la happruesa or ear -,
-Xbey follow oaowftiotBteps.
" lake pbutoau, ererjwbarz. 1
, . Jo ta cotUt wall t
- ItedMt ia Uie eort&kis -
- ,Of ibe rich amaa aail -
. fcaere the forwrt staadetb,
. bare the greea grtvs ve,
t Vhwe the ocsac smile b.
k.r O r tl place aX grart
Where the gj vtuce n
MoTeth through (he utt; ,
Vktre the faaerai foUuwa,
Telling lime la .
- Wbrnthe loandsof pleaauro
hlea) apea the air.
la the lenely rrtvvtyarti
( ahaduva everywhere. , ,
, pidoin when the fuame-n , ,
.". Wean tbe bri4m! wreaib;
ghadows when she sinkeui
lu ihe anas of deatu.
Ctua t bleu our ntuxt,
t-uadowa when ha coftia r.
.... Jaausa from the door,
' , la the day of chHdhood. ' "
Ia our maaitood'a priiae
lit the old Bua'i twilight.
-. bbawtfawra as each sine,
Cluttowa whn W Crftatiai
Vreada hia way -o d,
Jo the wath of sorrow 9
Thai Wtfaaiar trod,
When Ma faith hi straRgeitr
When Ui fuowep roam
fcull ihealmdow TfL.t-.li
II ia eternal hoaae. ' --
C4uuiow darkly bruedtsff
r the brow erf dtsnit,
A b bids the trectbier
t Vield htadee;! breaUi.
Shadows darkly atttaJing
: ltke tine HhMdsof nigiat, , 1
t)vi-r deuilts Mr rn port.::
Onward CaAetcaa night! -v
J ". JAKE WEIL. .
We 1 uot know bow muea ve lore -Until
we eotae to leave;
.. An aged irre, a cmuw Uowrr.
Are Uiiufiks u'er wlttrb we gri.sve;
. There la a pleaaure tu the piu
That bruiopi as baett the past again..
- We litter whlla we tarn away, '
c cling while we d-pari;
"and mmoricx nmrk-ti utl th-ti,
OomcrowdiuE round the bcn,
"I.e aitat will lwr4ar onward way
FareweU'a a bit er word t e auy .
- f OI.B PSALM-TUNES - ; '
.' Blackvood 837a of old psalm tones:
-. "There U tu ua more of touching patboa,
' beart-thrl!:ng espressioa, io some of ibe
old psalm tunes, feelingly displayed, than
io a whole batch of moderism. The strains
j;o home, the foundations of the great deep
are broken np; the great deep of fathomable
feeling, that lies far below the surface of
the world-hardened. heart; and as the unwon
ted", yet unchecked tears start in the eye,
ibe softened spirit yields to their influence,
'bbU shakes off the load of earthly care, ri
ving purified and spiritualized into a clearer
atmosphere. Strange and inexplicable as
sociations brood over the inind,"like the far
off dreams of paradise" mingling their chaste
fnelancboily with a musing of a still sub
dued though more cheerful character. How
jnany glad hearts, in the olden time, have re
joiced in these songs of praise how many
sorrowful ones have sighed out their com
plaints in these plaintive notes that now,
eold in death, are laid to rest around that
a acred church, within whose walls they had
so often swelle dwith Amotion!"
.Pi;.;..';: MAX'S 0E8TIXV.
. rTbe appearance of a man upon the scene
f being constitutes a new era in creation;
the operations of a new jnstiuct come into
play that instinct which anticipates a life
after the grave, and reposes implicit faith
v upon a God alike just and good, who is the
pledged "rewarder of all who diligently seek
Him. And in looking along the long line
Hf being ever rising in the scale from higher
tu yet higher manifestations, or abroad on
the lower animals, whom instinct never de
ceives can .we hold that man, immeasura
bly higher in his place, and infinitely higher
, in bie hopes and aspirations than all that
ever went before him should be, notwith
standing, the one grand .error in creation
the one painful worker,; in the midst ol
present troubles, a state into which he Is
never to enter the befooled expectant of a
happy future which he is ver to" see? As-
- suredty no--.' He who keeps faith wi:h His
Ironbte creaMres who gives ven the. bee
apd the dormouse the winter for which they
prepare will tc a certainly not break faith
with . man with man, alike the deputed
- lord of the present creation, and the chosen
heir of all the future.' We have been look
idg abroad on the old geologic burying-
"grounds, and deciphering the strange in
scriptions on their tombs, but .there are
, uthcr-; burying-grounds and jother tombs
suhtary church-yards among the hills, where
tlte dust of martyrs lie, and tombs that rise
. over the ashes of the wise and good; nor
are there-wanting, on even the monuments
of, the perished race, frequent hieroglyphics
and symbols of high meaning, which darkly
intimate to us, that while their burial yards
contain but the debris ot the past, we are
to regard the others as charged with the
sown seed of the future. Hugh Miller.
' ' THE FAMILY CIRCLE.
. The Baltimore Sun alluding to the preva
lence of crime "among boys, very properly
asserts that one of the main causes of de
cline of morality is the decay of parental
discipline. The family circle, the domestic
beartb, is the true fountain of purity or cor
ruption of public morals. Most people be
come what they are made at. home. . They
go forth into the world, to act out the char
acter they have formed' in the first fourteen
years of .their lives.
Is it alleged that children have become
more unmanageable than they used to be !
We reply that human nature and human
relations are unchanged. .
Children are just as amenable to authority
as they ever were. This is the main pur
pose 1 for which Providence has made them
, helpless and'dependent, that they may be
trained to obedience, to order, to industry
aud to virtue. It is not true "that parents
have not as absolute control over their chil
dren aa tbey ever had. Where there is de
pendence, obedience may be enforced. The
real fact is, that parents are too indolent,
toe negligent, too indifferent to take the
paius to train up their children in the way
'ihvsy should go. It requires perpetual vigil
" ance, and, they get tired. It requires self
control to exercise a proper authority over
others. Self-conquest is the greatest victo
ry of all. There can be no just parental
discipline when there is no character to
back It." 'v'-":'
. . : "f FAME.. . -How
tike a morning cluuld is worldiy fame
and bow little worth pursuing. Daniel Web
ster- had wrought put a statesman's majestic
life as. if it bad been a statue; and tne noon
sun shone full upon it, and no thudows fell
around the broad pedestal,
A very aged man was his companion, one
day, as the stage coach labored over the
granite hills of his native State. Conver
sation beguiled the weary way, and Webster
inquired, of bim, If he ever knew Captain
Webster. ' - . '
Indeed I did, " replied the old man, "and
a brave man and good, be was sir, and no
bly did he fight with General Stark at Ben
"IMd he leave any children!''
"Oh, yes; there was Ezekiel, and I think
And what became of them V asked Web
ter. "Why,- Ezekiel and he was a powerful
msni air I have heard bim plead in court
often, and : be fell dead while pleading at
Concord." , -; :
"But what became of Daniel !" ,
"Daniel Daniel," thoughtfully repeated
the old man; " wby Daniel, I fceiire, is a law
yer somewhere about Boston."
And ao he thought there was such a son
. as Daniel: and this is human fame, for which
mea toil and strive, and struggle out their
Jive.B. F. Tatiob.
It is He small commendation to manage a
, little well, ' He is good wagoner that can
turn in a small space. ; To live well in abun
dance, i the praise of the estate -apt of the
person. Study rather how to give a good ac-
v count of JW JWJe, than bow to make it
MY PKETTY COUSIN i
- Ot, . Cvaoaue Caasbt t ker Vtaare. i
Mv.rettvConfilnia not like other cousins. I
Sbeii LraueVnof cousins, beinsr at once j
the most agreeable, cruel and unmanageable .
- - ...
01 aa: ue preiuest ana moei uaua,
liveliest and mc-t wittv; and is te.ides such ;
j i,i. , ,.. !;-j hefor. I
whose fanciful and mischief loving disposi-
Uon has intimidated and subdued the country j
beaux for many miles around. She is, morev
over, a capnejoua tyrant, willful and obsunate ,
and wields the sceptre of ber powers uh ,
an unsoanno- hand. .Her admirers slaves
would say though their ribs bate ached,
, , ... i r. r ,Ln
and smarted with the shaft of more than
c r -j, t r i i .i i.n.-. i
one of Cupid's shafts through their hearts, ,
. - .! ... . . ... ;D.t ...,i
brtsXhng with his barbed arrows, pierced, and
nauieu in every direction, ami uuner muuuu
the tight that scorches them, attracted,
chanted by eyes that melt by gazing, -aud
fire you with their fire.
' See, how lond the saucy elf is of teazing,
with such mellow lips, that hang like golden
fruit, to be plucked by the first bold hand;
pouting so temptingly; wooing, inviting;
and if you would haste to press them to your
own, they arrest you with such an offended
delicacy, that you dare go uo farther least
the Puritan boxes your ears.
All cousins are not so: While they hang
their beads in deliciors confusion, and suffer
one to do what he will with their hps, she
will be tngging at your whiskers, or what is
inoredreadtul still, with oue fell swoop, snia-li
the spotless, unwrinkled bosom, that is so
snugly arrayed behind the vest that gives
None of the devoted train yet bad suffi
cient audacity to steal a kiss. Was it that
they feared they might disarrange the hair
they had spent so much time in brushing
and torturing into sleekness Or were they
ccnleut to plod along in the same every day
employment of sighing for paradise, and llio'
they gazed on it through their eyes, dured
not reach forth their hand and enter with the '
seal upon her lips. - j
So stood the beseiged and the beseiging. '
when a city cousin arrived; and thus found j
Harry Hosmer the pretty kingdom my pretty !
cousin had founded. j
e-caaie, ami sne saw one more v.cuin io ,
uiarol 1 iha ti.lo ( Irinmnha T T UfftA wnrfll 1
winning; he was a fine appearing teilow,
was a true gentleman; could dance, rue,
aing, and make love sonnets to neriertion;
and was, all in all, what a handsome lady of
eighteen would lovo to see at her leet. Will
we be justified in saying that the -same mo
tives that influenced her action towards oth
ers, moved ber to -the concentration of all
her art, cunning and power, to batter the
heart of the cily cousin! No, it was not
love, but something akin to it, for what coun
try belle can see such a Harryone bo su
perior to the rest of the throng that sur
rounds he r and not feel a greater emotion,
a- morethan' common flutter : when he ap
proaches her! .
Her plana were laid. His heart was min
ed,' assaulted, . beseiged, and attacked in
every possible shape. He remained imeon
quered nor did any subsequent movement
dislodge him from his station.
His deportment was always the same, and
not all ber skill at man's subjection could
draw from bim more than that familiar, gen
tlemanly carriage, which acquainted her with
the freedom of his heart aud the failure of
her plans. She was piqued. . What a old
senseless thing this cousin is! I won't trou
ble myself no more with the ill-mannered
bear! He isn't worth the pains one takes
to make him like, people.
She, however, did uot adhere to Jhis wise
conclusion. The next day another attack,
a general assault, was directed against the
citadel, and she endeavored to carry all be
fore her by storm, but he that had been so
long impregnable to so many city warfares,
led ou, too, by the brightest eyes that flash
in cur land, was the same cousin Harry Hos
mer from the city. An J the only foil he
used, and that which Jie played with surpis
ing advantage, was the name of another city
cousin, a defense that surprised, while it was
a counter attack that disconcerted her.
My pretiy cousin had failed. In her en
deavors to subdue the heart of her cousin
the had forgot to guard ber own, nor did she
know ill at it was already in the possession
of another. She was cross. Sl.c could
hardly bear that heshculd be in her presence
and was unhappy when he was out of sight.
If he was pleasant or laughed, he was ridi
culing her unhappiness, and rejoicing at her
discomfiture. " It he was sad and sober, he
was thinking of the hated cousin he left be
hind in the ci'y.
"My dear cousin you cannot imagine with
what feeliugs of pleasure I shall present
your beautiful cousin to you. She is such
a divine creature," exclaimed he one day,
after dwelling unusually long upon her beau
ty and learning. "She is perfection!"
Clara pouted and picked the leaves of a
rose he had just plucked for her, and crushed
them with her foot.
"You will be delighted to see her, she is
so k'nd and gentle. It will be impossible to
be near her and not like her."
' ' And do you like ,her, cousin Harry ! "
asked she in a low, hesitating voice, as if
afraid to ask what might be unpleasant to
'Like her we love her everybody
does. " .
The ro6e was suddeuly dashed on the floor,
her foot indignantly stamped upon it, and
she arose and hastily walked to the window.
"Wby, coz. what ails thee!" said Harry
without rising, as he swung a chair careless-
ly round on one leg, while he commenced a
She was leaning against the side of the
window with herforhead pressed against the
glass; she did not answer. Nothing is more
galling to a woman, than to hear the praises
of a rival from the lips of oue she loves.
Clara was piqued; she was offended angry.
She could hardly bear her feelings, for she
pictured her happy cousin basking in the
same sunshine of his, end then she thought
of herself, neglected and unloved, and her
breast heaved with feelings she ill could
Is my cousin unwell?"..
She' is silent.
"Bless me, you have uot forgotten the use
of that tongue that used to wag so gaily!"
Harry rose and walked to the window.
He gently pulled the hand that supported
her head from her face. She was weep
ing. The day after, he departed for New
- His horse was at the door, his foot was
in the stirrup, and be had thrice bid good
bye to hia friends, but he lingered, for there
ought to be another among them. He scan
ned their faces, be watched every window;
she was not there. "Onco more be took
leave and stopped 'again to see if Clara was
there'." Ho turned disappointed and laid his
band on" the saddle. ' A hand touched
h'8 Eboulder and a low voice whispered"
"Cousin Harry, good-bye!" j
He (urned and met the gaze of Clara. j
Slie was P' 8he held er hand to him, !
...1 t. . ... .. ,A 1 nvAA0adi 1. . .. 1 . n . 1
U1IU l.V. SMK U.l V II . Ill . SHU III CWCU II iU 11 LIO ,
to hers. There was perhaps too much ,
. .,- -
f h " tht k. that m.ngled .ts fire ;
wun me paior 01 msr cneea. ur, was it mat ;
1 rl t l .
h,a.and ,,ers 100 closely locked! ,
Good- m n8'' Ba,dnhe
" he Vaulted he "ddle -Be-;
' ao deli , . . vo a,
- .- . . . . ' .:
. . , . , u
wnfijiu", iv tQftc Laic jtrsi. you arw la&eu uy
. ' J
surprise; fbe carries all before her,"
.,,.;.., , ,., . -
t will not promise la like Iter, Harry,"
-j 'j, " -
We will not say what image was ever pres
ent to her mind, because' the reader already
knows. Neither do we like to speculate up
on the siate of Harry's heart. We don't
know much about this city cousin, yet it ap
pears he is very fond of talking about Iter,
and that is no positive proof that he is in
love with her. People do not talk most of
those they love. My pretty cousin's beauty
certainly struck him at first. He was
pleased with her lively humor and wit; he
felt the influence of her eyes; but was deter
mined to curb that proud spirit that marred
all her better qualities, and exterminate her
petty passion for coquetry.
She bad failed once in her long career of
warring against hearts. It was a signal de
feat. Was it her fault! Was she growing
olJ! The thought paled her cheek. She
flew to the glass. No! This face is as
fresh as ever; these eyes are as bright as
ever;- this bust as full and rounded; this
waist as taper, and this form baa lost none of
its fullness. .
She who is she! this Puueaix, this divin
ity! Home city miss with enough gold to
make a dadi and dazzle his eyes, crooked,
perhaps yes, crooked and well padded too;
tall and lean, lame and deceitful. "'Tis
strange, 'tis very strange," said she, as she
stood and surveyed herself before the mir
ror. Fall came, and with it Harry aud the city
cousin. Thpy arrived late on Saturday eve-
. . atODned at . viao.e hntri, . r.
was too late to see their friends that ni"ht,
added to which the inhabitants still adher
ed to the good old custom of keeping Satur
Next day, arm in arm, they went Jo
church and sat in a pew where Clara
She was pretty; Clara confessed it to her
self. Indeed she might be called beautiful
but that she was too pule. . How tall! How
majestic she is! how 'confidently he bears
upon his arm ! would that be right for cous
ins! -She forgot, how often sh-j had leaned'
just so. They sing out of the same book
their hands touch, and their breath does min
gle. How tenderly he folds her shawl a
round her neck. The jade! she smiles on
him. No wonder he should' be so fond ol
her when she earr smile w sweetly; -Poor
Clara! she sought her bed that night with
an aching bead, and dreamed of daggers the
If she bad been engaged with her outward !
clothing-, how much more was she with her
inward qualities. Though she looked upon
Jalia as a rival, it was impossible to approach
her and not feel interested. Her sweet dis
position secured the attention and respect,
but not the love of Clara She was a suc
cessful rival; Clara could not brook thai.
Where rivalry exists there is no love.
One evening Harry was alone with her.
Julia had just been with him. Clara sal
pensive and thoughtful.
'I think Clara's thought, like her heart,
is with some favored lover whom adverse
fortune has parted from his 'ladye love,' and
cast him into other lands. Or perhaps the
little plaintive song Julia has just sung a
wakens sad feeliugs. Ho'V is it Clara."
'I think if you remember anything till
- i die it would be the name of Julia.
You jire forever talking about her aud her'
singing such divine music. Pshaw!"
"And why uot! Who cau listen to such
an angelic being, and "not break into rap
tures with her heavenly music!"
"Sure 1 have heard better," said slit pet
, "And to think of her sweetness of dispo
sition, and her kindness, her benevolence,
her beauty "
Clara sat uneas3'. r
' "Her sparkling wit, her learning
all these joined in one person, in Julia, she
whom all love "
She hitched away her chair and looked
hard, very hard, at the well-post through the
window. What could be so very attractive
in that rickety old piece of wood!
"She whom we adore "
He stopped. .He heard a sob.
"Clara, cousin Clara," said he, going tj
her, and sealing himself beside her.
"Stand off, sir!" exclaimed she, suddenly
rising aud stepping iuto the miJdle of the
room. Her eyes, though wet with tears,
flashed with excitement. Her bosom heaved
and swelled with offended pride.
"You are a cold, heartless man. You ask
others lo sing but me never; you walk, and
laugh, and ride with that Julia, but nev
er ask me; you dance all night with Julia,
while 1 sit alone in Ihe corner; you sing
with ber, go to church with her, and I urn
left at borne. You may gos buck lo New
j York with your beautiful cousin I'll never
iiean iv vuu u"uui. x uu tc uu wusui ui
miuc you are a sensless, rude, good-for-nothing
brute! You are the worst, the ugli
est, the most bated ugh! the beast!"
She hurried out of the room, leaving Har
ry transfixed w:lh astonishment. He went
away with a serious face.
That afternoon Clara sat in tt rustic bow
er iu her father's garden. She was pale, un
happy. She did not observe two persons
walking thai way until they entered where
she was. Harry advanced leading the smil
ing Julia by the hand.
"You know this lady only as your cousin.
I come now to acquaint you what relation
she bears lo me. Iu Julia Hosmer you see
your cousin and my sister."
"Your sister!" cried she eagerly, spring
"Your cousin and my sister sweet coz."
"You won't go back to-worrow will you!"
asked she slipping her arm around Julia.
Clara paused lor a moment. Then with
a crimson cheek and faltering voice, she ap
proached Harry, and passing her arm around
his neck, looked up into his eyes, that flash
ed so sure of victory.
"Cousin," she Baid, "you will not go so
soon!" , .
- We are informed by his sister that Harry
hung lung over her, looking into her deep
eyes aa though he would fill her soul with
beaming glances of love and confidence, and
did not offer to disturb .the arm that rested
on his neck, for fear those glowing lips be
neath his own would bo removed. -"Clara,,
you have conquered. I should
DELAAV ARE, OHIO; FEBRUARY 19, 1858.
indeed be a senaelesa piece of mortality to J
go, when such eyes as yours coa me to stay
and taste such tempting frutt as this." ,
. He did not stop loDg.' When next be
- .uu ' w, ' - - - "
.if 1 1 1 a wiitarra 1 1 :i u?fia f i i.t nil i n,r ti n t
with bim nor Harry ail that called nereis
The Ct,BXreiiiKl FiIic.
The correspondent of the New York
Times, after detailing the scene up to. the
time Grow knocked, Ke.tt down, contmues :
.- These transactions, which take so much
time to relate, were the work of a very few
minutes, and all occurred on the Democratic
side of the House. When the blow was
struck, a dozen Southern men rushed toward
the parties, some doubtless to keep" " the
peace, and others to have a band in the
fight. Barksdale, of Mississippi, McQueen,
of South Carolina. Craige, of North Oaroii
n a, and Reuben. Davis, were prominent iu
the scrimmage. Burksdule specifically
states, and I doubt not truly, that his only
object was to separate the contestants. He
aud other opponents seized upon Gruw at
once, as Iveill was already horx da combat.
To gentlemen on the other side of the hall,
it looked very much as though the genileman
from Penn. was about to be cut into niince
tneut, and the Auti-lecompton men rushed
over in a body to the rescue. Foremost
came Mr. Potter, of Wisconsin, a very ath
letic, compact man, who bouuded iuto the
center of the excited group, striking right
and left "with" tremendous vigor. Vas!i
burne, of Illinois, and his brother of Wis
consin, also were prominent, aud for a min
ute or two it seemed as though we were to
have a Kilkenny fight on a magnificent
scale.' Barksdale had hold of Gruw, when
Potter struck him a severe blow, supposing
tliat he was hurting that gentleman. Barks
dale turning around and supposing' it was
Elihu Wasuburue who struck him, dropped
Grow and struck out at the-, gentleman from
Illinois. Cadwaliader Wasliburne, perceiv
ing the attack upon his brother, also made a
dash at Mr. Barksdale, and seized him by
the hair, apparently for the purpose of draw
ing him " into chancery" and pumnieling
him to greater satisfaction. Horrible to re
late, Mr. Barksdalc's wig came off in Cad
walluder's left hand and his right fist ex
pended itself with tremendous force against
the unresisting air. This ludicrous incident
unquestionably did much towards restoring
good nature subsequently and its effect
was heightened uot a little by the fact that
in the excitement of the occasion Barksdale
restored his wig wrong side foremost.
" There seemed to be Very l.ttle method iu
the struggle, and it was hard to tell who
was iu tor earnest, aud who was trying to
restore order. The Speaker yelled and
rapped for order without effect. The Ser-geant-arVArms
stalked to the scene of bat
tle, mace iu. band, but his '-American eagle"
had no more effect than the Speaker's gavel.
Owen Lvejy aud Lamas, of Mississippi,
were pawing each whereat e point each
probably trying to persuade the other to be
still. Mr.' Mott, the : gray -haired jQnaker.
I Representative from Ohio, was seen going
1 here and there in the crowd. Davis, of
Mississippi, got a severe but accidental blow
from Mr. Grow, and various gentlemen sus
tained slight - bruises and scratches. A
Virginia Representative, who thought Mont
gomery, . of Pennsylvania, was about to
" pitch in," laid his hand upon his arm to ':
restrain nun, and was peremptorily ordered )
to desist or be knocked down. Mr. Covode, I
or t-ennsyivania, caugui up a neavy stone- ;
, .. - .
ever might seem to deserve it, but fortunate
wnrp fimttitnn urith ivlitfh It, " hrmil'7 tvhr- j
ly did not succeed in getting far enough in
to the excited crowd to find an appropriate
subject for his vengeance; and all over the
Hall everybody was excited for.lhe time."
The correspondent of tjie New York '
Tribune says: J
" As seen from the Reporter's Gallery.it'
presented a droM enough spectacle. Tuere J
were some fifty miJdle aged aud -elderly j
gentlemen pitching iuto each other like so
many Tipperary savages most of them in- j
capable, from want of wind and muscle, ofj
doing each other any serious hurt. Mr. j
Barksdale, of Mississippi, who was among;
the most active, encountered at one moment
Mr. Potter, of Wisconsin, who was decided
ly the champion ol the ring. Potter grasped
Barksdale by the hair, with the evident in
tention ol putting that gentleman's head in
to chancery." To bis unutterablesurprise
and disappointment, the hair came off. The
Mississippiau was scalped. He jumped
about bald headed, making frantic efforts to
recover his wig, which Polter had disdain
lully tossed among the crowd, some one of
whom kindly restored it to its proper
The Fate ot American Diacorerera. "
The great misfortunes, or violent deaths
of the more distinguished discoverers aud
explorers of the New World, have been no
ted among the remarkable coincidences to
be found in history. In this respect, howev
er, they have only shared the too common
fate of the benefactors of our race, as some
of them "properly were, and perhaps all more
or less directly.
Columbus was made the subject of perse
cution aud imprisonment, and died at last
broken-hearted. Sebastian Cabot, who first
discovered this part of the American Conti
nent, ended his days in obscurity, and no
one can tell where he is buried. Verrazzani,
who next visited this country, under the pat
ronage of the French government, and gave
llie earliest account now extant of our coast,
was lost at sea. Ponce de Leon, the dis
coverer of Florida, was mortally wounded
by the Indians. . Fernandez, the first Euro
pean visitant of Yucatan, was also killed by
the natives. De Soto, the discoverer of the
Mississippi river, died from hardship and ex
posure in a vaiu search for gold, and was bu
ried beneath the "Father of Water."
Vasco Nunez was beheaded; Cortez waf
disgraced; Narvaez perished iu a storm near
the mouth of the Missisis ppi; Las Casas had
to seek refuge in a monk's cowl; Alvarado
was destroyed in an ambush; Pizarro was
murdered; Alamagro was garroted; Boba
dilla and Roldan were drowned. Sich are
some of the more conspicuous ex amples.
If we look more closely at the several ca
ses, we shall find less occasion !o wonder
that so many perished by violence, or had
their days embittered by political or other
troubles, than that any should hive escaped
this destiny. Most of these were daring ad
ventures, who trusted themselves to strange
seas and unexplored coasts, and set out on
a voyage of uncertain destination, across an
untraversed ocean, in vessels which, as com
pared with out ordinary ships, to say noth
ing of our steam. Leviathans, were but as
the birch canoe of the Indian lo the boats
j thai ply up and down our rivers and across
, our lakes. The science of navigation wh in
! its infancy, all the mechanic arts far from
j their present perfection, and how these men
managed to cross the Atlantic at all is a mys-
tery. - "
Arrived in the ,Vew World, a thirst of eon-
quest and an isti.,ble love of gold, exposed
many ot these adventures to perpetual dan
gers and led Utota to undertake enterprises
f inconceivable hardship. The history oi
modern pioneer life has iioiliiug to show like
it. The conquering careers of Cortez aud
Pizarro were not boyte play. It was a if
the last remnant of chivalrous furor anj of
romantic knight-errantry was blazing up anew
before its final extinction to the love of gold
with which, "indeed, k was already joi ning
listiJ. Such a mad spirit t)f adventu re al
ways carries death in ks train. Poli ticai
troubles, also, must follow territorial con
quests, and the men who gave new. empires
ttsaiyinij kingdom received jealousy and iu
sgtilude as a natural recompense.
. The comparison which has been suggest
ed between these heroic men who were,
with all their faults and follies, mostly bene
factors of the race and such land pirates a
Lopez and Walker, hardly deseaves notice.
TUe resemblance is about as striking as that
between 3Iount Blanc aud an ant-hill. We
should as soon draw a parallel between Julius
Cajsar and Don Quixotte. Neither in pur.
pose nor execution unless we 6peak of their
"Uking-off" have they anything in com--Tion.
.4 ; - - Freaks 'of Fortune.
. Man is said to be the architect of his own
forrune, an assertion which may Je held as
a rule, provided always, it is admitted to be
true that exceptions are more numerous than
the rule itself. Accident has much to do
with the destiny of mortals iu this world.
Such m emphatically the case in politici.1
life, and often the case in every walk of
life. One of the most remarkable freaks of
fortune on record is the rise and culmination
of that .star in the theatrical firmament
which has just set in Paris. Madame
Rachel, the world-renowned tragedienne, in
1830, was a poverty-stricken Jewish street
minstrel in Paris, gathering pennies in the
cafas for her sougs. The founder of the
Royal Sacred Music Institution, struck jby
her sweet voice and winning manuers, took
her from the street and gave her musical
instruction; but discovering that her vocal
chords lilted her rather tor declamation, her
course of instruction was changed, aud she
was trained for the si.-ige. Her. first repre
sentation was a failure, and until '38-9 she
was out of sight, when at the age of .eigh
teen all Paris was crazy. after Rachel. In
M0 she appeared in London, then in St. Pe
tersburg ; iu both places the public were
wild in their admiration. -Her tortune was
made, so that on her visit to this country her
annual income reached $80,000. She was
exceedingly avaricious and had a very bad
temper. Her jewelry and wardrobe were
estimated at $12o',000; one set of diamonds
beiog worth $40,000. She drank immoder
ately of wine, eat sparingly as ti ueeess-iry
consequence, and had a reputatioii for purf
ty very badly damaged. In "thirty-seven
rpresntalious -in this- country she realized
$150,000. Madame Raehel contracted the
malady of which she died, on her visit lo
Boston, in the autumn of- 1855. Il was
greatly aggravated at Philadelphia by play- j
ing in a coldiiieatrj. Her last appearance !
on ihe stage was at Charleston, S. C, I
when a lady iu the audience so says the j
New York Tribune wrote to her Iriend
Rachel would never act again. The '
same paper says: '
"She died a tenacious adherent to the!
jewisU religion, though if
has often been i
reported that she had. been baptized in the j
R xii a n Catholic Church. A rabbi from
j Toulon attended her death bed; and she was
buried iu the Hebrew Cemetery at !
C'neasy Llea tbe Head that Weara a Crown.
Despite the apparent courage displayed by
Napoleon III, in appearing in the streets of
Paris, in an open, calerhe, ou thu morn
ing after his narrow escape from assas
sination, it is at best but a desperate effort to
amuse the French. Napoleon knows 'their
nature, and is aware that upon the first iin-aginaty-watiing
of his fortune, the misses
of the French wIlt eiitistTmchrrhe leader
they suppose would be successful. Hence
Napoleon tries to reassure the populace as j
to the firmness of his throne, by riding thru' j
the streets unattended by troops, thus by the i
very boldness of the act to excite the en- I
thusiasm, and win the huzzas of the French.
Yet even in ihis display of courage, Napo-!
Icon showed a commendable cautiou in li iv- j
ing the Empress by his side, knowing, full I
well, th.-.t thr? linmlriKiifi Rirrfnip- ainuntr a !
n ' o
French populace, was "worth a thousand
The history of French thrones for the
last three-quarters of a century, understand-
ingly read, must tend to anything but assu
rance. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
were guillotined; Louis XVII either murder
ed by inches iu the Tower, or as is
more probable banished among the red
men of the forests of America; Napoleon I
died under guard of British bayonets on the
rock of St. Helena; Louis XVII I died on
the ihrone, aud, so far as we know, a natur
al dealh; Charles X was desposed and died
a refuge from Fr inre; .. Louis Phillipe, the
"Citizen King," fled from France and died
a refugee in England. That is a sad cala
louge for the present occupant of the French
throne to ponder upon, and we think he, to
day, would find it difficult to exchange bis
throne for an American farm of one hundred
Polygamy and Slavery.
The Philadelphia Republican Convention
which nominated Fremont in 1850, in their
plutl'.Tin, characterized Slavery and Polyga
my as "twin relics ol barbarism." Mr. Mer
rill, of Vermont, lately introduced a bill in
Congress, to prohibit and punish Polygamy
in the Territories of the United Stales.
Commenting on this measure, a correspon
dent of the Richmond (Va.) South, a lead
ing Democratic paper, says:
"My sympathies, as a States Rights man,
are with the Mormons. do not approve o
their domestic institutions. No matter; it
is their business, not mine; nor am I or any
other person answerable tor their sins, or
-liable to suffer fur their mistakes. As a
a Southern man my sympathies are with the
Mormons. The same measure that is dealt
out to them for-their polygamy, would be
dealt out to us for our slave holding, by the
same people, if they had the power, and God
only kuows (if things go on as they are tend
ing) how, long" that power will be wanting;
and I say shame! shame! on the Southern
man or Southern press who does not sympa
thise with the Mormon, attending to his own
business, and defending his rights, his lire
sides, and his alters, against the Yankee in-ler-mcddliug
oppressor who delights lo inter
fere in his neighbors affairs, and would
storm Heaven or uproot Hell rather than
not have a fuss."
Brierivew. Anici " ; " !
Ashamed of It. In the debate in the '
Senate on the Treasury Note bill, Mr. Pugb,
the Democratic Senator from this Slate, i
"said - :"
" At the last session we were culled opon,
ill a great hurry, to reduce the lariff. What
was the argument lor that haste ! Tim! it
we did not reduce the tariff in -.double quick
time, there would be a surplus o -eo,0l0,-I
000 of coin in the Sub-Treasury, and u i
would break upevery body. We have pass- .
ed a tt riff bill, and we have not unlv broken :
everybody, but we have no nionev in the
Treasury." Is this the way the financial f- j
fairs of this Government are to bee, nduct- I
ed! You begin at oue session lo press i
through a bill to drive monev out of tl. 5
Treasury, and then cyme here and press' uf
" . , t -.'--"; .-i
into the night hunrs to get another bill 10
put money into the .Treasury. I think k is
a scri. us impeachment of the financial abil
ities of the Democratic party, and without
meaning to be unkind to individuals, 1 am a
littlu jISUAMED of IT.
-We are precipitating the Government of
the United Stales, in a lime. of peace, with
out any excuse for it, into a system of con-
t?n!al jiaper money. I can make nothing !
eisc out oi ii."
Dkath from Ci.okofor.ij. MY."'' Joho
McChesney, of Toronto, a man in the prime
o( life and with. ul organic disease likely to
produce death, expired a few days ago Ironi
the use of chloroform in extracting teelh. ' '" state of things has been the dareing ob
Tiie Globe says: jject ol capitalists in all ages; and the cur-
The case of poor Mr. McChesney shows ! re,,t of ""''""''y by writeis upon poli.ieal
thai many persons have been trititn-r with
dealh, while thus using what they consider-
ed a Harmless and usetul agent. He came
to Mr. French to have six teeth extracted,
and was told by that gentleman that he nev
er administered choloform : except under the
advice of a regular physician. Dr Rictiard
son was thereupon called in, but before the
chloroform was'ac'u illicit red, Mr. McChes
ney asked whether there was any danger iu
using it. Dr. Richardson replied that it had
been used in twenty or thirty thousand cases
in the Crimea without accident, and that
physicians generally thought the dagger
very slight; still there was possibility of risk,
and he had no doubt that he hud belter not
take it. Mr. McChesney unfortunately
chose lo use it, and -the operation was pro-
ceeded with,- by no means a large quantity
of chloroform being given, and the patient
never being so entirely, stupefied as not to
start at the extraction of the toothy ' When
the whole operation was fiuishrd, lie was ob
served to change color and soon appeared
perfectly lifeless. " A galvanic battery was
sent for and employed, an J-four other phy
sicians coining to the aid of Dr.- Richardson,
every devlbe was used to restore life, but alt
without effect. " ' ' '; - ' ;
A StudhT.nt PtArii Lion. The Dayton
Gazette tells the following story:
A young student from Oxford, who was
on A isil to Troy.a few days agoM'tsited the
makuouse of M Jssrs. Munday &. Warner,
and wbile there'vvas Informed that a Teu
tonic g.-ntleman in their employ had been
made tr believe that a lion had escaped
from a inenagrie, and was prowling about
thpir premises. They were thinking about
getting some one to play the part of the
lion, and then lots of fun might be expected.
The young gentleman at once consented to
personate tiia lion, procuring a buffalo robe
and ensconsing himself withiu it, slipped a
round the back way into the lower story
The Dutchman was then requested to bring
some article Irow the basement. When he
arrived there, out sprung the lion, somewhat
frightening the Dutchman,- who on the in
stant sgiasped a bludgeon, gav.' his lionship
one vigorous blow, and then witfi gigantic
strides and blanched cheeks rushed up stair,
to tei! his udventure. There upon the par
ty above hastened down, and were them
selves considerably astonished and alarmed
when they found' the young student lying
seuseless upon the ilo r, with a Fearful gash
upon his head and covered with blood.
After calling in a physician and applying
restoratives, the facetious young man gradu
al!y' revived. His wound was dresaedrnd
he ts obl gin to Ue about, but he declares
that he has no disposition to play the lion to
a Dutchman any more.
The Prophet's Family. A correspon
dent of the Missouri Republican writes, that
last summer he ws at Nauvoo, and conver
sed with Mr. Biioma'n, wlna-is married to Joe
Smith's widow. ' lie says:
" I sat at the table with The family, con
sisting of Mr. liitomau and wife, and three
sous of Joe Smith, the eldest about 23 or 24;
the second about 20; the third a lad of 12 or
13 years. From Mr. 1'i toman I learned that
not one of the family believed iu Mormon
ism, and that his wife formerly Mrs. Smith
had always been oppoi-ed to it, as well as
the boys. Mrs. Bi Ionian is' a ma jculiue, in
telligent looking lady, of 45 or 47 years.
She is a native of New York."
UutSLtx asd Morgan. Extuditor M ir
gan, who now edits the Newark Advocate,
says that John G. Bresliu recently made an
affidavit taking upon himself the entire re
sponsibility of the Treasury defalcation. In
addition to this, Xvlorgau learns that he "has
made another deposition, in which he (B-es-
l!n) alleges that the $550,000 beenuie a loss
to the State, in certain months in the first
year of liis second term during which months
his official bonds remained open to be
strengthened by the names of additional se
curities before iis acceptance by the Gover
nor." These statements Morgan calls "losg
CONCEAI.KD perjuries." As regards ihe
second allegation, in respect to the time j
when the defalcation occurred, we have
nomine io say ; utu as rei;iirus tut: oral, tuui
. , ,. ' , , , , , ,
he f Bres in) took Ihe whole of the money,
v. ' , . , . "
we have soinethiu!? lo sav. it is an tinnnes-
,, , . , - . . .
i.r . . i.... . l . .1... c . .1....
tionable iru'li, and the statements of M.
Sparrow in his report show it lo be so, that
ii-.wi;.. ,,...i. ,.ii tt,. 'iv... i. . ,t.. ..r
the Treasury office show it, and we heard
Wm. D. Morgan himself, in front of t!ie A-
11 1 I 0 1 1 11 LUUH 11 : 1 lllw IJIlfilV. i uu Ol
mericau House in this cily in June last, and
in the presence of a number of people, say
that "he hmw that Brest in had sohn the mon
ey, he was satisfied of il at the lime he was
iu office with him, and he had been expect
ing an explosion ever since Gibson hud been
in office, and had beeu surprised that he had
been able to keep il concealed as lung as he
has;" and yet this js the man who has ever
been trying to fix the crime upon Governor
Chase and the Republicans, and now says
.. , r . , ,.
tiiut Breslm has perjured himself tor swear-
ing to Ihe v.-ry thing which he (Morgin);
himself in Juno last sail he knew lo be
true. Ohio Male Join nut.
Another Luttek from Gov. WisK ;
Gov. Wise has written another" letter in '
response to nn invitation tu attend an aiiti
Lecompton meeting, lie reiterate his for- '
nier arguments in opositnm to llie Lecouip.
ton constitution, and review's the President's
Kansas message, combating iU arguments.
. . (a, KWCK.T.J ,;:
. . . BEMAJUCS Of KB. ,
in limine at nnrmmoMix'. jHuarv a-. tr, , b
-w uww.. ..i.vr r im-r.
,IV,r" 8pEAKER I believe, sir, that the
.SUJiect "ow "'"r consideration is the most
imrorta',t " the interests of the State
'hat "will coinmaud our altsntion
urm l,,e Prese"1 e-'oii. It should be
8i,Pr'a.cllPU ''' cauV.on mid deliberation,
a'"i W"h a" e lo lU(? .P' ol
our cou"""" Ure. The bill before u
pru?,sea tu fi 'be uutrorm rate of interest
Uw' at, even Per ce,,t- aJ "'
P""01 j " eheer'ully concur. ' I did
Xu rPOM "ject, nor
?hou,! 1 1,0 so. noW ' "ut M aeuliovnu
have been advanced unon thi H.mjk1ih-i.
j if carried into practical operation; would, in
my opinion, result disastrously to tiie pros
perity and heatilirul growth of our Stale and
our people. - 1 therefore deem it my duty i-.i
give'my reasons for the support of "this bh!
M did mil expect at this late day, and with
the experience, of iho last' fifty years to
guide usj to find a single geutleinau upon
Ibis floor advocating the doctrine of iree
trade in money leaving the la-.V open for
the-lender to rxaut such rates of interest as
the necessities of the borrower mi"bt die-
;tate. - Such, however, seems to be tiie
opinion of my honorable friend from Hamil
ton, the provisions uf whose hill are now
before me. I nm aware that to briixr alm.n
ecooomy " "nost uniformly been in favo
of this doctrine. Still, sir. exnerieuce has
shown the necessity of restrictions of some
kind lo protect the borrjwer from the ra
pacity of the money lender; and I um one
of those who believe that stringent usury
laws are the best protection the people can
have upon this ..subject.
The best argument in favor of iha, neces-
-sity of such laws, js the tact that we find
usury-laws in " every civilized country on the
globe; and I believe, With Ihe exception of
California, in very State of this Uniou. Sir,
this doctrine of free trade in money proceeds
upon the false idea that money, like other
proper')-, is uu article of inert ha ndis ;.
This was the great and fundamental error of
-j Mr. Benthain, who is the standard authority
witn the Iree traders upon tins question.
I Sir, money is not merchandise it is not an
article to be bought and sold like other pro
perty. It is the standard value by which all
other property is measured. Iih value is af
fixed by Government, and it is tha only le
gal tender for the payment of debts.
Therefore it is superior to, and independent
of, all other "kinds of property or merchan
dise, and the rules and reasonings that ap
ply to the doctrine of free trade in other
property" is not applicable to this. - '
- To illustrate this point, 1 quote from a
work written by the Hon. John Whipple, of
Providence, R- L, entitled "Free Trade in
Money, ot note shaving the great cause of
fraud, poverty and ruin ; stringent usury laws
the best deieiise ut -the ;". people ugalust hard
tunes. An answer to Jeremy Benthaiu."
Mr. Whilpple is a lawyer of gre at uge aud
experience. As a lawyer and profound
thinker he ranks among the ablest and
mos: accomplished iu New England.- The
work to which I now refer, was published in
the Bankers' Migizine, at the time it was
written, and received ihe mosl critical at
tention from all persons interested- in the
science of political economy. He says:
"Mouey exists only by, legislation; mer
chandise is the product of idividual labor or
private enterprise. M-iney is the legal
standard by which value is measured mer
chandise is that which is valued by the oiJ
of this standard. Money cs such, has no
intrinsic value; merchandise is sought for on
ly on account of its instrinsic value. Mo
ney is perpetual in its nature, and is design
ed for all tune; merchandise is temporary,
and adapted to special wants and made for
wear or consumption. Money is concen
trative centering in the keeping of a few;
merchandise is diffusive, being required and
consumed by many. Money is a legal cer-
'inta.ujraJrteemI is tranferabie for what
it represents; merchandise is the thing val
ued for what it is, or its uses. If money
; were merchandise as money, then a yard
s ick would be merchandise a sa measure, and
the cloth would measure the yard stick, as
much as the yard slick llie-clolh. If money
be merchandise, and a law be passed tu muke
it so, then all merchandise shall be made'
money, which would be a literal desiructiuu
of the invention if money. Money pays
a debt at Ihe will of the owner; but law re
cognizes no such power in merchandise.
Money as merchandise ceases
to be money; merchandise as money exists
nowhere t-xcept by legislation. Money ex
ists only as a relative agent for measuring
the value of other things; merchandise is
prized fur what it is in itself. Money is an
agent to promote want; mercandise supplies
waut. Money saves labor merchandise
sustains il. M jney makes 'the price; mer
chandise pays it. Money is borrowed and
loaned; merchandise is bought aud sold."
"Whatever may be said to the contrary,
these fundamental distinctions are universal
ly ackno w ledges; for what people are con
tent to borrow money on special terms of
security, all are earnest to sell inercliatidi.se
ou credit, and without seem ity. ; Pare Ris
ers of merchandise are politely solicited lo
buy; while borrowes of money are cere
moniously periniited to make their proposi
tions." I do not propose to labor this point aud
! take up the lime ol the Legislature, but
i .il,..!! niiii,.3i.!l f ii l,,,iu tliul u'liimi.'kr m 1,1 ill
. ' . ,.,. ,, hv , " .
i or wherever the doctrine of free trade in mow
, , . . i .i ...!. I.... ..I.......
iiev has been tested the result has always
. ,. . . , x.i. i
! been disaster, aud rum to the people. 1
. .. ., ,, ... ,..
i quote from the same aulhurry above ineu-
"Say informs us that in ancient limes
I i . i i
! " ,u,,r, 1 P.""-. nigner
j Wl're ", fJ,es' b,U ,,e 'he nu
I J"8l"y "t',,,,u"- -U J "
Iv fact he does state refutes Ihe whole pro
position, lie stys that letters patent are still
extant authorizing the Jews to touii at eighty-six
per cent. per. niiuiim. Here then is
the customary rate in that reign under free
trade system. Previous to I lie reign ol
Henry Vlll ihe ciKtomary TatesVcre forty
per cent. The taking of interest was thifii
denomin-tted ustirv. In the tiiiny-aeveiUii
of Henry VIII. the rales were eetb!i.-.hcd
'at ten percent. Tnev were reduced from
; . " I . - .
time- to lime, until the reign of Anne, when
they were established al iive per eent., and
hove so continued until iho present day. An
excess of that, rile, snlijecU the lender lo
the forfeiture of the d.-ut and an addition
al forfeiture of three time the amount.
According lo Say, these t'reat penalties
ought to have increased tho rates of inter
est. DuVhow is the fc'.! Why that peo-
pie have rou tunned to ilia rates ts llioy
were sueccsaiulfy reduced, and instead ot a
general increase, in wtta country of the
world , (except part of Holland) are the rote,
so low aJn Englandi" f ,'. ,' : '
I "Hindus tan, Mr. Uenftiaw aays.Ji's frpe
trade .country, and explicitly admirs'tbat Ijie '
.lowest rate there, are froci ten to. forty pr
cent The. usual rate, J belive, is abuut
.twenir. ; ;... ,; s
"In. Rhode Island virtual repeal of, those.
hvs ,iMk "pjace in 1617. , From thai., liinu
to, the present a gradual increase has taken
pHvr.vr--' .v.. ..
15374 JfJife of. New York .
trusted, -to the fallacious policy so often de
manded py money lenders, and found out by
ad experience that it w tetal to the indu- .
try of the people. At that time the Asseui- '
biy applied a remedy wliich coutinures to be
the law of the State, and is the most severe
of any of the United States against usury .
The usurer is liable to lose his whole debt, to
be fined a thousand dollars, and to be impris
oned six month. ,r ' '''-''
Iii a message of Gov. Clark to tbe Assem.-
! uiy iu Jauuury,' )355, he makes a very able
j and eloquent review of Ihe .whole subject.-
I quote briefly Irons li;a message. , , , . :
. ThaJ argument relied oyjn by .lite advo '
cates of repeat ; is that it will make money
cheaper. . But wherever litis experiment has
been tried in our country, the opposite pffeot
has b-'u-ii produced.. Kyt ii in our commeicial
metropolis, where are fourid-iliose wh are
o;ost strenuous uu this bi4'j c', that descrip,
tin ii of paper supposed tqbe exempted Iron
the taint of usury, can be aiegotiated outy
rates of interest v-tryiug from twelve to twen-r
ty-four per ceiit per uuntun. yUorrowing at.
this onerous rate leads io aim xt certain ruin.
It may Jw answered that only hi lime of,
pressure are Ihe rules so liigh. But what if,
the power o regulate the wit'ole question r-sid-s
with capitalists is to bring down tbe
rates! . What is to make money more plen-i
tilul and cheap, when those who poise it,
have to keep ii scarce .and dear!- There i
a given amount of capital among us seeking
iuvestuoeiit. If our laws rigidly prohibit (hp
taking of more lliaii the legul rate of m'-eir-
est, that capital would be available for alt
legitiiuals business purposes. If loom are.
made rulucintly. ul legal rules, it is becutuo
usurious ones muy be obtained through tlw
violutiou or evasion of the laws,. ,
But, sir, to come nearer home upon this
subject, lei me read a letter wriiteu by Hon. .
W. W. Wick, late member of Congress from
Indiana, and lormerly a Judge In one of the ,
Courts in that State. It presents a most,
vaU picture of the disasters that were
inflicted upon our sister State by the experi
ment of free trade in money. ,.
Washihgton, D. C, March 17, 4 -, .
Sir: Your note of inquiry is before nie- M
1 propose to leave for home this eveuing,
and my reply must necessarily be brief. - ,,-
-Iji Indiana the usury laws were repealed
twelve or tuurtm years ago, perhaps more,,
and were net re-instated for three or fovr-.
years. The frightful results of the repeat ."
were not iuuueadiaily developed.. Many -a
'stricken deer' retired to die in secret, tit
proud uiake known hia ruin, induced by tin '
own imprudence aud absence of legal pro ,
lection against il. Many were sold out of .
house aud home, ere public atteuiiun was
d rjcted to the aubj ct; but no so ner bad the
effects of the repeal been devdldpeJ, and bo-
come the ul j ;c t of public - discussion, and .
controversy, than anirresistable public opin-
ion called for usury laws. TUe firft step
was lo fix the irate of legal interest at sic . -per
pent, and to sanction contracts at ten
per cent. Iu two or three years the taking
of inure than six per cent was prohibited. - 1
"If I had time, I would be glad to make a .
sketch of the desolations left in ibe tract ,
of the usurer, during his belief reign in4Hoo-: -sier
lau d' I was Judge of one-of our circuit
ai the time, and was a 'shuddering witoea' t
la ifiese desolations. I have rendered jude-
inenl upon contract for payment of fifty
or seventy cents pec day or per week, for j
the loan of fifty oca huudreJ doWars, and in .
some instances the interest audjiad become.
mvire than ten titnea the amount oft ha prin .. , .
cipal. It is worthy of remark that tbe uu- -
rer rarely brought suit for his money, until
the accumulating interest bad swelled the
debt loin amount approximating closely the
value of the debtor's estate. Tbe usti-- .
rer, in the mean time, coveted and gloalei
over his daily or weekly -accumulation of in-
terest, and the debtor (poor fellow!) hveif
upon the hope of extrication through some
miraculous interveirion. f am convinced .
that in some instances they bad a aecrut
failh that ibe creditor cdVild not find it iubi
heart to demand the entire sum legally due, t
orFtlied upon private assurtuce from the credr .
itor t o a like effect. .
"Had the Legislature not interfered and
tied the hands of the spoiler, an - immense . .
iiinount of property would have "changed
hands in a few years. As it was, clerks in.
stores, vender of spirits by retail' Sic, in.
many iastances became wealliy, almost wuk- . ,
out caftitui of their own; and by tTte use, at
a limited interest, of the money of siine
friend who knew lliem well, and oul,l walih
over their operations; and to make tlntn
wealthy, a great number of small farm-,
ers owning in laud worth from va '
to fifteen hundred dollars were ruined, lit
many instances the ruin had not ' half dona
its work, when the estate of the borrov e
was engulfed. Discouraged, ashumed and
indignant, he eitier fled lo dissipation or be
came a win hater. I know many Anen of
excellent natural qualities, and much inclin-
ed lo be moral and gay,' who becunm hope
lesly demoralized or, uiisniitliropical. The
moral desolation created by tti absence of
usury laws will tell upon any community , lo
an extent almost infinitely beyond the meu
ruin of estates.
"To show that it is best to repeal usury
laws as an experiment, il is only necessary
to say, that the contracts made in Ihe yar
of the absence of sucb law s, could noi nat
urally devlop ih eir cunsequencos during,
that year to auy considerable cxteut. A
years pass away, the evil remit will devel
op themselves in a geometrical ratio. ' Ling
before they develcpe their lull" force and ef
fects, the community will demand usury "
laws, and the blighting curses of many a'
w ithered or aching heurt will folio h.e ad-"
vocates of their repeal lo their graven.. ,
In halt Your truly.
W. W. Wick-'
Another striking examples upon tbi tub- . v
ject is the history of Wjscosiii. But a few
vcars ago, and that young and beautiful S ate
reiving up in h'-r vast resource, and anxiou
to invite capital within her borders, repealed
all laws. upui the eulj .-ct of usury. Tliilher
tlocked'lhousaii ds ot human vultures anxiou
for their prey. For a time all went merry -as
a" marriage bell. Manxy was ploutyi
lauds c.imes rapidly into market ; the wilder
ness was made "to bloom aud bjso1n, lika
Ihe rosj." B'U lo! what a change!. Tli
Jay fur reckoning arrived. The people were
ill despair. Til--' land Was lilerly loaded
wi ll mortgages. Interest upon interest ac
I'tiuiiil.itcu -no mortal effort could pay the
frighlfu! ra'es agreed upon with the money
lenders, ant Wisc)ii-iu, tho young and gil
laul giant of the West,- l.-iy liku a alroiig
man hound. A cancer seemed caling out
her snhstuiice, ami di;sulaiin:i itl iu cory
corner ot litr border. From that terribl
struggle ht hi scarcely yei emerged, n.
niaify a brave lie. r. el son sank in the
L-st ihi may be called a fu.ny, picture, I, t
will call your alteniiuu to a lefer written,
by Hon. J. P. Walker," U. S. S.-nitor, up
on lliH stil-j.-ct;
"The arijiimeiit in favr of tbi policy
j was. that cumpetetioh in lh lo of money
: llm ralo of interest being unrestricted, would
; produce a great influx of capital to llie Stai.
! Il cer'ainly ha produced an influx '-of tn-Mt y,
' bul not of capital. The result is (and ia lo
tic.) that money b been freely In ken at .
j an intercut of iro n twenty to fi.ty per cent.
Tin" tnmiry loam-it was that of non-resident.
I Then taking the average of interest U be
I j.-a .w"15"
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