowing hair
Had separate, yet blended graoe,
A poet's brightest dream was thero I
Murillo cnter'd, nnd amazed,
On tho mysterious painting gazed j
"Whose work is this '.speak, tell mo ! bo
AVlio to his aid such power can call,"
Kxclaimed the teacher eagerly,
Will yet bo master of us all ;
Would I had dono it ! Ferdinand !
Isturitz ! Mendez ! say whose hand
Among ye nil" -with hnlf brenth'd sigh,
Kach pupil auswer'd "'Twos not 11"
"How same it then ?" impatiently
Murillo calcd, "but wo shall sco
Krc long into this mystery,
At the summons came
A bright-eyed slave,
Who trembled nt the stern rebuke
His master gave.
For order'd in that room to sleep,
And faithful gunrd o'er all to keep,
Murillo bade him nuw declare
What rash intruder had been there,
And thrcaten'd (if he did not tell
The truth at once,) the dungeon cell.
"Thou nnswer'st not !" Murillo said,
(Tho boy bad stood in speechless fenr,)
"Speak or" at hist ho raised his head,
"And niurmur'd, ' Xo one has been here."
" 'T is false 1 " Sebastian bent his knee,
And clasp'd his hands imploringly
And said emphatic "none but mo!"
"List," said his master, "1 would know
Who enters here, there has been found
Before, rough sketches strewn around,
By whose bold hand 'tis yours to show ;
See that to-night strict watch you keep,
Nor dare tocloso your eyes In sleep.
If on tomorrow morn you fail
To answer what I ask,
The lash shall force you do you hear?
Hence ! to your daily task,
'Twas midnight in Seville: nnd faintly shono
From one sma'd lamp, a dim uncertain ray
Within Murillo's study : all were gone
Who there, in pleasant tasks, or converse gay,
Pass'd cheerfully the morning hours away.
'Twas shadowy gloom, and breathless silence,
That to sad thoughts, and to tottering fear a prey,
Ono bright-ey'd boy was there, Murillo's little
Almost a child, that boy had sceu
Xot thrice five summers yet,
But genius mark'd tho lofty brow,
O'er which his locks of jet
Profusely curled ; his cheek's dark huo,
Proclaim'd the warm blood flowing through
F.acli throbbing vein, a mingled tide,
To Africa and Spain allied.
"Alas ' what fate is inino !" he said,
"Tho lash if I refuse to tell
Who sketch'd those figures, if I do,
Perhaps e'en more, the dungeon cell !"
Ho breathed a prayer to Heaven for aid,
It came ! for soon in slumber laid,
He slept until the dawning day
Shed on his humble couch its ray.
"I'll sleep no more," he cried, "and now,
Three hours of freedom I may gain,
Before my master comes, for then
I shall be but a slave again.
Three blessed hours of freedom ! how
Shall I employ them ? ah ! e'en now
The figure on that ennvass traced
Must be, yes, it must bo effaced."
He 8'ezed a brush the morning light
Gave to tho head a soften, d glow ;
Gazing enraptur'd on the sight,
He cried, "shall I effaco it? No !
That breathing lip ! that beaming eye !
F.fface them ! I would rather die !"
The terror of tho huniblo slave
Gave place to the o'erpowering flow
Of the high feelings nature gave,
Which only gifted spirits know ;
He touch'd tho brow tho lip it scem'd
Hie pencil had some magic power,
The eye with dcepor feeling beaiu'd,
Sebastian forgot the bout !
Forgot his master and tho threat
Of punishment still hanging o'er him,
Fur with each touch now beauties met
Aud mingled iu the faco before lii.n.
At length 'twas finished ; rapturously
He gnzed could aught mure beauteous le !
Awhile absorbed, entranced ho stood,
Then started ; horror chill'd his blood !
His master and tho pupils nil
Were there e'en at his side !
Tho terror-stricken slivve was mute,
"Sebastian Gomez, better knownljy the name
of the Mulatto of Murillo, was one of the most
celebrated painters in Spain. Thote may yet be
seen iu the churches of Seville, the celebrated
picture which he was found painting by bis
master : a St, Anne, aud a holy Joseph, which are
extremely beautiful, and others of tlie highost
merit," The incident related above occurred about
the year 1G30.
fNow (1850,) the wif of Solomon Lukens,
Chester county, i'a.
Mercy would bo denied,
L'en could ho ask it ; so ho deem'd
And tho poor boy h.tif lifeless scem'd.
Speechless, bowilder'd, for a space,
They gazed upon that perfect faco,
Kach with nn artist's joy;
At length Murillo silence broke,
And w ith affected sternness spoko,
"Who is your master, boy?"
"You, Senior! " snid the trembling slave,
"Nay, who, I menn, instruction gave
Before that Virgin's head you drew ? "
Again he answor'd "only you."
"I gave you none ! " Murillo cried,
"But I have henrd," the boy replied,
"What you to others said."
"And more than heard," in kinder tone,
Tho painter said, " 'tis plainly shown
That you havo profited."
" hat" (to his pupils) "is his meed ?
Reward or punishment?"
"Reward, reward 1" they warmly cried,
(Sobastian's ear was lent
To catch the sounds ho scarce believed,
But with imploring look received.)
"What shall it be?" They spoko of gold,
And of a splendid dress,
But still unmoved Sebastian stood,
Silent and motionless.
"Speak !" said Murillo, kindly, "Choose
Your own reward what shall it bo?
Name what you wish, I'll not refuse,
Then speak at once, and fearlessly."
"Oh! if I.dared" Sebastian knelt,
And feelings ho could not control
(But feared to utter cyen then)
With stroug emotion shook his soul.
"Courage," his master Baid, nnd each
Essayed, in kind,4ia.f-whispercd spoecb,
To soothe his overpowering dread.
He scarcely heard, till some one said,
"Sebastian, ask, you hve yoar choico,
Ask for your freedom 1" At the word
The suppliant strovo to rniso his voice
At first but stifled sobs were heard,
And then his prayer breathed fervently
"Oh! master! make my Father free!"
"Him and thyself, my noblo boy,"
Warmly the painter cried
liaising Sebastian from his feot, "
lie prossod him to his side.
"Tby talents rare, and filial lovo.
E'en more hnvo (airly won ;
Still be thou initio by other bonds,
My pupil nnd my sou."
Murillo know, e'en when tho words
Of generous feeling passed his lips,
S;bastian's talents soon must lead
To fame that would his own eclipse.
And constant to bis purpose still,
He joyed to see his pupil gain,
Beneath his care, such matchless skill
As made his name tho pride of Spain,
INTELLIGENCE AMONG THE MILLIONAIRES.
The N. York Evening Post is responsible for the
following rich story of ono of tho wealthy citi
zens of that metropolis. Unfortunately million
aires of that class are not confined to Now Y'ork,
but can be found in evory city of tbo Union:
Our millionaire built and equipped a splendid
palatial residence in the upper part ot tho Ave
nue" There was wunting no elegance, no luxu
ry, no embclishments, that vanity could suggest
or money purchase, oupcrb mirrors, moasured
not by inches but by yards, flanked the spuoiou!
walls; heavy siik brocades, richly embroidered
hung from the ceilings within elegant and mass
ive ornaments of gold ; royal Wilton and Ax-
minister carpets vied in their soft and delicate
texture with the rich and aristocratic Aubussou
upon the expansive floors of tlio saloons ; elabo
rately carved rosewood, ebony and buhl furniture,
graced every room ; while, in n word, all the ap
pliances ot wcallli, voluptusness, nnd rcliuc
men,t were there, each in its proper sphere.
Ono room only liad been ovoi looked the libra
ry! There stood tho elegant book-cases gaping
for their treasures, but unsatisfied.
Our nabob had two nieceu residing with him
beautiful as Hourris, lovely as the Queens of Diy
and nignt. iney liad peisuaneu their dotiug un-
to open u.o rooms wun a oau un wiriswias
(hist Christinas) night.
I UllSlUiaSl lllglll.
It was proposed only the evening previous, and
nt once adopted, liut the library! how strange
it would socio to the guests that w hile the sens
os were carefully provided lor, tho mind was ncg
locted. The library must be furnished, nnd that nt once.
So, on Christmas morning, a messenger is dis
patched to tho leading bookstore in Broadway for
an estimate for tho library. Post haste comes
clerk from Messrs. A. & Co., with the latest cata
logue of rare nnd selected works.
"Pshaw," says our friend, "none of your cata
logues bore; with this rule measure the square feet
exposed by these book cases, nnd let mo know for
how much you will nil tliciu I .Make your own se
lection, hut ive ine good hooks.
The astonishod clerk measures nnd calculatos
his authors by the square foot. "Eor eighteen
hundred dollars," at length he says, "I will till
these cases w th standard works, well bound."
' That's too much," savs our milllionairo, "the
furniture has cost a mint already, and I cannot go
more than six hundred for theso books ; so make
your own choice of what you give me, but fill them
up for that.
The library was lurnishad lor six hudrsd dollars
tho "backs" were showy j the ball went off
with eclat the mirrors were pretty j the uncle's
hospitality priucoly aud none of the gaudy rooms
were more attractive than the library and its
square feet of books with handsome backs.
From the New Orleans Delta.
FALL—COMMENTS OF "MANIFEST
DESTINY" ORGAN THERE.
The hand of Fate is heavy upon Mexico. The
tale must soon bo told. She is staggering to her
fall. Her territories will soon be an open field for
the contest, ns when Cortcz landed on her shores.
Civilization has proved a failure there ; the
remnant of tho white race is unnble to maintain
it, and they know it. They know, too, that re
generation can only come from without, and whence
it is to como, is an interesting question. A late
number of the Mexican Extraordinary has
pertinent article in this connection. After re
viewing tho chronic state of revolution in that
country, and the numerous reactionary movements
against a liberal policy ia the Govornmont, the
editor says :
The nnoontrollable element in the United
States is becoming enormous, and toon it must
be engaged in soma way, Tho example of Nicar
agua conld not be quo'.ed in argument on this tub-
joct. Nicaragua is a poor, miserable nnd unhealthy
country, whilst Mexico is richer in minora, wealth
than California or Australia. Our idea of filibus
tering Mexico is not with us original. It is the
sentiment of Many people of the United States,
and we venture to say ot many in Mexico, should
the advanco of a liberal goi eminent bo again
The abovo was written and published in the
city of Mexico, in tho immediate presence
Couimonfoit, and, of course, it can moan nothing
loss than Hint upon the lailure ot the present so
eallod liberal goveinineut, there is a party roady
to invite conquest, or annexation, or fillibustcrization
from the United States. There is a doal cf force
iu tho suggestion,
run a a- r i s l a v i: nr n ua le.
rUDI.ISHF.D EVERY SATURDAY, AT BAI.EM, OtllO.
TEUMft. $1,50 per annum payable in advnncc
Or, $2,00 at the end of the year.
8-iy We ocoasionnlly sond numbers to those who
nre not subscribers, but who are believed to be in
intercstod in the dissemination of nntislnvery truth
with the hope that they will oither subscribe them
selves, or use their influence to extend its circulation
among thoir friends.
fis? Communications intended for insertion, to
be addressed to Marks IJ. Romksox, Editor. All
othors to Ann Pearson, Publishing Agent.
TERMS OF ADVERTISING.
One Square (10 lines) three weeks, . $1,00
" " Each additional insertion, 25
" " Six months, 4,00
" " Ono year 0,00
Two Squares six months, ....... 5,00
" " Ono yenr, 8,00
One Fourth Column ono ycar, with privilege of
changing monthly, .... 12,00
Half column, changing monthly, - 20,00
BQT Curds not exceeding eight linos will be in
sorted one year for 3,00; six months, $2,00.
J. HUDSON, Printer.
LOCAL AGENTS FOR THE ANTI-SLAVERY Bl'OLI.
O cor go Roberts, Brighton, Michigan.
Phobe T. Mcrritt. Ionia, Michigan.
Adrian, Samuel Ilayball, Michigan,
Livonia, Harriet Fullct "
Plymouth, Isaac N. Hodden, "
Ypsilanti, Emoline DcOarmo, ".
" Samuel D, Moore, "
Union City, John D. Zimmerman, Michigan,
MoSoy Grove, Tho's Fox, "
Battle Crock, Phcbe II. Mcrritt, "
Bedford, Henry Cornell, "
Farmington, Abrnm Powols, "
Wolf Creek. Warren Gilbert, "
Ann Arbor, 11. Glazier. "
West Unity, J. II. Richardson, Ohio.
Edinburgh, Thomas C. Ileighton, Ohio.
Joseph Puekett, Winchester, Indiana,
Win. Hern, Brighton, Indiana.
G. L. Gale, Northport, Indiana.
Win. Hopkins, Freemont, "
Elizabeth Morse, Angola, "
Henry Bowman.Johnstown, Barry Co. Mich.
K. O. THOMAS, M. P, i. C. WHINERY, D. D. 8.
THOMAS & WHINERY,
(successors to D. O.BWAIM,)
Wholesale, Retail and Prescription Druggists
MAixsinnnr, salem, o.
Keep constantly on hand nnd lor snle n gcnernl as
sortment nnd carelully selected stock of MKDI
CIXES. Drugs, PAINTS, OILS. Dye-stuffs, Var
nish, Perfumery, Fancy Bonps, Brushes, WINDOW
GLASS, Vials, Physicians' Shop furniture,
SURGICAL ISTRU.11LTS AND DENTAL STOCK,
Especial care directed to the selection of TEETH
and compounding PRESCRIPTION'S.
llicy nre nlso ngents tor tne sale of J)r. Daniels
Trusses, Abdominal, Shoulder and other liraces,
Artificial Limbs, Fracture and other Bandages.
Saleh, July 10, 18dG.
J. C. WHINERY D. D. S.,
SOUTH SIDE OF MAIN STREET, SALEX.O..
Continues to give close attention to all the changes
and improvements m the prnctice ot Dentistry and
is still operating extensively nnd satisfactorily in
all branches of his Profession.
His uniform success, even in tho most difficult
operations, has been such heretofore ns to warrant
the assurance that full satisfaction will be given to
tnose who may avail themselves ot his services.
He has procured the right of Dr. A. B. Slnyton
td use Ins preparation of colored Gutta l'ercha
when desired ns a base for artificial teeth.
BSS"AI1 operations wnrrnntod."iS
.Sai.em, Juno 7. lMfl.-Gm.
setu D" stitt, lhllailc! Ilia. jAHia m. Mumx, Mawllon
STITT & BROWN,
Ao. 12 South Front Street, Philadelphia,
Messrs. John Farutn- it Co., Farnham, Kirkhnm
Tredick, Stokes k Co., Slado. Pratt & Reed.
I'arnum, Lamed and Co
James, Kent, Santee &
cA lHrecroff, Beaver & Co.,
Huey, ltuiglc & Co., Ludwig, Kncedier & Co.,
r...rh,,ut I ....,, ... X- W.ir,. .r.,kn II !..... -
jc . jhn' Ky & cm DTV'Ke & Co., Bankers,
all of Philadelphia; Mygatt & Brown, Bankers,
Cleveland, O.; II. B. Hui lbut.Esq., Cashier, Cleve-
land Ohio; Thus. M. Howe, Esq., Pittsburgh; Jaj.
IS. Murray, hsq., Cashier, Pittsburgh; S. Hunt,
Esq., Cashier, Massilon, Ohio; L. Hurxthnll. Esq.,
Cashier, Massilon, Ohio; E. Quinby, Jr., Cashier,
Wooster, Ohio; P. S. Campbell, Esq., Cashier,
Salem, Ohio; R. W. Tnylcr.Esq., Cashier, Youngs
town, Ohio; Gen. Tayler, Esq., Cashier, Warren,
Ohio; Jos. G. Voting, Esq., Cashier, Piqua, Ohio;
R. I). Harrison, Esq., Cashier, Springfield, Ohio.
June 7, 1850.-tim.
II I G II-S T Ii E E T, SALEM O U I O.
MRS. C. L. CHURCH, takes this method of
informing her friends, and the publio, that she has
porinancntly locate! on the North side of High-st.,
between the Canficld road and Lundy-st., where
she intends keeping a general assortment of BO
TANIC MEDICINES, carefully prepared by her
self and warranted free of all deleterious sub
stances. Salom, Ohio, April 19, 1856.
D. WALTON, E. WALTON.
D. WALTON, & SON,
S.lLtf.V; COLUMBIAXA COUXTY, OHIO;
DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF STOVES.
Also, Manufactnrer of Tin Ware, Stove Furniture,
Pipe, &c. A great variety of Japuned
Ware nnd Toys.
8-cyOld Copper and Brass, and Old Iron and
Rags taken in exchange.
salem, Sop. 27, lffob.
GEO. W; MANLY,
Main Street, Salem, Ohio.
Salem, June 23, 1855.
PICTURES ON GLASS.
Our friend JAMES BOONE is still taking AM
HROTYPES, cCc, at his old stand, iu Johnson
Ho has succeeded in doing away with the dark
and smutty appearance often given to them by oth
er operators. "JEE.MS" understands Lis business
Call and examine his pictures.
May 3, 185G.
ENOS I. WOODS & CO.
0tcam Engine B tutors,
ALLIANCE, STARIC COUNTY, OHIO.
Engines of the best patterns built to order,
very reasonable terms.
June 21, 185G.-ly.
BLANK DEEDS, Mortgages, Judgment
Notes, Executions and Summons for sale
PROSPECTUS FOR 1857.
THE SATURDAFKVENINO POST.
ESTABLISHED A L GVST 4 Tit 1821.
The publishers of this old and firmly establish
ed paper take plensnre In calling the attention of
tho public to their programme for tho onming
year. Surfeited with politics, the claims of litera
ture will be more than ever appreciated by tho
reading wovld. We have therefore nlready mado
airnngemonts with tho following brilliant list of
William Howitt (of England,) Alice Cary, T. S.
Arthur, Mrs. Southworth, Augustine Duganno,
Mrs. M. A. Denison, the author of "Zillah," As.
We design commencing, in tho first nnmbor in
January next tho following original Novelet I
Tallengetta, or the Squatter's Home. By Will
iam Howitt, author of "Rural Life in Kngland,"
"Homes of tho Poets," Sao. &c.
This is a Story of Australian Life, Mr. Ilowrlt
havinir visited Australia expressly with tho ob
ject of acquainting himself with the novel nd ro
mantio aspects under wi.icn nature nnu rocieij
present themselves in that singular region.
The following Novelets will then be given,"
though probably not in the exact ordor here men '
The Story of a Country GirLfif Alice Cary.
An original Novelet, written expressly for the Post.
The )! Heart. An original Novelet, writ-'
ton expressly fur tho post, by T S. Arthur.
Lighthouse Island. An original Novelet, by tho .
author of "My Confession," "Zillah, or the Child
The Quaker' Protege. An original Novelet, by .
Mrs. Mary A. Denison, author of "Mark, tho Sex
ton,'' "Homo pictures," &c.
The Raid of Burgundy. A Tale of tho Swiss
Cantons. An original Novelet, by Augustine
Duganne, nnthorof "Tho lost of tho Wilness," Ac.
We have also the promise of a short and con
densed Novelet, by Mrs. Southworth, to run
through about six or eight numbers of tho Post.
In addition to the above list vf contributions,
we design continuing tho usual amount of For
eign Letters, Original Sketches, Choice Selections .
from all sources, Agricultural Article's General
News, Humorous Anecdotos, View of the Pro
duce nnd Stock Markets, the Philadelphia Rotail
Markets, Bank Note List, Editorials, &a. &o., our
object being to give a Complete Record, as far a
our limitH will admit, of the Great World.
ENGRAVINGS. In the way of Engravings,
we generally presont two weekly one of an in
structive, and the other of a humorous character.
Tho Postago on the Post to nny part of the Uni
ted States, pnid quarterly or yearly in advance, at
the oflico whore it is recieved, is only 2G cents a
TERMS (Cash in advance) Single copy $2 a
4 copies, $5,00 a year..
8 " ( one to gcttor tip of Club) 10.00 "
13 " " " " " 15,00 "
20 " " " " " 20,00 "
Address, alicays post-paid,
No. G6 South Third Street, Philadelphia.
SAMPLE NUMBERS sent gratis to any
Due, when requested.
a, TO EDITORS. Editors who give the above
on t insertion, or condense the material portions of
it, 'be notices of new contributions and our terms,)
foi 'heir editorial columns, shall be entitled to an
exchange by sending a marked copy of the paper
containing the advertisement or notice.
Nov. 22, 1850.
Tho Subscriber having purchased the Stock in '
Trado of Mr. Samuel Grove, Corner of Main and
Elsworth Streets would respectfully invite the at
tention of the citizens of Sulein and of the sur
rounding oountry to his stuck of Groceries and
Hour, 0alt, fcc, fcc.
NO CHARGE FOR SHOWING GOODS.
All -articles sold warranted to bo as good as re
commended. My purchnses being nil mnde with eash, I flatter
myself that I can give entile satisfaction to all who
may favor mo with a call.
CASH PAIR FOR EGGS.
BiSy-Remember tho Corner, Groves old stand.
LYMAN BUOOKS, Agent.
I have on hand nnd for sale Doctor Wcbsters
Invigorating Cordial or Health Bitters a sure rem
edy for Jaundice, Liver Complaint, Dyspepsia, &c,
and a great regulator of the Stomach and Bowels.
Also, Brooks sure remody for Diarrhea and Dysen
tery nnd Cholera preventative.
Warranted to Curo in all Cases or the money
will he retunded.
Price 50 cents a bottle.
Salem, Ohio, Aug. 9. 185G.
PITTSBURGH WATER CURE. .
This institution for the Cure of the sick, is sitn
ntcd on the Ohio River and Ohio and Pa. R. K., 10
miles West of the City at
II A YS Y1LL E S TA Tl ON.
All kinds of disease successfully treated. For
particulars Address either of the physicians, Bos
1304 Pittsburgh, Pa.
S. FREASE, M D.
II. FREASE, M. D.
MRS. C. P. FREASE, M. D.
April 13th, 1856.
SINGER'S SEWING MACHINES.
These celebrated machines are in practical ami
frofitable use in all parts of the civilized world,
n all the variuus trades, and in sewing every sort
of fabric, either of cloth or leather, they have
been fully tried and approved, sewing machine
of nther manufacturers often fail to work, but
SINGEIl'S MACHINES ALWAYS OPERATE
PERFECTLY, being strong, durable and complete
in oontrivanco and workmanship. A perfect tew
ing machine kept employed affords a clear profit of
$1,000 a year ; but an imperfect one is a cause of
constant vexation and loss. The entire reliabil
ity of our machines is one great reason for their
.T1ALIILES FOR FAMILY
of a frail and delicate construction, are rooora
mended by other manufactures. Such machines
are made to catch the eye, not to perform substan
tial work. The truth is, family sewing machines
ought to be srronger than any other, because they
go into less skilful hands than when sold to man
ufacturers, and are used for a greater variety of
work. The machines which have proved best for .
all other purposes must be best for family use, and
they are Singer's. The speed of our machines ha
lately been doubled. No other can compare with,
them in quantity of work.
fciy New machines of the latest improved
style will be exchanged on liberal terms for old
sewing machines of our own make, or for ope,r
ative machines of other manufacturers'. Ay'oiii
agents wanted to sell our maehens.g
N. B. All persons desiring full infajniation,,
about sewing machines, can obtain it by applying,,,
for a copy of "I. M. Singer & Co.'s Gavjtte, a
papor devoted entirely to the subject. It will bo,
sent gratis. I. M, SINGER, Aj.QQ.
Principal Office, 323 Broadway, New York.
47 Hanover street, Boston.
32 Westminster street, Providence
274 Broad street, Newark, N. J.
347 Broadwav. Albany, N. Y.
Gloversville, New York.
08 Chapel street New Haven.
II Buchanan street, Glasgow, Scotland'..
142 Chestnut street, Philadelphia.
105 Baltimore street, Baltimore.
8 East Fourth streot, Cincinnati.
G5 North Fourth street, St. Louis.
81 St. Charlos street, New Orleans..
20 Dauphin street. Mobile.
October 4, 1850. 3ut.-