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IN CENTRAL AMERICA.
Another Interesting Letter from a gunny Land. Aa AMtent atone IU Impoctaoe la ; CUxurta Vp mm Htatorloal Coatro- ray Balne mt mm JLadent City low ' ' Bar Belle. I Special Correspondmoe. , lOopyrijthted, 1888.1 ftnB day following 1 . ((ZTfr my last lotter wo 'w, abandoned our oamn at Sun Lake, taking the trail down, its outlet, leading toward the foothills of a high range of mount ains running par allol with the east era coast line of Nicaragua. This was done with the double purpose of ascer taining tbo course of tho rivor, as woll as to visit a neighboring trlbo, who were accredited with the possession of a marvelous stono, termed by the fciamboa tQma xealpa, or stone from tho stars. Thoy bad so long dilated upon the virtues of this, wonderful stone un til we were resolved to find out more about ii Two days journey brought us to a beautiful series of cataracts, noar which was located tho village of the chief, or vita, in whose possession was the piedra antiffva, that bad been the occasion of so many miraculous tales. Wo first sent out interpreter, who was a Sambo himself, to ascertain if we would be permitted to view the studiously-guard-en relic He soon returned with the consent of the vita, and directed us to the thatched roof palace of the chlof tain. Before reaching it, however, two of the wise men had been apprised of what was going on and we found them in ani mated conversation with the chiof whon re reached his domicile. From the in terpreter we learned that they were try Jag to dissuade the tV from carrying out bis resolve to allow us to see tho stone, and were predicting that dire oa Umities would follow suoh a sacrilege. Just why the stone possessed suoh won derful interest we subsequently ascer tained, but the vrita finally dismissed his wise men, and with a very gruff de meanor Gstcrvdhis palace and bade us follow. On one side of the room we ob served a large object, covered with a grass-platted mat, and as there was no other convenient place I started to seat myself upon it while awaiting the wita't pleasure. But I was instantly caught by the chief, who, with numerous wild gestures, tried to inform mo that that was tho myBterious stone. Ho then pro ceeded to carefully uncover tho same Tin: 8TOKK. and displayed to view a quoorly-foraed stone, jagged upon one side and compar atively smooth upon the other, with certain fading, indistinct characters rudely curved upon its surface. At first nothing could bo made of these characters, but by brushing away an ac cumulation of dirt and carefully scan ning the wholo surface it was easy to observe letters and figures, written in slightly irregular form ovora spaco ol perhaps two feet square, for tho stone had a oiroumferonce of over nino feet and must have weighed about sewn hundred pounds. By tracing carefully the indentation and tho use of a small magnifying glass tho following was obtained: The inscription was very India tlnct,and the second word had also the appearance of "Murio." Translated from tho Span ish it moans: "Hero suffered (or was killed) the un fortunate Diego de Klouesa, April 5, 131L" As it aids materially in clearing up an important historical controversy wc stop hero to give the historical facte leading up to this connection: The fate of the famous Spanish navi gator, Nicuesa, has long been wrapped in mystery. Be was a- rich Spanish courtier, who had been given the gov ernment of Veragua, now comprehended . in the territory from Colon to Cape Grar.ios a Dios. Toward the close of the year 1510 he sailed for the new province with 085 men, and landed on the isthmus of Daricn, af U r experiencing untold priva tion, tho 1ok of two of his vessels in a storm and the stranding of tho other in one of the noxious inlets of the coast In a short while fever and Indians had reduced his force to seventy men. Throtiph th. rivalry and treachery of Vaco Nun; de Balboa, a mutiny ibl lowd, and the latter became Governor, forcing JCicuena to sea in a little boat with i.irioen companions, who were never afterwards heard from, except report that hostile Indians had pre vented them from landing at the month of the San Juan, the present site ol Grey town. It is quite natural to sup poM that thty continued up the eoasl toward Blcwfields Lagoon, in the bops of reaching a settlement at Oracle a ;os. Eat hunger and thirst must nave 1. 3 finally driven them ashore somewhere near the Lagoon, and in their weaic ana famished condition they became easy victims to tho warliko tribes that then and even now infest this part of the coast This brings us to the evidence above described as throwing long-deferred light upon this mystified part of the history of the early Spanish con quest It corresponds closely to the historical account of tho loss of Klouesa and party, who left tho Rio Bclcnon March 1, 1511. But how came this huge stono hero, over one hundred and twenty miles from the coast? Did Kienesa and party aban don their boat and penetrate the interi or? If not, how could such a large stone have been transported from tho coast, through rivers and over high mount ains, with no vehicle or other possibility than being dragged hero by the Indians? If the latter, why should such venera tion attach to the relic by the uncivil ized tribes who found it? These were the puzzling questions prompted by our discovery, which was not cleared away by the tradition that was repeated by the vita in whoso possession we had found it As near as couid be inter preted the tradition runs as follows: Tho vita indicated by a handful of sand that it was so many suns ago as the irralnn it contained. that his aiz (fore fathers) were oppressed and many of them murdered by strange men who came up out of the water, blew fire with their breath and carried thunder and lightning in their hands. They prayed to Jtinhika, their God, for deliverance, when a great niknik (earthquake) fol lowed and this stone was heaved from tho stars, and falling upon and rolling amid them destroyed tho strange men. From this circumstance it was called tilma valpa, or stone from the stars, and had been kept in the possession of the tribe ever since and guarded jealously by every generation. This tradition undoubtedly points to tho early Spaniards, as they wore the men "who came up out of the water," and their murdorous fire-arms, unknown at the time to the Indians, led them to think that the strange men blew fire with their breath and carried lightning in their hands. And in this country of frequent earthquakes it is quite likely that the day the Spaniards had died or were destroyed a niknik should occur and the finding of the inscribed stone near the same place was interpreted by their ignorant wise men as a stone of deliverance, hurled from the stars upon their enemies. Else the party had died of starvation about tho stone, where they had left this record of their fate and there they were found simultaneous ly with the appearance of an earthquake. In fact, it is known that throughout the tropical world many earthquakes oc curred during the early part of tho six teenth century. So that the tradition is founded upon fact with a strange ad mixture of superstition. While at this village we encountered in one of the huts a beautifully-chased antique bowl, and upt n inquiry found that it was obtained at an old ruin about one league distant We imme diately prepared ourselves, and under the direction of the native wore con ducted to the point Indicated, in a broad valley covered with a profuse growth of trees and vegetation. The ancient city was surely there. All about us wcro unmistakable evidences of what might once have been the scat of a grand and populous empire. Here and there wcro prostrate walls of ruined chambers, and anon a ruined bath or aqueduct all cov ered with vast forests of huge trees. re returned to the village after dark, determined to delay another day and visit tho ruins for closer Inspection. But the following morning was ushered in by severe rain-storms, which continued throughout the day. Despite this fact wo returned in the afternoon, and though working under great difficul ties, suocoeded in securing several mag nifioent archaeological specimens of vases, idols and other minor pieces. One of those was an idol about two feet high, representing a woman in a sitting posture, with the head turnod aside and a hideous forked tongue protruding from the mouth, with great elongated ears and an ugly visage, which gave it the ap pearance of a demon. The arms were held akimbo, originally holding some thing in the hands, which bad been broken away. A peculiarly designed necklace was carved about the neck and the body was made nude to the waist, where some sort of drapery was con structed. It was a very quaint specimen the duplication of which I have never seen in any collection in the States, and It will so doubt prove an interesting study for modern antiquarians. Among other specimens obtained at these ruins are a number of ancient designs or molds, corrugated with figures of frogs, snakes, turtles and animals, as well as queer-looking hieroglyphs. Some of the articles are made of stone and others of clay, hardoned by fire. The appear ance of the ruins, the pillars and broken colonades are carved after the style of the Aztec ruins of Yucatan and Guatemala, and can no doubt be traced to some branch of that migratory nation. A. J. Mn.T.KB. All He Could rromlM. Dunn When can yon settle this ac count Mr- Short? Short Oh, come around next week. Will you pay me then?" I can't promise that exactly; but 1 ean tea yoa tnen wnen to come ajpua. Epoch. No, Gkobg. an Irish shawl is not a Mlkerobo, and is not, therefore, danger ous to the woarac. AGRICULTURAL HINTS. MAKING STONE DRAINS. tone, Doing Impertehable, I the Bet of AU Material for Drain. There are several ways of making permanent drains of stono; each of these depends upon the kindof stone to be used. Stones differ very much In their form; the best kind is the hard slates and gnclssold rock, which consist of flat pieces which can easily be split or broken, and of such a tcxturo tnat tney will not soften or break down under the action of water. The drains of stone should not be less than ten or twelve inches in width and made round in the bottom bo that the water channel may bo kept In the middle, and the cutting out of the sides of the ditch will be avoided. Then no. L with the fiat stones the manner of build in? the dam will be as follows: A Btono- breaking hammer of six or eight pounds' weight will be required, and with this the stones are broken into long narrow strips as noarly equal in width and thickness as possible. Those pieces aro placed lengthwise along the sides of the ditch and firmly bedded so that tho tops are even with each other, and they will not fall inward. Flat pieces are then trimmed so as to fit across the ditch and lie firmly upon the side pieces as shown in Fig. L This leaves a free channel for the water, with plenty of room at tho sides for it to percolate into the drain. Tc cover the top joints so that earth will not drop through, all the fragments are thrown into the ditch upon the cross pieces, and if there is plenty of stone to spare the ditch may be partly filled up to within a foot of the surface, so as not to Interfere with the flowing. It is then filled with the earth taken out in the digging. A drain made in this way at the foot of a high slope to cut off the water from a piece of creek bottom which was a useless marsh nearly thirty rears ago is still discharging a large and continuous stream of pure clear water; it is an underground brook, in fact snd works a hydraulic ram, which has delivered water at the house and barn to supply all needs since it was made. The round stones need a different method. These should be laid in such a manner as to wedge them in the bot tom of the ditch in the manner shown in Fig. 2, and throwing other Btones no. 2. on the top to wedge the upper stone firmly in its place, and then lining in with small stone. This upper filling is important for otherwise the capstone may be moved sldewise ana one enne bottom ones fall out or place, in taking Tin a atone drain which had become choked it was found that by neglect of this, or by the wrong doing oi it tne drain had collapsed in many places, and the carelessness of a workman with the neglect of the employer to oversee and direct the work properly caused an ex pense for repair which was more than twice the necessary original coat of the work. i With all these drains, as the earth covering is not more than a foot thick, the surface water should be kept from sinking directly Into thorn, by which the soil would be washed down into the drain. To prevent this the soli should rounded on the surface and kept so, if it is possible, by plowing the land ...a a .9 - suitably; at least tnis snouia do uono ior a few years, until the earth becomes wiT.an1ld-.tAd and firm. It is a good plan when a field has been drained to seed it with grass for a few years. The grass does well on newlv-drained land, and if it has been very wet it will require this time for the water to find its way to the rinina from the intermediate ground; after which the land will be full of small waterways and quite spongy, so that the heaviest rain wui Bins: at onoe i.mv anil and find its way into the drains in a very short time, often not longer than tares or lour ooura, su . Times ABOUT MANURE. The Relative Vain of Hon and Cow Manure DUeaued. Taking loth horses and cows as they aro generally kept on the farm, the manure from the former will W tn most valuable. I do not feel, however, like dropping the subject, says a con tributor to tho Breeder's Gazette, with such a brief answer, for there should be a reason ariven for the answer when pos aihln. and If one will onlv follow UP the auhfrat onenod bv this Question be will gain light upon one oi tne most impor d tant topics that can bo considered on tho farm. To begin at the beginning, we should bear in mind that there can only pass from our cattle what has been given to them, and that all of tho ele ments in the manuro must have been supplied in tho food. As wo may sup pose thai; foods vary in amounts oi zer tilizlnir clemonta thev carry with them. we may hold it as correct that the kind of food given to our farm animals gov erns the kind of manure we get from them. This is the basic principle to be borno in mind in considering the sub ject The three elements of fertilizers that we care for are nitrogen, phos phoric acid and potash. Of our feeding stuffs, grains and concentrated foods like cotton-seed meal and oil-meal con tain the createst amount of these three fertilizing constituents, and straw con tains tho least Starch and woody mat tor are not fertilizing elements in them selves. The next noint tobe borne in mind ii that each animal wo feed appropriates to itself of the elements of fertility in accordance with its nature and wants, so that if we supply the rame amount of feed to different animals we will not get exactly the same amount of fertility in the excrement of each. A little reflec tion will point out the reason for these differences: A grown horse, which does not increase in weight but each day wears out as much of his body in labor as was bulit un bv the food, must evi dently givo out in tho excrement all the fertilizers In the food supplied mm. The colt, or a horse gaining in weight evidently retains some of theseelements in the body, as they go to help make up the increased weight A cow giving milk transfers some of the nitrogen to the milk in the shape of caseino, and Borne of the potash and phosphoric acid in the shape or asn; tneso are xor me bulldinir un of the musole and bone of her calf. Evidently, then, the excre ment of the cow giving milk does not contain all of the fertilizing elements supplied In the food, since a portion ol them Is carried off in the milk. Sheep require nitrogen, potash, etc., for the wool and the yolk that accompanies it, so that tho manure of sheep, also, does not quite contain all of the fertilizing material In the food. Fattening steers train In weight but the increase is almost wholly tallow, and there is not nitrogen, phosphoric acid or potash in that so the steer gives practically all of the fertilizing ele ments in his excrement The growing pig, like the young of other animals, takes out of the food fertilizing ele ments for his frame and muscle, but when grown takes out very little, for the same reason that the fattening steer takes little. In all cases, bow ever, the amount of fertilizing elements extracted from the food by our farm an imals ia less than most would suppose. The bulk of the food consumed is made up of carbo-hydrates, which are burnt up in the body or converted into fat and earbo-hvdrates are valueless as manure. Wo may allow that growing animals take out something like ten per cent of tho fertility from tho feed, while milch cows take out from twenty to twentv-flve per cent o nave, tnen, a second proposition to be borne in mind, viz.: That the amount of fertility taken out of tho food varies from nothing with animals that gain nothing in welgnt, such as work horses and irrown cattle, up to milch cows, which place" from twenty to twenty-five per cent, oi ine fertilizing elements in the milk. With such small losses as these we see at once that rich manure depends mainly upon rich feed, and we begin to understand why It is that Enirllsn rarm- era buy so much of our oil-cake to feed instead of corn, when we learn that a ton of oil-cake contains about ninety nounda of nitrogen, twenty-nine pounds of potash and noarly forty pounds of phosphoric acid, while a ton ox corn con tains only thirty-three pounds of nitro gen, seven of potash and twelve of phosphoric acid. Eastern iarmers Duy nitrogen at about sixteen cents a pouna, notash at three and one-half or foui cents and phosphoric acid at seven cents, and pay out millions oi aoiian annually for commercial fertilizers con taining these elements. The third important point to be re membered is that a large part of the for tuity ia in the urine. In a general way it is fair to estimate that three-fourthf of tho fertilizing elements under consid eration are in the liquids and only one fourth in the solid excrement This be ing true no space need be occupied in showing the importance oi saving w liquid part of the manure. On of the mistakes in setting hard- shrubs and roses is that the plants arc often set too deep. As a rule the best plan is to set about as deep as tney grow in the nursery, taking care always w that the soil is well filled in around thi roots. Tnx teeth of animals need more at tention than they often get It asemi to be the common belief that dlsoaat never attacks the teeth ol animal, HOME HINTS AND HELPS. Lamp wicks give a bettor light whon cut squarely across. They should not be picked off as some advocate. Matches should never be placed noar any article of food or seasoning in a closed space, as it will become tainted with the fumes. Oyster Sandwich. Split the crack ers and butter, them; lay oysters be tween: salt and eenner: butter. Bake five minutes. Toledo Blade. Sago, rice, tapioca and every thing of that kind can be kept to advantage in glass jars; thus the contents can be easily ascertained, no dust can get into it snd the jars take up but little space. In making sheets, single width cloth is more economical to uso than double. When partly worn the former can be ripped apart and the outer edges seamed together, thus obtaining very decidodly more wear from them than you other wise would. Geraniums are not to lie recommend ed if you have very warm windows. In cool situations, with sunlight they are satisfactory; but a tall, spindling geran ium plant wiih leaves only at the end of the stalks, is any thing but ornament al. American Agriculturist Broiled Oysters. Take large, fat oysters; lay them on a board, dry, and season with salt and a little oayenne pepper; have the gridiron very hot; lay the oysters first in melted butter and then on the gridiron; let brown on one Bide and turn; take up in a boated dish on which is melted butter.' Boiling water sh ould not be poured over tea trays, japanned goods, etc, as it will make the varnish crack and peel off: have a sponge wet with warm water and a little soap, if the tray be very dirty, and rub it with a cloth; if it looks smeary, dust on a little flour, then rub it with a cloth. If the tray gets marked take a piece of woolen cloth with a little sweet oil and rub on the marks. House hold. The caudy-cating habit Is quite prevalent among children, and to a considerable extent among older per sona It is not a harmless indulgence, as many seem to think. It is a cause of much ill-health among children, and the predisposing cause of many acute attacks of disease of various kinds. Much dvBoepsia. indigestion and many bilious attacks are directly or indirect ly due to candy-eating. Bleed Potatoes. Boil a dozen pota toes till they are just done; drain off the water; mash them in tne pot tin everv lumn is gone. Then add half a cup of boiled milk, a large, heaped tablespoonful of butter and a ta Die spoonful of salt Beat the potatoes now with a wooden spoon till they are Ugh I and creamy, and pass them as lightly a possible through a colander into the dish in which they are to be served. Set them on the side of a hot oven for five minutes to be touched with brown and serve. They may be browned with a salamander or a red-hot shovel. FASHIONS OF THE HOUR. Noreltle In Elegant Drr AeeMorlea and Brlc-a-Brac. Bisoue figures, beloved by Mme. Fompadour, are popular for boudoirs. Prlncesse skating dresses maae en tirely of fur are stylish, elegant and very expensive. For the work-box of carved silver a gold thimble may be addod, the cost of which would almost pay a montn s rent in a brown-stone front ' Knanleta annear to be anite as much a feature of fashion as ever, many of the new stvles standing like wings or an ftf w aureole on each shoulder. Prince of Wales plume fans in pale ninlf. preen, custard and cream, frosted. silvered and crystal sprinkled, are again displayed in the ball-room ana opera box. Letter racks for ladies' desks are ahown in antioue oak strapped with blackened brass, in silvor-bound bird's eye maple and In bright gilt in the flow ing Florentine design. The rioh corded silks with satin luster, the superb pompadour satin bro cades and the Victoria silks, with wide stripes of velvet or embossed satin, are used for the straight skirts, undraped and unadorned, that are in special favor this winter. Simula articles of wear that are genuine are always a far better choice than imitation of the richest A mere tricious style never commands admira tion, and inferior goods quickly betray their quality. Best material and long wear is the rule for those wnose means are limited. The maouech bog. with bis harness of flna cold and diamond-headed pin, is again in tho market waiting to be trans ferred to the corsage or some princes of fashion. The insect is short-lived. bat his trappings- are beautiful, and after Yielding up his life they are at tached to a bouquet brooch. Skirts on both day ana .evening dresses are very simple in appearance, but never required more careful shap ing and adjustment All elaboration is centered on the bodice, but to achieve artistic and really elegant results both skirt and bodice must be cat and ar ranged with great care and taste. Tufts of white or tinted feathers worn in the hair are quite the rage in coiffures arranged for full-drees occa sions. Kext to the wearing of jeweled pins and other gem-act ornaments, this is the most popular style, and this airy plumage now waves in barbarlo splen- dor above my lady's bead, who, because it is a mode; adopts it regardlosa of the type of her countenance. St, Louis Republic