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LOWS LABOR LOST.
The Beginning" and End of the Chi oaffo University. Vim to Which Stephen A. DoaglM' Gift to Chicago Hay Como Tho Little Giant and Hla Weighty 80a. Special Cbloago Correspondence. The name and fame of Stophon A. Douglas aro closely identified with the growth and development of the State of Illinois and the city of Chicago. The -"Little Giant," who, born in 1813 in "Vermont, and early apprenticed to the trade of cabinet-making, was compelled to educate himself, always had a loving .sympathy with struggling young men; and prompted by this fooling he was easily persuaded to contribute a portion of his possessions toward the foundation of a university in Chicago. How he ac cumulated his wealth is a matter of his tory. Ill health compelling him to give up the trade for which his parents had intended him, he studied law in Canan Wlaigua, N. Y., and in 1833 came West, .settling at Jacksonville, 111. His tal ents were quickly recognized and ap preciated by the progressive people of Illinois, who made him Attorney-Goner-ral before he had reached the age of twenty-two. In 1840 he was elected Secretary of estate, and in 1841 was appointed Judgo of the State Supreme Court. Two years later he entered Congress, where ho aoon becme conspicuous for his views on the Oregon boundary question, and "his eloquent advocacy of the annexation of Texas. In 1853 he became noted throughout the world as the author of the bill for the organization of the Ter ritories of Kansas and Nebraska, which, as is well known, brought about a revo lution in the political parties of the United States and played a most impor tant part in bringing the slavery ques tion to a crisis. In 1852 and again in 1856 he was an unsuccessful candidate lor tho Presidency, two blows from which he never entirely recovered and whioh probably led to his premature death in 1S01. While at the heisrht of his political flory, and while being in the regular re ceipt ot a large income derived from successful real estate spec ulations, the statesman was, in 1855, visited by Eev. Dr. J. C Burroughs, then a promi nent Baptist clergyman of Chicago, at his mf j home. The 'fir f worthy doctor IV laid his plans for a ujJversity SE5ATOR DOUGLAS. Jn be. lore Senator Douglas, who at that time owned a large tract of land fronting on -Cottage Grove avenue, near Lake Michi gan. Dr. Burroughs was anxious to have the institution placed under Bap tist control, but to this Douglas object ed. Six months later, however, he re treated from his position and gave the land to Dr. Burroughs individually -with the understanding that the board of control of the university Bhould be composed of no more than a majority of .gentlemen of the Baptist denomination. Dr. Burroughs thon raised subscrip tions amounting to $225,000, and in 1859 the erection of the grand, but scarcely -practical, structure, a picture of which accompanies this article, was begun. Dr. Burroughs, the prime mover in the enterprise, was elected president of the Institution, and established as high a .-standard of study as that pursued in the .New England universities. The people, however, suffering from "the consequences ot the financial de pression of 'A7 and '53, and the civil war were unable to support the col lege, and, at the close of Dr. Burroughs' administration in 1878, the property -was mortgaged to the Union Mutual Life Insurance Company to the amount of three hundred thousand dollars. Dr. Burroughs was suooeeded in the presi- WrrfllW. f; Mil U I M m m m it M m :3 CHICAGO TJ3TVEB8ITY. ' dency by Eev. Lemuel Moss, Eon. JUonso Abernethy and Be-. Galusha An--derson, but none of them succeeded in .lightening the financial load. Finally : the university was abandoned, and the 'property passed into the hands of the Union Life Insurance Company, whose gents are now engaged in tearing down the historical college building. Thus, a charitable work, whioh should xave forever perpetuated the memory of Stephen A. Douglas in the hearts of tfce 'Western people, was wrecked by the financial vicissitudes of a war -which he had so earnestly desired to .prevent, and, had it not been for the disinterested efforts of his countless ad mirers, nothing in the shape of a last ing structure would remain to remind -coming generations of one of the great st of W estern statesmen. Thanks to the efforts of these men. however, a grand monument, whioh cost, with the ground about it, $97,000, was dedicated in the city of Chicago August 18, 1881, twenty years after it was orig inally proposed. This monument was designed by Leonard W. Volk, the fa mous Boulptor. Around the main shaft, whioh is 95 feet 9 Inches nign, sur mounted bv a heroic statue of Stephen A. Douglas, gazing over the waters of 1 Lake Michigan, are four allegorical fig ! gures, representing Justice, History, Eloquence and Illinois, eacn on a sepa rate nedestaL In bas relief around the base are groups depicting the advance of J civilization. The Dase is octagonal, w feet in diameter. On one side is this in- WW DOUGLAS MOJTCMEST, scriptlon: "Stephen A. Douglas. Born April S3. 1813; died June 8, 1861. 'Tell my children to obey the lawB and up hold the constitution.' " Stephen A. Douglas left two sons. Robert and Stephen A., Jr. The lattei has 6inco 1879 mado Chicago his home, and has, at different times, appeared in the role of politician. Unlike his fathor, who was a Democrat to tho backbone, young Stephen is a strong Eepublican. Born November 3, 1K50, in the family home of his mother in North Carolina, he received a thorough education at Georgetown College, and subsequently supervised his mother's estate, consist in ir of several plantations in North o -- , Carolina. Missis sippi aiia Texas. In 1870, before he was twenty years old, he was made chairman of a Eepublican conn- .ty delegation 10 the State conven tion, and subse- oucntlv became ditor-in-chlef of Stephen a. dououls, jn. the Ealeigh Standard, the organ of the Eepublican party in North Carolina. In the same year he was appointed Adjutant-General of the State, and in 1873 became a Presidential elector. Four years later the party honored him again in a simi lar way. Arriving at Chicago in 1879 he began the practice of law, and was, the follow ing year, elocted in company with the famous Long John "Wentworth, a Grant delegate, to the Eepublican National convention, from which the two men mentioned, together with sixteen other Illinois delegates of the same faction, were expelled. Since that time young Douglas has devoted his politloal talents to stump-speaking, but has not yet succeeded in securing a reward for his labors. Of personal appearance the namesake of the Little Giant has no reason to be proud, unless he might happen to run across an admirer of short stature and a mass of adipose tissue. Vulgarly speaking, Stephen A. Douglas, Jr., is fat, so fat in faot that his eyes have hard work to peep out into the world. Be has, however, a great name and has inherited some of his father's eloquence, so that what na ture has denied him is more than bal anced by what his ancestry has given him. The name of Douglas will forever be honored in Chicago, and, for that mat ter, throughout the West.- Still it is to be regretted that the grand gift of a great man to the cause of American edu cation is to be parceled out among real estate speculators and that where once was a seat of learning may in a few months stand two or throe beer saloons and gin shops. But then the ways of Providence are inscrutable, and kicking against the pricks is a useless occupation. G. Wir.IimXBT. gho Acknowledged Her Igaoraaco. Mrs. Gullible Do you know, deaf John is just as boyish in his feelings as he ever was. Mrs. Kawler Indeed? Mrs. Gullible Yes; why, it was only last night I heard him talking in his a.hout aeeinir the elephant The dear fellow has doubtless been to the circus. Lawrence American. The CmoM or HI Internet. Bagley See how interested Judge Tooley is in the play. Dailev Well, if any one la interested in the performance he ought to be. Bagley Why, did he write tne piayT Bailey No, but seven of the ladies in the company graduated from his diTorcs court. Jtdfe. FARM AND GARDEN. PRETTY SPICY, THIS. gomo Reflection, and Conclusion. Upon Modes of Judging Swlao at rain. A Iloosler correspondent of the Breed er's Gazette says: Borne four or five years ago the writer exhibited hogs at the Kokomo, Ind., fair, at which some very funny things happened. A Poland China breeder then living in that city was selected to make the awards, using the score-card (which was new to the writer), lie walked into the ring, pen cil in hand, and after some apparently hard labor and considerable time suc ceeded in getting a hog scored up in the nineties somewhere. After that he got along more easily. He kept bis first card and always referred to it before setting down a number on the next card. The writer being of an inquisitive nature asked him why he referred to his first card always before he put down the next number. Ills answer was: "Oh, that card is my base to score by." The answer being entirely too satis factory I asked no more questions on the subjeot at that time, but incidentally remarked that the hog he was trying to score would mako a very good base for his operations. The next day the superintendent went back to the old pod-auger plan of three men to award the sweepstakes prizes, all breeds being shown together. The three men selected came walking down the aisle, and among them I recog nized a very tall, slender old man with small black eyes, long, sharp nose, and very thin, sharp features. The super intendent called us up and pointed out the committee and asked if all were satisfied. I remarked that I should have to object to the old man for the reason that I had heard him say that he would not give a Berkshire hog a sweepstakes premium over a Poland China under any circumstances, "he didn't care a d n how good the Berk shire was, or how 'ornery' the Poland Chine was." My objection was con sidered a reasonable one and the old man was excused and another selected in his place. All went well until they came to the last class, where there wore three pens of five pigs, two Poland-Chinas and one Berkshire. On these the committee tied, each choosing a pen for the prize. Two other men were called and they decided to divide the prize equally among the three, as they could not tell which was the best. Now came the old man and said: 'Til tell you where that premium ought to go." "All right, tell us, Uncle George," replied several, lie walked up to a pen and asked: Whose are these?" "E. Ss," he was answered. "Whose are these?" "w. aL's." "And who owns these?" "G. J." "Thar's (using as many oaths as could possiblv be inserted into that amount of talk) whar the rfbbon ought to go!" Then I oonoluded that if the egotism and prejudice were taken out of that man the first gentle breeze that wafted by would blow what was left into the far beyond, where the worm dleth not and the whangdoodle mourneth for cranks. PALMER'S BROODER. An Excellent Brooder Which Any On It at Liberty to Make. Mr. B. C Palmer, Water Mills, N. Y., sends to Farm and Fireside the plans of a brooder which he bas used over three years. It is very simple, and not patented. He says: "The chicks never crowd. Two brooders kept a house 12x HO. 1. BECTIOXAL VIEW OT PAXUEB'S BROODER. 16 warm enough during the blizzard of 1888. I raised 166 chicks in one brooder 8K feet square." Fig. 1 is a sectional view, A being the lamp and B the inside back of the brooder. C is a yellow pine floor, which slides in or out, for cleaning, and is al ways kept well covered with sand. B is a board run, adjustable, and which may be lowered when the chicks are large enough to run on the floor. K is the opening between brooder and run. 8 8 S are air-holes. Fig. 2 shows the outside back. A is the lamp, and F F stove-pipe, 4X lnohes diameter, capped and perforated at tin. X OUTSIDE BACK OF PALUER'S BROODER. ends, which holds the heat, yet permits of the escape of gas and odors. H is a stove-pipe tube, leading from the lamp, and also shown la Fig. 1. The run, reaching up to the egress K, is feet broad and 3 feet long, sur rounded with a light lath or wire fence, to confine the chicks for a week or ten days. Then, the legs being removed, it forms an incline to the floor of the brooder-house. The advantages of this brooder are: First Simplicity in manufacturing and cleaning Second No crowding; even heat: no draughts; always warm; .no leg weakness; no louse-breeding top othe A FARM-YARD GATE. It Open. Either Way aad Is DmrmbU, EaiUy Mado aad Convenient. The illustration, a sketch of which is taken from the American Agriculturist, is a simple double gate frame, made to open either way, and closed in the fol lowing manner: Midway between tne gates is a short post firmly driven in the ground or mortised into the ground silL on both sides of which is a large but- ton," as shown in engraving. These "buttons" are fastened to the post by a small iron bolt with head and nut and washers, and turn with some difficulty. When the gate is to be opened either way turn the "button" vertical on the side toward which the gate is to be opened, and both gates are at once free to open that way only. Near the lower and outer corner of each gate is a contrivance for keeping the gate in position after it is opened, which may be used to help keep it firm when closed. It 'consists of a small piece of timber as broad as tho gate frame and about an inch and a half in thickness, through which is an auger hole; and in this is the cylindrical piece, which should be pointed on its lower end. It then passes through an auger- finnan n nn ft n ft ft ft ft mr mi iniK ( KJ u u u u u mtiaaa "uuul)ll A SECURE FARM-YARD GATE. hole in tho lower horizontal piece of the gate frame. When the gate is open suf ficiently wide the iron-shod peg is stuck down in the earth and the gate is thus held in position. Both gates are furnished with this device. ' Planting Can. The best way to plant wheat is with a wheat drill. Cane and wheat grains are about the same size and ought to be planted about the same depth and in the same way. The theory seems plausible. Practice confirms it With this theory before me I took to using the wheat drill, stopping all the drill holes except the two which were the right distance apart, to give the proper space between rows. This used about ten pounds of cane to the acre, while two pounds is enough. Ilence, I had my cane too thick just what I wanted. As soon as the sprouts peeped through the earth I harrowed with a straight-tooth harrow across the rows, filling up the furrows left by the drill, thus giving a greater depth of earth, which is what it needs. I repeated the harrowing in the same way about once a week until the cane was sufficiently thinned by the harrow. I then plowed very close to the row, sinking long bull tongues far beneath the roots. Each subsequent plowing was further from the row. I laid it by with bar shares. This method has the following ad vantages: 1. The cane can be planted with less labor. 2. It is quicker. 8. It secures a good stand. 4. It saves hand- thinning, hoeing and Baves time. 5. It secures a larger yield than if planted in hills. By this method a crop ot cane can be raised with less time, money and labor than a crop of corn, i have tried it many years and know. W. L. Ander son, Montgomery County, Ind. Confining' Cows. An Englishman who keeps his cows confined points out certain unfortunate results in his herd, that might be ex pected ot course in cows that are kept confined. It is not worth while to give the particulars of his complaints in re gard to the failure of his cows, as the main point we wish to make is that cows that are confined are compelled to vio late natural laws and are likely to suffer disastrous consequences. The cow is always better free, except when the con dition of the weather forbids. She needs purer air that she gets in the vast ma jority of cases when confined, but if ventilation is perfect enough to furnish her all the pure air Bhe needs, she needs exercise. No cow ever yet took too much exercise unless she was being chased by the pesky dog or clubbed by the pesky boy. Thero is no use in talk ing, the importance of exercise for cows is not appreciated. Western Rural. To ractea Hogs. Experiments have proved that hogs do mnch better when fed corn and mid dlings mixed instead of separately. Potatoes do not make good pork when fed alone. It middlings and boiled po tatoes are fed mixed the water should always be poured off beforehand. A neighbor who fed a great many cooked potatoes to his hogs valued them at twenty-five cents per bu$heL They act as an appetizer and hogs are very par tial to them. If the hogs are kept in a pen I would advise that the potatoes be fed sparingly, but if allowed to get grass they may be used in larger quantities, as the grass will supply elements that the potatoes lack. As killing time draws near corn should be used to fatten 08 with, but odbked potatoes may still be used in limited quantities with mid dlings. Farm and Home. The hog should have pure, freak water, something that the animal some times never gets. The man who drinks beer instead of water is not consulting his own best interests, and the hog that drinks slops all the time does not sat isfy nature. Slops and w we about the same. MENDING AND DARNING.' A Task That Is Kot as Kasllr rorforssos! as Many boom to xataa. - In mendinff irloves let the silk match. the color as nearly as possible, and over seam for a rip; for a tear, button-hole) stitch closelv around the edjres of the hole once, twloe, or thrice, as the size of the hole may demand; then join to gether with button-bole stitches, thus filling up the bole and strengthening the edges 01 tne rent. When darnlnr stocklnjrs leave a smau lflon at each end of the thread, for the stocking will stretch and the thread will not. and in filling up do so cioseiy. but not heavily, taking up and leaving; alternate threads. A good deal may be saved by cutting down lor cnuaren s use silk and lisle thread stockings which, their elders have outworn. Where this is done the seams should be sewed up by hand, for the sewing-mac nine cut the threads and they break away very soon. When shirt bosoms '.break stitch sv narrow linen tape down the yielding, seam on the right side; or, if the bosom l in several nlalts. line the front from armbole to armbole and darn the breaks. Before doing this have all the starch, washed out or the darning will be a ou ficult matter. Never use strong, new cotton cloth for patching old linen; worn cloth is best, or cheap, thin, do mestic cloth with the starch washed! out When the cuffs rub out at the edges turn them in and stitch neatly on the sewing-machine. When the neck-bands break put on new ones; a ragged neck band, stiffly starched, is absolute tort ure to the wearer. Sheets wear thin first in the middle; to mend them, tear them down the center, and stitch the outside edges up together with a flat seam, then patch and hem in the tors sides. If very badly worn, take out the middle part altogether; making either one sheet for a single bed or two tor a crib. When pillow cases begin to split make new ones and take the old ones for clean rags, always needed in household. Never throw swsy a scrap of flannel or linen. Have the starch washed out of the latter, and keep both where they may be easily got at in case of sickness. If your supply grows unnecessarily large for the needs of your own household, the hospitals will be glad of all you can spare. Darn table linen as neatly as possible, with fine linen thread: and when table cloths are past mending cut them down into tray cloths or napkins for common use. Worn-out napkins are useful only as old linen. When merino underwear breaks, darn it as you do stockings, and bind anew with flannel binding when edges fray. The worn edges of coat 6leeves are best bound with coat bind ing; the bottom of pantaloon-legs should be turned in on both edges, basted and neatly overseamed. In mending dresses a great deal de woman. A bit of trimming may easily serve as a patch upon oecasion. Thus, a puff around the elbow may eover up a hole in an ornamental way; or a deep cuff may serve the same purpose lower down. A plastron will cover a worn, front, and so on. When you darn a rent in cloth or cashmere dampen and press the darn when done; indeed, mending of all kinds is improved by careful pressing. Home. THE REAL GENTLEMAN. Wherein Ho Differs from tho Baob aad tho Parrena. To a sensible woman a gentleman ought to be the equal of any one that wears a title, no matter what his rank or what his nation. To be a thorough gentleman is to be that which neither money nor estates nor insignia can buy. It is peculiarly a birthright It is in herited in the blood and sure to make its appearance, even under the most un propitious conditions. There is a sort of false gentility that is soon acquired and is affected by that snobs and the parvenus that have sud denly acquired riches. But this is very cheap devioe in comparison with the genuine article. No one can be de ceived by the counterfeit, because the mars. 01 a roai itoubuu uuv. uv, mvu. consist of entering a drawing-room, gracefully or of making a bow in the proper form. These accomplishments may be necessary in order to help one to fix his position in polite society, but they are really nothing compared te thoao rraoea of miad. manner and morale I that a true gentleman Is sare te possess. is one that adheres closely to the spirit of the wise utteranoes of the Saviour: "Therefore, all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them." A strict following ot this golden precept is infinitely better for the individual and society than alt the finished bowings and scrapings nnder the sun. Baltimore Sun. Why She Was Bappy. "Oh, I think it's lovely to be married, said young Mrs. Tocker to the lady cm. whom she was calling, "especially whea you have a husband who is not afraid to compliment yon." "What does your husband say? "He said yesterday that I was getting to be a perfect Xantlppe." "AXantippe! Do yon know who she wasf "Oh. yes; X asked Charley a? t?rwarJ, and he told me she was the t&Llssa it youth and beauty. Merchant Traveler. Van Walker "Ah, old man, bought a new horse?" Van Eider Tee; epir- . lted creature, don't you think so?" Vaa Walker IIe is certainly a rm-lzJi' iiij beast.' Uuuspjb Wetl!j.