OCR Interpretation

The Butler County press. [volume] (Hamilton, Ohio) 1900-1946, September 18, 1914, Image 1

Image and text provided by Ohio History Connection, Columbus, OH

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045012/1914-09-18/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

l*v. j^-: 'o
£^ir m-X,
V" *»','
VOL. XIV. NO. 23
How Persistency Under Great Difficul
ties Finally Achieved Success.
Growth of the Association—Wages
and Benefits.
The Amalgamated Association of
Street and Electric Railway Employees
of America was organized In 1802, but
the panic of 1893 practically swept
it out of existence, writes William D.
Mahon. president, in the American
Federation's^. In 1H04 there were not
over 2.0(H) members in good standing.
During the year 1897 the organization
began to advance slowly In member
ship, until today we have throughout
the United States and Canada 207 lo
cal organizations in good standing and
perfect working condition. One hun
dred and eighty-eight of these local di
visions have written working agree
ments with the various companies of
the United States and Canada, and the
other divisions are working upon vol
untary and in written understanding.
These written agreements specify
wages, hours of labor and working
conditions. They also provide for ar
bitration as a means of settliug dis
The association now has two publi
cations—the Motorman and Conductor,
a monthly publication that is circulat
ed to all the membership outside of
the city of Chicago in the city of.Chi
cago the association publishes a week
ly publication known as the Union
Leader, and the joint circulation of
the two publications Is over 120,000
per month.
The work of the organization In the
way of wages and working conditions
has been, when we consider every
thing surrounding the occupation,
very successful. The maximum wage
at the time of organization was about
14 cents an hour, the minimum run
ning as low as 8 cents. Today the
maximum received by our member
ship under contract is 45 cents au
hour. The minimum ranges about 23
cents per hour. The majority of our
members receive between 25 and 30
cents an hour. At the time of the
formation of our organization the
hours of labor were from a minimum
of twelve to a maximum of eighteen
hours a day, the average workday be
ing about fourteen hours. At the pres
e»t time the hours run from a mini
mum of eight to a maximum of twelve.
On the interurban and suburban lines
the workday for motormen and con
ductors is from eight to nine hours,
while in city service the great majori
ty of the men are working from eight
to ten hours a day, the maximum not
exceeding twelve. The great majority
work nine hours a day. On a great
many of the systems time and a half
to double time is paid for overtime.
The report ol' the oflicers at the last
convention, held at Salt Lake City in
September, 1913, showed that the in
crease in wages for our membership
for the year from Sept 1, 1912, to Aug
31, 1913, had been $5,0150,070. The or
ganization has established death, dis
ability and old age benefits. For the
two years from Sept. 1, 1911, to Aug
31,1913. there was paid out by the in
ternatlonal organization in death and
disability benelits $208,150. During
the six months from Aug. 1, 1913, to
Jan. 31, 1914, there was paid out in
death and disability benetits $73,938
In addition to this amount paid by the
international organization the local di
visions pay a considerable sum in
death and disability benefits. For in
stance, the Detroit local upon the death
of a member assesses all its member
ship an assessment of $1, and the to
tal amount is paid to the beneficiary
There are over 2,800 members in this
division, and during the year of 1913
they paid out over $33,000, Cleveland
Rochester and a number of other divi
sions have the same policy. Some of
the divisions pay $1 on the death of a
member, 50 cents on the death of a
member's wife and 25 cents on the
death of a member's child. A great
number of the organizations pay a sick
benefit ranging from $5 to $7 a week
Others that do not have the regular
sick benefit donate to their members
when needed, and there is paid out by
the local divisions in sick and death
benefits, independent of that paid by
the international organization, over
$80,000 a year.
Hindus Barred From Canada.
The Canadian court of appeals up
set the plan of Gurdit Singh, a wealthy
Hindu merchant, to Introduce a ship
load of Hindus into Canada. It dis
missed his appeal from the action of
the Immigration authorities who bar
red the passengers of the Komagata
Muru, Gurdit Singh's ship, from land
ing at Victoria.
Books Made by Slaves.
Some publishers in ancient Rome
could turn out books rapidly and
cheaply. A publisher of the August
tan era produced 1,000 copies of the
second book of Martial in ten hours,
and these, sold at about 12 cent/
apiece, gave him a profit of 100 per
cent This was done by employing
slaves carefully trained to write swift
m.'1 J^riK,w- Wnrklnsr In batches of
®. -f »..*1 -1 .... i
Tv^iT'V-^' w
KlO. with an overweer dictating in*
book in band, the task was completed
in a very short time As soon as tin
copies were written they were revised,
corrected, rolled up and bound Be
ing slaves, the men required only
maintenance from their master, and
thus he could afford to sell their pro
ductions at a very low rate.
With a Peep at the Milky Way and Its
Fiery Spiral Nebula.
If you could stiimj sljM and let the
world glide frutn under yotf the most
impressive characteristic of space
would be its einptUM-ss us siwfu: iumcK
silence, of which ui.iu kih»w« about as
much us the deep sea ttsli do of their
uceau As the sun went sailing away
Its planets would close in one by one
until apparently consumed by the soiar
rays. Before yon natl passed througn
the orbit of Neptune the sun would
look no larger than au arc iight. la int
er and fainter, deprived f»it by bit of
Its dominance. It would finally fade
into a pitiful spark. In spite of your
tensest efforts to keep that glinting
point clear of Its fellows, it would at
ast melt Into the multitude ot soft
lights that make up the .Milky way.
and henceforth, seek as .you might,
you could never distinguish your «un
again Lost In the Alliky way. It
would be as futile to try to find it as
to find a certain grain of dust wtiicb
you had noticed settling on a country
Then drifting spitelike out Into inky
nothingness you would be surrounded
by myriads of brilliant lights Soon
they would impress you with this star
tling fact: The universe of stars is ar
ranged like a mighty world. The
Milky way encircles the skies very
much as the equator does this earth,
and since life is most abundant in the
south so the stars grow thickest about
the Milky way. Let the eye travel
away toward the Imaginary north and
south poles, and not only do the stars
thin out, but entirely new forms of
star life make their appearance.
Through the telescope they are noth
ing more than filmy patches of light
to the cameras and spectroscopes of
observatories they become the most
umazing and frightful spectacles of all
nature. They show themselves then to
be stupendous whirlpools of fire, iucou
ceivable In magnitude, thousands of
"light years" away (light traveling
185.000 miles a second), where whole
systems of suns are being slowly evolv
ed. We call them "spiral nebula," but
to describe them we need the tongue
of God himself. They seem to be
measureless caldrons, where his hand
stirs cosmic dust until new suns rise
und float off in flaming bubbles. They
are so unthinkably gigantic that there
Is no perceptible motion to them. AJ
ready the cameras have recorded sev
eral hundred thousand in every stage
of condensation, presenting an unde
niable challenge, perhaps an answer,
to those who would solve the riddle of
the universe.—Maxwell I'arry in Chi
cago Herald.
Ships and Waves.
When the waves of the ocean are
one-half the length of the ship and
one-twentieth of the length in height
the stress upon the ship itself is very
little increased above that in smooth
water. But when the waves are of
the same length as the ship or one and
one-half times its length the stresses
are considerable higher than when the
ship is in smooth water hence, in view
of the fact that waves are seldom
over 500 feet long, the maximum bend
ing moments which come upon a ship
900 feet long are much less than those
which come upon one 500 feet long.—
Chicago News.
Improving the Milk's Quality.
A certain Glasgow milkman was sua
pected of using the pump handle rath
er too much before starting out with
his milk delivery. The other day as
he was stundlug serving customers in
a busy side street a man passing nudg
ed him and whispered, "Look out the
sanitary iuspector is coming round the
corner." Turning off the crank, he
rushed for his cream barrel and. filling
a huge can from it, opened the milk
cask and emptied it In.- The "sanita
ry" did not come, but the wife of the
"tipster" got a splendid supply of rich
creamy milk that morning.—Loudon
Giving Proper Credit.
Two I'hiladelphhins were talking of
the fortunes of a third denizen or that
city when one said:
"His first lucky strike was in eggs.
!3e bought 10,000 dozen at a low figure,
put them in cold storage and sold them
at a profit of more than 300 per cent
That was the cornerstone of bis great
"Ah!" exclaimed the other. "Then
the hens laid It!"—Harper's Magazine.
A Good One.
"What test would yon apply to moo
seeking positions as waiters?"
"I would select those of fetching
ways."—Baltimore American.
Every great crisis develops some
master mind as well as a multitude of
Labor Cannot Be Classed
People—Slavery Days Have Passed.
Discussing the labor sections of the
Clayton anti trust bill, the Outlook
Magazine says in part:
The whole question whether labor
unions should come under the opera
tlon of the anti-trust law rests upon
the question whether labor is mer
chandise or uot. From the point of the
slaveholder, of course, labor is mer
chandise. The slave is us truly a val
uable piece of property as a horse
From the point of view of some econo
mists labor is regarded as a commodity
which, like potatoes or steel or water
power, is offered by the owner in the
highest market and sought by the buy
er in the lowest market. This Is the
only ground on which the application
of the anti-trust law to labor unions
can be defended.
This view of labor as a commodity is
rightly becoming obsolete. Slavery is
no longer countenanced among civilized
people. The idea that one man can
have a property right in another man
is no longer defended by reasonable
people. With the abandonment of that
idea must be abandoned the idea of la
bor as a commodity, for labor consists
of human beings.
The man who wishes to buy potatoes
or steeJ or water power buys a thing.
A man who hires labor for a wage em
ploys a human being. The man who
sells potatoes or steel or water power
gives that which is separate from him
self, but a man who offers his labor
for a wage offers himself. The pur
chaser of a commodity does not inquire
whether the seller is thrifty or has
good habits all that he wants to know
is whether his goods are nil that the
seller represents tnem to be. The man
who hires labor, on the other hand,
is very much concerned with the hub
its, the character of the person he
hires. Such a difference as this the
law ought to recognize. If it does not
recognize it the law ought to be
changed. The United States courts
have declared in substance that the
anti-trust law does not recognize this
difference between the rights that a
man lias in things that he happens to
own and the right that he has over
The avowed object of the amendment
which the house of representatives
unanimously passed recently was to
recognize this difference and to make
it impossible hereafter for luboring
men who are organized for the com
mon protection of themselves to be
treated by the courts as men who have
combined for the purpose of monopoliz
inga commodity.
This provision applies also to farm
ers* organizations. It Is sufficient to
say that the farmer is the most in
dividualistic of individuals, and no
other danger is quite so remote as
that of a farmers' monopolistic organ
ization. Anything which can legiti
mately be done to encourage co-opera
tion among farmers should be wel
comed as a public benefit.
The other provision in the anti-trust
measures which affects labor unions is
that which prohibits the Issuance of
injunctions in labor disputes except
when necessary for preventing irrepa
rable injury, and then only in response
to a written application, prohibits the
Issuance of injunctions against peace
ful primary boycotts and peaceful pick
eting in addition, declares that such
peaceful boycotts and peaceful pick
eting shall uot be construed to be ille
This provision seems to us to be cau
tiously planned and to provide by
statute nothing but what has been
judged permissible by at least some of
the higher courts of the land. There
Is no reason why the courts should at
tempt to enjoin men from refusing to
deal or for persuading others to refuse
to deal with an employer with whom
they have o controversy. Nothing in
this provision legalizes the attempt to
enforce such a boycott by coercive or
violent methods or by attempting a
secondury boycott—that is, the refusal
to deal with those who decline to join
the boycott. There is no reason why
the court should attempt to enjoin men
from peacefully attempting to persuade
others not to work for an employer
with whom they have a controversy
This is peaceful picketing, and it ought
to be distinctly understood to be well
within the law. There is nothing in
tiis provision which legalizes the at
tempt to enforce the desires of strikers
by coercive measures of any kind. In
this provision, with regard to lnjunc
tlons, there is and ought to be nothing
that is not as applicable to the em
ployer as to the"employee.
There is no question here whether
labor unions should be regulated or
not. Labor unions equally with any
other large bodies of men should be
kept subject to the sovereignty of tho
whole people. The questiou Is whether
labor shall be treated as a commodity
and whether men shall be allowed to
do Jointly what every one is and ought
to be allowed to do singly In the con
trol of bis own labor.
Training School For Girls.
A trade school which Is being plan
ned in Philadelphia is expected to do
o ucb toward solving tbe problem of
1.V!efficiency aud consequent low wages
at' iig girls. This school will teach
the rudiments of uet ouls one but
•many trades.
J",'i J»
ti^J^O^MMiUijIJiiitf J8WJ ipUjiry »i«^qjii|fl!,l»)r ii wi-iiwn*
Piece of Property.
That One Man Can Have a Property
Right In Another Is an Idea No
Longer Tolerated Among Civilized
Labor demands aud has the
right to demand that laws be en
acted making a fundamental dif
ference between labor power
and property. Labor power is
not property because it cannot
be separated from the laborer.
It is personal. It lives only In
the life of the worker and ends
with his death. It cannot be
transferred like property.
Property Is the product of la
bor applied to some substance
of intrinsic value when perfect
ed by labor. It is transferable,
can be Inherited and does not
die when the person who owns
it or produces It dies.
What organized labor Is now
seeking is the assistance of con
gresses and courts to restore the
English common law definition
of property and restricting the
jurisdiction of all courts of equi
ty to its legitimate limitations, as
It was universally recognized at
the time of the adoption of the
constitution.—Congressman Isaac
It. Sherwood. Ohio
All That the Clayton Anti-trust Bill
Gives to Labor and Farmers.
The organs of the great corporations
and of the organized interests are con
cerned about the special privileges con
ferred on the laboring men and farm
ers by the bill defining the Sherman
anti-trust law. What are these privi
The provision insisted upon by rep
resentatives of organized labor and
agreed to are that nothing in the anti
trust laws shall be construed to "forbid
the existence and operation" of labor
and farmers' unions and that such or
ganizations and their members shall
not be construed or held to be "illegal
combination or conspiracies under the
anti-trust laws."
That is the mere right of existence.
The aim of the trust magnates has
been to discredit the Sherman act by
securing from the courts an interpre
tation under which the right to exist,
to organize, to co-operate, should be
denied laborers and farmers.
Capital may incorporate. Clearing
houses may exist A thousand asso
ciations may be formed legally. After
that they are judged by their acts.
Not so far as laborers and farmers
are concerned. Their associations are
denounced as Illegal their right to ex
ist is questioned. They are pariahs.
But this new law puts them on an
equality with capitalists, with corpora
tions, with insurance companies, with
boards of trade, with clearing houses.
Nothing in the anti-trust law may be
construed to forbid the existence of
labor unions nor of farmers' clubs.
Not too soon is this declaration made
Can this labor association or farmers'
union commit acts of depredation or of
violence or do acta in restraint of
They have no such privileges. They
are simply permitted to live under the
statute law, as from time immemorial
they have been permitted to live un
der the common law.—Louisville Post.
Dynamite Cases Dropped.
Judge A. B. Anderson of the United
States court, sitting at Indianapolis,
who sentenced the dynamiters, has dis
posed of tlie remaining cases. On mo
tion of Frank O. Dailey, United States
district attorney, the cases against
Olaf A. Tveitinoe. William J. McCain
James E. Ray, Richard H. Houlihan,
Fred Sliireman and Harry S. Jones
were nolle prossed. George E. Davis
who has been held since last October,
when he was arrested in New York
after a confession, was taken before
Judge Anderson, aijd sentence was
suspended on his plea of guilty. He
was released immediately. Tveitmoe,
McCain, Ray, Houlihan and Shireman
were freed on the ground of insufficient
evidence. The minor connection of
Jones, if any, with the conspiracy, did
not warrant a long and expensive trial,
Attorney Dailey said.
New Jersey Labor Law.
Under the new child labor law re
cently effective 6.388 children under
sixteen years of age who have been
employed In New Jersey Industries
will be affected in that they will be
prohibited from working at night or
more than eight hours a day or a total
of forty-eight hours a week. The law
provides that no working papers shall
be given to a child under the age of
fourteen years and that they are pro
hibited from working more than eight
hours per day or forty-eight hours per
Judge Upholds Picketing.
Judge Chapman of Tacoma, Wash.,
denied an injunction to restrain union
printers from picketing nonunion
plants. The strike was caused by a
refusal of the employers to grant a
slight Increase of wages. The printers
claim it is opposition to unionism In
general more than the scale of wages
that is behind their employers' refusal
Ths Toilers.
ach day Is but a fight for roof and
Behind relentless walls, mid noise and
Tin evening tames a million twirling
And weary crowds surge home on shuf
fling feet.
But soothing hands are laid upon thi»
When slumb'rous night floats down the
mist hung streams.
Th§n for a space we bear no crushing
We wander, freed, tn fields a-bloom with
—Louis* von Wetter to New York TlnuNh
New York's Compensation Law Auto
matically Insures Workmen.
Every workman in New York state
employed in any one of forty-two oc
cupations that have been listed by the
legislature as hazardous is automat
ically insured in case of Injury or death
while at work. Persons dependent
upon a workman were also automat
ically insured. This protection is illus
trated by an expert in this way:
If a workman earning $100 a month
is killed his widow will get $30 a
month. If she is twenty years old at
the time of her husband's death and
If she lives to be seventy she will
get a total of $18,000, more in all
probability than she would get if suc
cessful In a damage suit. She would
also avoid the worry, expense and de
lay of litigation.
If the widow has a child one year
old that child will receive 10 per cent
of the father's Income each year for
seventeen years. The Bame 1b true
of a child five years old up to the time
it is eighteen years old. For a child
seven years old G2-3 per cent will be
paid yearly for eleven years.
If a workman is permanently dis
abled he will get two-thirds of his
weekly wages for life.
A person who earns $18 a week will
receive for partial disability amounts
approximately as follows:
Losb of arm 18.744
Loss of foot 1460
Loss of big toe 466
Lose of other toes 192
Loss of thumb 720
Loss of eye 1.C3S
Loss of leg 8,0%
Loss of hand 028
In cases of permanent partial tfN
ability the employer must pay 06 i
per cent of the weekly wage for fh«
following periods:
Thumb, 60 weeks first finger, 4U
second finger, 30 third finger, 2.",
fourth, 15 hand, 44 arm, 312 fc^t.
205: leg, 288 eye, 128 big toe, is,
other toes, 25.
For cases of temporary total disability
60 2-3 per cent of employee's weekly
wage will be paid, but not in excess of
Laok of Enforcement Renders Exist
Ing Laws Practically Obsolete,
Because of child labor today the fu
ture generation of men and women
will suffer. Their careers will bear the
stamp of humanity's brutality.
Scientific investigation tells us that
if the race Is to be saved from dimin
Isbing In stature prevention must be
gin with the child. After the time for
growth has passed no Improvement in
the physical environment will cause
the bones to increase in size.
The nation has no right to permit a
child to sacrifice during his years of
possible physical development that
which he cannot hope to regain in later
years or to relinquish any degree of
efficiency which would otherwise be
his and which be will needln his man
hood years.
As a nation claiming to be enlight
ened and civilized it is time we were
awaking to the fact that there are cer
tain imponderable values that must be
The national child labor committee
reports progress in securing laws in
favor of child workers. Almost every
state has gone on record, some more
pronounced than others, as opposed to
child labor and has passed regulation
laws. But we are told by the same
committee "that most important of ail
Is the provision for adequate enforce
ment of the laws. Without such pro
vision any child labor law is obsolete.
The problem of providing for the prop
er enforcement of the law Is far from
being solved."—Grace Brewer in Ma
chinists' Journal.
Anti-screen Law to Stand.
The United States supreme court
has refused to issue a restraining order
to hold up the operation of the Qreen
anti-screen law, passed by the last ses
sion of the Ohio legislature. This law
has been urged by the miners for
twenty years, and they have protested
against the use of screens at the mines
by operators. Miners in that state are
not paid for the coal that passes
through the screens, although the op
era tor markets It. The anti-screen law
would abolish this practice, and it has
been resisted by the operators.
Label For City Work.
The mayor of Montreal, Canada, has
notified the various city officials that
the union label must appear on all
printing used by the city. The French
and English Typographical unions, No,
145 and No. 176, are now bringing
pressure to bear on the comptrollers to
adopt a resolution providing for carry
ing out effectively tbe mandate of the
United Mine Workers of Iowa have
Indorsed the new wage agreement
The New Zealand arbitration court
has granted a six day week to hotel
Michigan stands with California on
the question of receiving the Japanese
as settlers.
New York has established a state
bureau of employment to begin opera
tlons Aug. 1.
Oregon's new workmen's compensa
tion law recently went into operation.
It afreets 4,000 employers of labor.
A tentative organization of the com'
mission to administer Kentucky'i
workmen's compensation fund has
been effected. No funds will be avail
able until the first of the year.
Training School to Teach Girls How to
Organize Trade Unions.
With the coming of Its first two pu
pils, one from Kansas City and the
other from Baltimore, the Training
School For Organizers, recently estab
lished In Chicago by the National Wo
men's Trade Union league, has begun
Work in earnest. These two girls,
both by a coincidence connected with
the brewing industry, one in the bot
tling of beer and the other in the
making of corks for such bottles, have
come to receive a three months' train
ing in the work of organizing of girls
and women. Both these young women
have had practical experience In the
labor movement as leaders In their
respective trades and now seek train
ing which will make that experience
more valuable.
The work of the school has been dl
ided into field and classroom work.
The field work, which is done under
the direction of the presidents and or
ganizers of the local leagues, consists
of participation in whatever work of
organization is under way. The pupils
assist in the distribution of cards call
ing meetings and take part in the
meetings themselves. They are given
practice and instruction in the taking
and adjusting grievances and in pre
senting them to employers.
Perhaps the most interesting divi
sion of the work is the class in public
speaking. This class is under the di
rection of Professor Nelson of tbe Uni-
The Ohio
foss-Holbreck Stamps with
ftll Cash
Meet him at
Cor. Front and Hish Sts.
Merchants' Dinner Lunch
Served every Day
Lunch Counter Connected
I IheJUL Jones Service Disinfactors
Used by all the leading Cafes
and Business Houses in the city
Ne Bad Odors and Perfect San
itation at All Times
331 East 5th St. CINCINNATI, IHI8
Just Bear in
When you want a good Beer, all wh« have drank
it ar« delighted. Nothing but Hop* and Malt of
Quality are used in making «ur
/uiii ileit, Special Brew and Tannhauser
JSold by all Leading Cafes in Hamilton
Ohio Union Brewing Co.
Cincinnati, Ohio
«-. r'' --v
verstty ot Omcago, ana otner working
girls to the number of thirty were ad
mitted. The school offers instruction
In the history of the labor and woman
movements, both in the United States
and in Europe drill in written and
spoken English and a course in eco
nomics. The students are also put in
touch with current protective legisla
tion for women, with the means of
keeping in touch with it, and with the
methods of obtaining and holding such
legislation. I^essons in bookkeeping
and accounting are also given, as well
as instruction in the keeping of min
utes. writing of reports, etc. Evening
lectures and round table discussions
are held once a week. Correspondence
courses in those subjects in which it
is deemed possible will be undertaken.
Both Together.
Mary had been
-i5 -. 4sl
Union Bottled Beer
sent to tbe
store by her mother to get some fly
paper. She was a long time in return
ing, and the mother began to get
anxious, (ioing to the door, she spied
the little girl coining up the street, and
called to her. "Mary, have you got
the flypaper?"
"No, mother," replied Mary "It's got
me but we're coming together."—L1p
Drawing the Loog How.
Hokus—I once saw an Egyptian
smoking nn Egyptian cigarette. Pokus
—I'm a better liar than you are I
once saw a Turk lakinj: a Turkish
bath.—J udce
HolbrocR Bros.
Peiiab.e Dealers in
Dry Goods, Carpets, Cloaks, Q,u«enswar®
Millinery. House Furnishing®

xml | txt