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The Butler County press. [volume] (Hamilton, Ohio) 1900-1946, September 25, 1914, Image 1

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Men don't agitate for democracy just
because it is a line theory. They come
to desire it because they have to be
cause absolutism does not work out
any longer to civilized ends. Employ
ers are not wise enough to govern
their men with unlimited power and
-not generous enough to be trusted
with autocracy. That is the plain fact
of the situation—the essential reason
why private Industry has got to pre
pare itself for democratic control.
I don't preteud for one moment that
labor unions are farseeing. intelligent
or wise in their tactics. I have never
seen a political democracy that arous
ed uncritical enthusiasm. It seems to
me simply that the effort to build up
unions is as much the work of pio
neers as the extension of civilization
into the wilderness. The unions are
the first feeble effort to conquer the
industrial jungle for democratic life.
They may not succeed, but If they
don't their failure will be a tragedy
for civilization, a loss of co-operative
effort, a balking of energy and the fix
ing in American life of a class struc
Men are fighting for the beginnings
of industrial self government. If the
world were wise that fight would be
made easier for them, but it is not
wise. Few of us care for ten minutes
In a mouth about these beginnings or
what they promise, aud so (he burden
falls entirely upon the workers, who
are directly concerned. They have got
to win civilization they have got to
take up the task of fastening a work
er's control upon business.
When employers talk about the free
dom of labor it may be that some of
them are really worried over the hos
tility of most unions to exceptional re
wards for exceptional workers, but In
the main that isn't what worries them.
They are worried about their own
freedom, not the freedom of wage
earners. They dislike the union be
cause it challenges their supremacy,
and they fight unions as monarchs fighr
constitutions, as aristocracies tight the
vote. When an employer tells about
bis own virtues he dilates upon his
kindness, his fairness aud all the good
things he has done for bis men. That
is just what benevolent autocrats do—
they try to justify their autocracy by
their benevolence. Indeed.-the highest
vision of those who oppose unions is
that the employer will develop the vir
tues of a good aristocrat, a sense of
noblesse oblige.
Pioneers In the Effort to Extend Civi
lization—Fighting For the Beginnings
of Industrial Government—The Free
dom of Labor.
The unions are struggling where life
is nakedly brutal, where the dealings
of men have not been raised even to
the level of discussion which we find
in politics. There is almost as little
civil procedure in industry as there is
in Mexico or as there was on the
American frontier. To expect union
ists, then, to talk with velvet language
and act with the deliberation of a col
lege faculty is to be a tenderfoot, a
Victim of your class tradition. The
virtues of labor today are frontier vir
tues. Its struggles are for rights and
privileges that the rest of us Inherited
from our unrefined ancestors.
But of course wage earners are not
dealing with men Inspired even by
such a vision. Henry Ford is a sensa
tional rarity among employers. No
doubt there are some others not so
conspicuous. Now, if workers faced
only men with such an outlook I don't
think (heir problem would be solved,
but it would take a very different com
plexion. It is. however, an academic
question, for the great mass of employ
er.-} show no desire to make big conces
sions.—From "A Key to the Labor
Movement" In Metropolitan.
New Laws Granting Compensation a»
For Industrial Accidents.
By JOHN B. ANDREWS In the Survey.
Just before the legislature of On
tario adjourned recently it did a new
thing in America. It made u law "to
provide for compensation to workmen
for injuries sustained and industrial
diseases contracted in the course of
their employment." Twenty-three of
our states and the federal government
have already covered accidents by leg
islation more or less inadequate. But
"industrial diseases" compensated by
special right in the title of the law is
worth attention. It hasn't happened
before on the American continent
This means tllRt in Ontario victims
of Insidious trade maladies are to be
compensated Just like sufferers from
sudden and obvious accidents. The
law mentions by way of introduction
half a dozen work diseases about
which we have been learning lately
poisoning from lead, phosphorus, mer
cury and arsenic, as well as anthrax
and the miner's ailment spelled anky
Headers will remember the technical
decisions of the federal government
attorney, who,.refused compensation to
victims of lead poisoning in govern
ment navy yards because lead poison
ing is an occupational disease and "is
not an injury" under the law. But
now comes Massachusetts with a law
that is working well and an indus
trial accident board that guessed her
victims of lead poisoning should be
paid, and the supreme court of the
great commonwealth of Massachii'
setts upon being asked pointed l.v
upon several separate occasions has re
ccntly said to the board: "You guesset]
right (Jo ahead."
Thus in Massachusetts were com
pensated Otto Johnson, incapacitated
after working as a lead grinder foi
twenty-two years, and William Ilurle.
totally blinded after working several
years in a power house where his work
required him to breathe poisonous gases
as he looked for a moment seventy
times each day through the peepholes
of a gas producer installation.
Can it be that the economists and
representatives of labor are becoming
more conservative than the judges?
Probably some of the existing laws,
must be amended, and undoubtedly
new legislation in unmistakable terms
must be passed before victims of occu
pational disease tt'ill be treated sanely
and justly. But surely the time Is
soon coming when advocates of com
pensation for industrial accidents must
realize that a logical consideration of
the facts leads likewise to compensa
tion for industrial diseases.
Lumber Workers Victimized by Em
ployment Agencies.
Lumber workers suiter from worse
conditions than any other class of la
borers in America, J. G. Brown, pres
ident of the International Union of
Timber Workers, testified at Seattle
before the federal industrial relations
"Wages are low, hours are long and
the work hard." he said. "The men
are victimized by employment agencies
to the last degree. One mill near
Gray's Harbor has a standing order
with employment agencies iu several
cities for labor.
"Men constantly are going to the
camp, aud as fast as they arrive other
men are discharged and the new ones
put to work.
"Ordinary laborers are paid about
$2G a month and board. If they are
married and board themselves they are
allowed $10 a month for board. But
when a single man is ill or otherwise
incapacitated for work he is charged
$20 a month for board.
"When penniless men are sent out
on jobs their baggage is held for their
transportation and fee. When they
finally earn enough to recover their
baggage they can change their cloth
Waitressee and Tipping.
Miss Elizabeth Maloney, business
agent of the Chicago Waitresses' union,
told the federal commission on indus
trial relations that her organization was
unqualifiedly against the "tipping" sys
tem. She declared that when a girl de
pends on tips for her living it is pretty
hard to draw the line of propriety, and
the waitress sometimes cannot afford
to resent familiarity by her patrons.
Free men have the right to be
stow or withhold their labor and
their patronage whenever or
wherever they may wish. To
gainsay this right is to deny free
Labor power and patronage are
what make the workman effec
tive and forceful. They consti
tute his principal protection and
means of self expression. They
must be guarded as the founda
tion of individual freedom, the
precious birthright of a man free
to be himself and to possess his
own soul.
Xot only must the theoretical
right to bestow or withhold la
bor power and patronage be
maintained, but this must be
given reality and effectiveness
by permitting men to pursue le
gitimate courses of action in ex
ercising tills right. If the end is
lawful and worthy, then the mor
al means for attaining that end
must also be recognized as legal
and necessary. Samuel Gom
For Municipal Ownership.
By a vote of 10.fi)7 to 9.409 Toledo,
O., declared in favor of issuing bonds
to the amount of 4W.000.000 for the pur
pose of taking over the local street car
company's railway and light and power
plants. The election was a spirited one,
and the trade union movement led the
fight for municipal ownership.
Police to Aid Workers.
Police Commissioner Woods of New
York city has arranged to have patrol
men act. as agents in securing jobs for
workers. The patrolmen will report to
their respective station houses all place?
in their preciactt where workmen art
1- 12
New York's Compensation Law
a Boon to Labdf.
Under Old Law Cases Would Remain
In Courts For Years—Cost to Em
ployers No Higher—Measure Neede
With application on file for over
100,000 insurance policies on workmen
in various branches of industry in the
state of New York and with addition
al applications pouring in at the rate
of 500 a day it would seem that the
workmen's compensation law is des
tined to be a permanent state statute.
Some insurance companies from
which opposition was anticipated are
helping in a spirit of hearty co-opera
tion. What hostility has beeu shown
has come from a class of employers
known as self insurers. The self in
surer carries his own insurance on his
Since last July 1, when the state
workmen's compensation law became
effective, the compensation commission
appointed to administer it has held
public hearings daily in its offices in
the Metropolitan tower, New York city.
In the first seven weeks commission
ers passed on eleven death claims and
over 000 claims for partial or total dis
Under the old law most of these
claims would have gone to the courts,
where it was the custom of enterpris
ing lawyers to hold them until the
claimant got tired of the long and vex
atious delay or died, leaving no rela
tives who would continue the fight
No lawyers practice before the com
mission except those representing the
insurance carriers. There is no room,
the commission holds, for the presence
of the lawyer of the ambulance chasing
variety. The commission takes the
place of the lawyer, helps the injured
workman to bring out all the facts of
his injury aud gives him the benefit of
whatever doubt his cause might de
The personnel of the commission is
well balauced. The chairman, Ilobert
E. Dowliug, is president of the City
Investing company and a heavy real
estate operator. Commissioner John
Mitchell Is the well kuown labor lead
er. Howard T. Moslier is a college pro
fessor and author of works on political
economy. Dr. Thomas Darlington was
formerly health commissioner of New
York city, and J. Mayhew Waiuwright
is a lawyer and former state senator.
The compensation law is the result
of painstaking, conscientious legisla
tion, buttressed with the experience
that twenty-three other states have
enjoyed, as well as that of Great Brit
ain and some of the countries of con
tinental Eurrtpe. It is not perfect any
more than any other experiment in leg
islation. It needs amendment.
The commission at its daily hearings
is learning from practical association
with employers and employees just
where the act needs fixing most. All
of the Information gained will be
framed into essential amendments and
presented to the next session of the
legislature for incorporation in the law.
Chairman Dowling insists that the
experiences of the law show its su
periority and economy over the old
"The purpose of the commission,"
said he, "is to decide all claims speed
ily and fairly. The work already ac
complished shows that there will be a
vast saving iu time and money to the
employer as well as to the employee.
The employee now receives an ade
quate amount without delay and with-,
out expense. The employer now dis
poses quickly of what were once vex
atious claims.
"It may be argued that he pays more.
It may be figured that a compensation
claim running over a long period of
years amounts to, say, $12,000, while
the most the plaintiff iu a suit could
have obtained in court was $7,000 or
$8,000. Let it be remembered that the
lump sum paid finally by the defendant
should bear Interest for all the time
compensation payments are made aud
then add counsel fees aud legal costs,
and the benefit of the present method
is apparent at once."
Commissioner Mitchell, who repre
sents the labor element on the commis
sion, said:
"The law is by far the most humane
"and beneficent measure of social legis
lation that has been enacted in the
state of New York. The full import
and farreaching effect of this law can
not be appreciated at the present time.
"As the victims and the dependents
of victims of industrial accidents re
ceive regularly a sufficient compensa
tion to tide them over the periods of
heir disability and distress and per
sonal injury litigation, with its vexa
tious delays and uncertain results
correspondingly decreased, the people
of the state of New York will become
more aud more convinced of the wis
dom and justice of this great law."
Lead Poisoning.
The question of occupational diseases
will be given much attention in the
future In California because of a de
cision by the state industrial accident
board, which rules that lead poisoning
does not constitute an industrial act.
but is an occupational disease. A
•'aim for damages under the com
nation .ict was disallowed. This
i-iou Is of particular importance to
•iHlere, painters, employees of lead
smelters and others exposed to this
Gompers Eyxhorts Workingmen to Bat
tle Under the Banner of Unity.
While personally pledging his best
efforts to the committee having in
charge the "union forward" movement
in Philadelphia, Fresident Gompers has
declined to make an address to raise
funds to finance the movement. Pres
ident Gompers declined to speak to
workingmen where an admission fee is
charged. lie declared the gospel of
trades unionism is free and without
price and that his preaching of it would
be done only under circumstances that
would make It free to all. The Ameri
can Federation of Labor executive
made an effective plea for unity among
trade unionists. "Without unity," lie
declared, "your efforts to secure your
rights are defeated before you start.
Trade unionism should alone be our
Blogan. We should eliminate every
cult and ism from our ranks and with
unity as our watchword present a solid
front in the great cause that has for its
aim the welfare and advancement of
"While listening to your deliberations
I am impressed with the fact that some
of you are not working in harmony.
"You charge each other with more of
fenses than are charged against you
by special privilege, which has long ex
ploited you for Its own benefit Each
of you declares your position to be cor
rect and insists that the other has some
sinister, selfish Interest he wishes to
advance. 'A plague on both your
houses.' Cease this constant attempt
to belittle each other and save your en
ergy to promote the welfare of the
greatest force making for the advance
ahd welfare of mankind.
"If labor acts as a unit there Is no
limit to wrhat it can accomplish in Phil
adelphia. Divided It is defeated before
it begins.
"Trade unionism, and trade union
ism only, must be our slogan. We must
eliminate from our ranks all efforts of
individuals to advance their pet hob
bies and battle under the banner of
"In this way, and in this way only,
can the great cause of organized labor,
which has- helped the individual to a
more equitable distribution of the
wealth he has produced and for which
thousands of men have consecrated
their lives for advancement of human
ity, be brought to a successful culmina
Trade Unionism Has a History That
Dates Back to Genesis.
Unionism is not an interloper. It
has not entered the modern field of in
dustry as an innovation. It has a his
tory as long as the human race. While
the labor union as an institution is of
comparatively modern origin, from the
days of Moses und perhaps before at
tempts have been made through vari
ous means to regulate aud improve the
condition of the workers of society.
Labor leads back to Genesis. Since
man began to eat bread in the "sweat
of his brow" labor has been a human
problem. The historian has not seen
fit to say much about it, for the aucient
worker was not looked upon as a mak
er of history. The common conflict of
the olden days was "that by which
man secured the right to live. The
clash of arms in primitive societies
means physical development, and all
the struggle for existence meant this.
The change gradually came to the
world from militancy to Industrialism,
not the struggle for existence, but the
struggle for subsistence."
Ituskin defines labor. He says, "La
bor is the contest of the life of man
with an opposite." The lot of the la
borer is one of struggle. He has to
win his way. He is no social pet The
"man with tin- hoe" has to "hoe his
own row."
The weapons of the worker may be
in some cases crude, but they are
wielded by hands reaching out toward
ideals of advancement. Individual, do
mestic aud social betterment is the in
centive. Had the worker been insensi
ble to such incentive slavery and serf
dom would be the lot of the man of
toil today:
Unionism Paye.
"Does unionism pay?" is answered
by officers of the Amalgamated Asso
ciation of Street and Electric Railway
Employees of America, who announce:
'For the first six months of the present
year our records show wage increases
to 19,300 members of fifty-four locals
equal to an annual aggregate of $1,
410,000. During thesix months, through
the International association, there
were paid 211 deaths and disability
benefits iu the sum of $102,888."
4* -fr't* 4* •••t' -t" 4''!«'!• 'fr 'I' 'I' 4*
Toronto has 131 local unions with
21,000 members.
Denver has a carpenters' union com
posed of Jewish workmen.
There are 828 organized printers in
the South African countries.
Labor unions in New York Increased
membership 26.3 per cent last year.
Thirty-four trades show a reduction
ib hours in 1914 compared with 1913.
In Utah only females come under the
provisions of the minimum wage law.
Plumbers in Seattle. Wash., are the
best paid. They get 81*4 cents an
The Illinois state efficiency and econ
omy commission has agreed to rec
ommend to the legislature that a de
partment of labor and mining be cre
ated to supplant the several mining
and labor departments now in exist
Under present conditions of
combinations and concentration
of the employing interests indus
trial freedom is impossible for
indlviduaf workers. Where free
J* dom does not exist in the shop It
is barred from the lives of those
who work in the shop. Wher
ever unfreedom gains a foothold
J* a deadly influence begins under
mining the freedom of all.
Only organization can secure
to the workers an opportunity to
have a voice in determining
wages ami conditions under
IJ which they work. Organization
gives the right of choice Choice
II is freedom.
All Increases in wages, better
I! ment in working conditions, reg
illations for the greater welfare
of those who work, have been*
wmng from employers by the
organized efforts of the workers.
All these gains that mean so
V. much for the conservation and
advancement of the nation have
i*, resulted directly or indirectly
from the efforts of the organized
,, workers. Organizations protcct
and benefit the unorganized also.
4 —Samuel Gompers.
ij» 'I* 'J* 41'I' 4* 'I1't*'I' 41 "l* '$'4*
Unequal Pay For Equal Work the Rule
Throughout Nation.
Wide variation in the pay for the
same or similar work is one of the
most striking situations revealed
the investigation of teachers' salar
just completed by the United Sta-
bureau of education. Public elem
tary schoolteachers may receive $2,-i
a year, as some do in New York ci
or $45 a.year, as in certain rural cc
munities. Even in cities of the sa
class there are considerable differen*
in the salaries paid teachers. On
administrative side there are coui
superintendents with pay ranging fr
$115 to $1,000 per annum and coll ,r
presidents receiving salaries all th
way from $900 to $12,400.
In city school systems salaries have
increased steadily in recent years, par
ticularly in the western states, and, in
general, salaries in city school systems
are fairly well standardized. The av
erage salary of the superintendent of
schools in cities of over 250,000 popu
lation is $7,179 the range is from
$4,000 to $10,000. In the same group
of cities high school principals average
$3,565 and elementary teachers $1,018.
Even in the smallest cities listed, those
between 5,000 and 10,000 population,
salaries are fairly uniform. The maxi
mum for superintendents in this group
Is $3,000 and the average $1,915, but
elementary teachers show an annual
average of $533. with salaries as high
as $1,350 and as low as $10.1-.
It is in the colleges and universities
that the widest variation prevails. The
salaries of men with the rank of "pro
fessor" range from $450 to $7,500.
"Professors" in some institutions re
ceive less than "instructors" or even
"assistants" in others. Salaries of
deans of these institutions vary from
$500 to $5,000. University teachers of
subjects for which there is direct com
mercial demand outside receive some
what higher salaries than those in
charge of the traditional academic sub
jects, but the difference N less than
might be expected.
The highest average salaries for full
professors are paid in law and civil en
gineering. Law claims the highest
paid professorship in any subject, with
one salary of $7,500: but there are pro
fessors of physics, geology and Latin
who receive $7,000. It is significant,
however, that on the basis of the fig
ures reported most college teaching,
particularly in the first two years. Is
done by men of instructor grade, with
salaries of $1,000 to $1,200, or by as
sistants who receive an average
about $500, usually for half time serv
Wages In South Africa.
The standard daily wage in Johannes
burg aud the Witwatersrand is $4.s.
with the following exceptions: Black
smiths aud drill sharpeners employed
on the mines receive $15 per day an-i
work fifty hours per week carpenters
and joiners in Bloemfoutein, Orange
ltiver Colony, receive 54 cents per hour
and work nine hours per day plaster
ers and bricklayers in Transvaal re
ceive 00 cents per hour for nine hours
per day. The following are the standard
wages paid to printers: Bloemfoutein.
Orange River Colony, $22 per week
Bulawayo, Rhodesia, $19 per week
Johannesburg, $2.7 per week Pretoria
and East Hand, $28 per week Salis
bury, Rhodesia, $29 per week.
Printefo Thank James Lynch.
Commissioner of Labor James Lyneh
of the state of New York was voted
$10,000 by the convention of the Inter
national Typographical union in recent
session at Providence for his work aud
services as president of that body cov
ering a period of over thirteen years.
A series of resolutions was adopted
thanking the ex-official "for the hon
esty and singleness of purpose which
he brought to the performance of his
duties as president." The convention
will meet in Los Angeles next year.
Killed In Coal Mines.
Last year 2.785 men were killed in
the coal mines of this country. If the
killing of a dozen Americans at Vera
Cruz by Mexicans is a sufficient cause
for war, what about the killing of 2,785
men in the coal mines? The man who
Is killed doiug his duty in a coal mine
is as much a hero as the man shot to
death in war.
Clever Trioke With Whioh Emergen
cies Have Been Met.
Engineering is filled with so many
tricks to meet emergencies that most
of them pass unnoticed, but two have
recently attracted the attention of en
gineers because of their real oddity.
One was a scheme for stopping a
blazing leak in a big high pressure gas
main iu Sun Francisco. Some unknown
men who wanted to make trouble set
off a chemical preparation on the gas
main, with the result that in a few
seconds a hole had been melted in the
maiu, the gas poured out and a great
flame shot twenty-five feet in the air.
It was then after midnight, and it was
very inadvisable to shut the big main
off. so it was decided to make an at
tempt to stop the leak without shutting
off the gas.
An oil well trick was used. An iron
pipe six inches in diameter and twenty
feet long was stood on end beside the
gas main and then by careful manipu
lation placed directly over the leak.
This sent the leaking gas shooting
through the pipe and flaming out at the
top twenty feet In the air. Some gas
leaked out at the bottom of the pipe,
but this was easily stopped, so the only
flame was that at the top of the pipe.
Ropes had been attached to the pipe,
ud finally at a given signal the ropes
were yanked and the pipe was thrown
many feet away from the gas main.
The pipe carried the flame with it The
leaking gas then shot directly Into the
air from the main, but as there was
330 East 5th St.
Cor. Front and Hieh Sts.
Merchants' Dinner Lunch
The other scheme was to get to the
top of a high chimney without using
scaffolding or other expensive methods.
The chimney rose two hundred feet be
side a Missouri power plant, and it was
proposed to attach a sign running up
and down Its side. A little parachute
with a stout cord attached was pushed
into the chimney at the bottom, the
flue gases carried It to the top and
then out into the air. It fell on one
side, dragging the cord after it Then
by means of the cord a rope was pass
ed up outside of the chimney and down
the inside and the chimney top was
accessible.—Saturday Evening Post
The Spanisfi Flag.
The red and yellow of the Spanish
flag is said to be derived from this oc
currence: In 137S Charles the Bold
dipped his fingers In the blood of Geof
frey, count of Barcelona, and drew
them dowrn the count's golden shield in
token of his appreciation of the hitter's
bravery. The shield, so marked, be
came the arms of Barcelona, which be
came part of Aragon. and Its arms
were taken by that kingdom
Winding Clocks.
Be careful about winding clocks
Wind them always at the same time
and never wind them loo ttirht -Find
out just how many full turns of the
key it takes to wind to the
proper point and alw.-ivs *tn|- with th:tt
cumber of turns
iioibrocK Bros. c.
Peliabie [ieaiers in
Dry Goods, Carpets, Cloaks, Qutenswar*
Millinery. H«ust Furnishings
Toss-Holbrock Stamps with
all Cash
Meet him at
Served every Day i
Lunch Counter Connected I
i "t
pww "w* v
Tyr v UF w w v« vvvf
Tlte H.H.Jones Service Bisinfectors
Used by all the leading Cafes
and Business Houses in the city
No Bad Odors and Perfect San
itation at All Times
l" I
Just Bear
The Ohio Union Bottled Beer
When you want a g*od Beer, all who have drank
it are delighted. Nothing but Hops and Malt of
Quality are used in making our
Zunt=Heit, Special Brew and Tannliauser
£Sold by all Leading Cafes in Hamilton
Ohio Union Brewing Co.
Cincinnati, Ohio
$1.00 PER YBAR
no flame near it did not burn. It was
then a comparatively simple task to
plug the hole until permanent repairs
could be made.

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