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The Butler County press. [volume] (Hamilton, Ohio) 1900-1946, October 09, 1914, Image 1

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045012/1914-10-09/ed-1/seq-1/

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Lessons of History Prove That Fix
ing of Wages by Government Leads
to Industrial Slavery—Favor* Short
Day For Women.
In a stitfuieut made before the Unit
ed States commission on Industrial re
lations Samuel Gompers, president of
the American Federation of Labor, said
Of the minimum wage:
The American Federation of Labor
favors direct employment of workers
by the United States government, state
governments and municipal govern
ments without intervention of con
tractors and lias accomplished this to
a large degree.
The American Federation of Labor
Is not in favor of fixing by legal en
actment certain minimum wages. The
attempts of the government to estab
lish wages at which workmen may
work, according to the teachings of
history, will result In a long era of In
dustrial slavery. There was a time iu
English history when the government
and the courts in quarter sessions es
tablished wages. During periods when
there was a dearth of workmen and
employers offered higher wages, both
the workmen and employers were
brought into court and punished by
imprisonment and physical mutilation
because the one asked, received or de
manded and the other was willing to
offer, or did pay, higher wages.
There is now a current movement to
Increase wages by a proposal to deter
mine a minimum wage by political au
thorities. It is a maxim iu law that
once a court is given jurisdiction over
an Individual it has the power, the
field and authority to exercise that
Jurisdiction. "I fear the Greeks even
when they bear gifts." An attempt to
entrap the American workmen into a
species of slavery, under guise of an
offer of tills character, is resented by
tbe American trade union movement
When the question of fixing by legal
enactment minimum wages for women
was before the executive council of
the American Federation of Labor for
Investigation and discussion and sub
sequently before the convention of the
American Federation of Labor, there
was a great diversity of views. 1 am
betraying no confidence when I say
tbat. The official decision of the con
vention was that the subject was
worthy of further discussion and con
sideration. In my judgment the pro
posal to establish by law a minimum
Wage for women, though well meant,
is a curb upon the rights, the natural
development and the opportunity for
development of the women employed
In the industries of our country.
If the legislature should once fix
minimum wage it would have the op
portunity to use the machinery of the
state to enforce work at that rate,
whether the workers desired to render
services or not. I am very suspicious
of the activities of governmental agen
cies. 1 apprehend that once the state
is allowed to fix a minimum rate the
state would also take the right to coin
pel men or women to work at that rate.
I have some apprehension that if the
legislature were allowed to establish a
maximum workday it might also com
pel workmen to work up to the maxl
mum allowed. I ought to say, bow
ever, that I am in favor of the legal
enactment fixing the maximum hours
of labor for all workmen in direct gov
eminent employment and for those
who work for contractors substituted
for governmental authority.
The American Federation of Labor
Is in favor of fixing the maximum
hours of work for children,
minors nnd women. It does not favor
a legal UmiUitiou of the workday for
adult men workers. The unions have
very largely established the shorter
workrday by their own initiative, pow
er and influence they have done it for
themselves. The American Federation
of Labor is opposed to limiting by
legal statutory authority the hours of
work for men in private industries
The American Federation of Labor has
apprehensions as to the wisdom of
placing in tbe hands of the government
additional powers which may.be ufced
to the detriment of the working people
It particularly opposes this policy when
the tilings can be done by the work
men themselves.
It Is In favor of a uniform shorter
workday and would encourage and
belp affiliated organizations to seciin
It by collective bargaining and other
methods employed by labor unions
For instance, the International Typo
graphical union undertook such a
move. It gave employers more than a
year's notice that after a certain day
Jhey would not work longer than eight
jlours a day. Almost immediately a
large number of employers acceded to
the request: others refused. The men
•truck. Covering a period of more than
a year employees and Individual firms
caine to agreements providing for the
.eight hour day and its enforcement
ontll finally the eight hour day has
been accomplished, not only for the
pi-Inters, tint irenerally for all those
employed in the printing trades
It did not require any law for the
printer* to secure the eight bout day,
a»r Tti»» irnmne uners. nor ror »n«'
cigarmalvers'" international to which i
have the honor t" belong There wa
no law establishing the*eiirht hour aay
In the building trades nor in many
other trades which now enjoy it.
One Thing About Which Every Nation
Is Extremely Sensitive.
There is nothing about which civil
ized nations are quite so sensitive as
the courtesy due to their national liars.
A deliberate Insult to a flag will bring
even the most patient of natious to
boiling point Flag incidents always
lead to strained relations and often
to war.
IIow seriously nations take these
things is ^own by the suddenness
with which a war cloud loomed up
when Lluerta. the .Mexican dictator,
quibbled about saluting the American
flag after his officers had illegally ar
rested United States marines.
it was a liag incident that renewed
the Balkan war after Turkey had been
successfully crushed by the three allies.
There was strong ill feeling auiong
the allies as to the division of the
spoils. A small Servian party crossed
the Bulgarian border and was quietly
looting a village near Vratza, when
the local postmaster hoisted the red.
green and white Bulgarian tiag over
the postoliiee. lie was shot iu the act
and the flag riddled with bullets. Next
morning Bulgaria declared war.
Flag incidents keep cropping up ac
cidentally, but apologies smooth mat
ters over, It is, for instance, a mortal
insult for a ship to liy another national
flag below its own, as this implies cap
ture and conqifest. It has occasionally
been done with flags on gala occasions.
A Russian warship did it some years
ago during a call at Portsmouth, it
was, of course, followed by a com
plete apology to the local admiral.
This explains why, when the British
admiralty issued a universal code of
signals some years ago for use by all
the nations, there was a good deal of
international heartburning over the
colored plate of national flags that pref
aced it. The uniou jack, naturally,
came first. 'Diplomatic relations, par
ticularly with Germany, were rather
strained for some time, though there
was no danger of war. it was realized
that alphabetical order was impossible,
as many nations spell each other's
names differently. Britain, for ex
ample, would count Germany among
the G's, while Germany calls itself
Deutschland, among the L)'s.—Philadel
phia Ledger.
Masked Women.
Upper cla»s Swahili women wear
curious masks, which are made of
leather and beads in a wooden frame.
The mask is derived from the tradi
tional usage of Moslem women, who
must keep their faces covered in the
presence of men. For several cen
turies Arab traders have frequented
this East African coast, and to their
influence are due most of the civilized
customs found today among the na
tives of the district. The clothing worn
by these prosperous dailies is of silk
their shoes are partly of silver, and
they wear much silver jewelry. The
Moslems iu Zanzibar, by the way, are
less fanatically strict about religious
usages than their brethren in Morocco
and Turkey.—Wide World Magazine.
Peeling or Paring.
Does oue peel or pare a potato"/
There is authority for the contention
that raw potatoes are pared, while po
tatoes boiled with their jackets on
may be peeled. It is a fine distinction
but logical You pare a thing by tak
ing a knife and removing its outer in
tegument, together with some of the
substance of the thing itself. But to
peel an apple or a potato or a case of
sunburn you seize the already loosen
ed integument Itself and simply strip
it off-it's hard to put It into words,
but you see how it is, don't you?—
Cleveland Plain Dealer.
Uses of Silver.
The largest single use for silver, out
side of the manufacture of silver plat
ed ware, is estimated to be in the
manufacture of photographic plates,
films and paper. The manufacture of
films for moving picture use has now
become an enormous business, and it
is probable that in the future this will
bring the largest consumption of sil
ver. The silver is used in photography
for making the light sensitive emulsion
and is principally the bromide-of silver
Photographing Stars.
Star photography is oue of the^most
tedious operations known. In some
cases the exposure of vhe plate must
last for several hours. During all this
time both the plate and telescope must
be moved so that the image of the star
will be stationary on the plate. The
exposure for a star of the sixteenth
magnitude is two hours, and only the
image of one at a time can be secured
unless those adjoining happen to be of
the fame jrfze.
TiOve labor, for If thou dost not want
It for food thou mayst for physic
WlJHaro P«jB$ ....
u i i i
!UW LM UAWriMlli
Massachusetts Leads the Way
For Personal Liberty*
Freedom of Speech and the Right to
Meet In Lawful Assembly Guaran
teed to Toilers by New Anti-injunc
tion Law—Old Theory Overthrown.
When Governor Walsh signed the
anti-injunction bill, recently passed by
both branches of the Massachusetts
legislature, the state became the first
in the Union to place In its code demo
cratic and modern ideals relative to
personal rights.
The theory that property rights are
supreme is overthrown, and the posi
tion so insistently maintained by the
American Federation of Labor is sus
tained in an act that draws a clear
line between workers and the prod
ucts ot their labor, and sweeps aside
the dictum that one man has a proper
ty right in another's services.
Attorney General Boyriton failed to
find anything unconstitutional about
the auti Injunction bill, and in re
sponse to an Inquiry by the state sen
ate said: "The bill 'contemplates a
radical change in our law and a new
departure In the public policy of the
commonwealth, but tbe right of prop
erty to the protection of the writ of
injunction is a statutory right and te
not guaranteed by the constitution.
The result of my examination of au
thorities in connection with your in
quiry is tbat I do not find that the bill
is obnoxious to any constitutional pro
Massachusetts thus has shown that
It Is attuned to democratic ideals by
creating, through statutory enactment,
a new relation between employer and
The anti-injunction law just passed
by the state declares that the carry
ing on of a business and the perform
ance of services are personal and not
property rights.
This is the first time a state has
taken this position which is most sig
nificant, as it Indicates the mighty
mental changes men are undergoing,
and clearly indicates a gradual aban
donment of all feudallstic. slaveholding
and serfdom theories that have filtered
through tbe ages and have served to
stamp the brand of ownership, even
though dimly, on the brow of those
who toil.
Our courts have not been free from
this ownership germ, and while agree
ing in tbe abstract with freedom's
theory, injunction Judges have based
their action on this belief iu property
rights as applied to labor, which is
now thrown in the judicial ash heap
by Massachusetts' legislative action.
Tbe long list of injunctions Issued
only in times of strike bears testi
mony to the abuses heaped on the men
of labor by those who have disregard
ed every constitutional guarantee.
Massachusetts has made legislative
history In its declaration for personal
Workers have been placed on a dif
ferent plane by our legislators and
courts. They have been denied rights
ungrudgingly accorded to others. Too
often blind justice has not been blind
when injunction relief is asked. If
workers are to be enjoined In times of
strike the request Is granted even
though 'aw covers the case. If other
classes of citizens are to be enjoined
the complainant Is told equity cannot
aid him if law covers the case.
It is this Inequality that the Bay
State has righted, and the Injunction
judge and those who profit by his prac
tlces have received a blow from which
they will never recover.
Tbe advanced position taken by
Massachusetts will be followed by
other states now that "the ground is
broken.'' it is only a question of time
until other states accept the newly de
clared theory of personal and property
rights-of a difference between the
worker and his product
This doctrine elevates workers to
their full social stature, and its effect
will be noted In every field of activity,
but more especially in courts of Jus
tice and in legislative halls, where the
voice of those who toll will hereafter
strike a more responsive chord.
The positim of tiie American Federa
tion of Labor has been indorsed, and
Massachusetts-trade unionists are to be
congratulated on the triumphant end
ing of their long battle for justice.
They have placed their state in the
honor list of being the first one in the
Union to amend property classifications
and notify courts that injunctions are
for use as originally intended—where
no statutory law applies.
The Injunction features of the new
law are similar to the injunction sec
tions of the Clayton anti-trust bill,
pending In the United State senate.
The action ot the Massachussets legis
lature and governor will strengthen the
hands ot those senators who are
friendly to the cause of labor, and
will inspire trade unionists everywhere
to greater effort in their work of creat
Ing public opinion, by public meetings,
resolutions and letters, to the end that
the senate pass the Clayton bill, as ap
proved by tbe house, at this session of
A Five Day Week.
The Plasterer* and Helpers' union Is
the first i
establish the five
dav work we# Boston As a re
sult of a new tour year agreement
which Is now In effect all work on Sat
urday l« **M'e1riM»Md Until Mnv 31 of
•Mil- 111*'
wiilic rate will lie Hf*
cents HH ti"U attei -wtilcfi it will b«*
7 eeru* 'iu Hour foi inn*- ywirs
Brilliant Exploit of a Brainy Wis
consin Lumberman.
The Red River Was Dammed, and Ad
miral Porter's Gunboats Shot the
Rapids, Though the 8cheme Had
Been Ridiculed by Army Engineers.
In the spring of 1804 a Wisconsin
lumberman by a brilliant exploit saved
the Red river fleet of the Mississippi
squadron from destruction. To thwart
the intrigues of Napoleon III., who had
sent a French army into Mexico, the
federal government desired to gain a
strong military foothold in Texas. To
this end it was planned to send an
army and fleet into Interior Texas by
way of the Red liver, which wag
navigable only in the spring.
The army under General Banks, sup
ported by Admiral Porter's fleet of
gunboats, began-the ascent of the riv
er. But matters went badly almost
from the beginning. The leaders quar
reled among themselves, the prepara
tions made were inadequate, and,
worst of all, the Red river suddenly
began to fall, when by all precedents
it should have risen. Admiral Porter,
fearful that his fleet would be caught
In the shallows, hurriedly descended
the stream, and the army, already sav
agely handled by the opposing Confed
erate force, followed after.
At Alexandria, in central Louisiana,
the retreating federals found them
selves face to face with a crisis. At
this point the Bed river is broken by
a mile of rapids the stream had fallen
so quickly that the gunboats could
no longer navigate the channel. The
water was but three feet four Inches,
whereas Porter's larger gunboats drew
at least seven feet- Here was indeed
a desperate situation—the array far
from its source of supplies, the victori
ous enemy pressing In hot pursuit,
and the $2,000,000 fleet marooned by
falling water. It seemed to almost
every one that the only course open
was to blow up the vessels.
But Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Bailey
of the Fourth Wisconsin, who was
serving at the time as acting engineer
of the Nineteenth army corps, came
forward with a plan for bringing the
ironclads to safety. It was to raise
the level of the water above the rapids
by constructing a great dam across
the river. When a sufficient depth of
water had accumulated he proposed to
break the dam in the center, thus forc
ing the vessels with the outrushlng
flood through the shallows and into
the deep water below. Before the war
Colonel Bailey had been a lumberman
and had often seen this scheme em
ployed in the Wisconsin pineries to
"lift" stranded rafts of logs to safety.
The project was at first received with
ridicule by Colonel Bailey's superiors.
It was declared Impossible of achieve
ment by the best engineers in the
But there was nothing else to be
done, and at length the Wisconsin
lumberman was dubiously granted per
mission to put his project to the proof
His first step was to requisition de
tachments of "pinery boys" from the
Twenty-third and Twenty-ninth Wis
consin regiments, who understood what
was to be done and how to go about it.
In all 3,000 men were employed in
the enterprise. Hundreds of men were
Ret to felling trees, other hundreds toil
ed in the quarries that were opened
for the occasion, and two or three hun
dred wagons were engaged in the es
sential work of transporting the ma
terials for the dam. Up to their necks
in the swift current, which swept over
the rapids at the rate of nine miles an
hour, under the blistering southern
sun, the men toiled.
At the end of eight days the river
was sufficiently hijrh to permit three
of the lighter gunboats to pass the
upper falls, where they had been held,
and come down to u position immedi
ately above the dam, ready to pass
the lower rapids. One more day and
the dam would be high enough to per
mit all to come down in readiness for
the final attempt
On the morning of the ninth day,
however, the steadily increasing pres
sure of the water caused two of the
stone barges in the middle of the
dam to swing aside, and through the
opening thus created the accumulated
torrent swirled. The three lighter ves
sels that were in position to make the
passage, together with a fourth that
had meanwhile come up, promptly took
advantage of the break and. passing
the remaining rapids on tbe flood tide,
safely reached the deeper waters be
Somewhat encouraged by the escape
of at least four of the vessels, the men
bravely set about repairing the dam
iige that had been done. Within three
ilays the break had been closed and in
tdditlon two wing dams constructed
tu the upper falls. The remaining
pinboats, somewhat lifted by the buck
water of the wing dams, were now
hauled over the upper falls, and on
May 12. amid the tumultuous cheers of
80,000 soldiers lined up along the shore
made the perilous passage over the
lower falls to the deep water below.
On June 11, 1864, congress adopted
a resolution of thanks to Lieutenant
Colonel Bailey. A few months later
the officers of Admiral Porter's fleet
presented him with a beautiful sword
and loving cup. and before the year
was over he had been promoted by
order of the war department to the
rank of brevet hrigudler general.
Frederick Merit
Organization and education are
the keys which will unlock the
doors to better conditions for
those who sell their labor In the
open market. Ignorance has en
slaved labor for generations and
perm itteu capital tu exploit and
tyrannize over the wealth pro
ducers. Each year a larger per
centage of the children of work
ing people are found in school,
and the state universities and
technical schools are getting In
closer touch with the working
class, thereby affording broader
opportunities for learning.
Organization of labor without
educational features has and al
ways will prove unsuccessful.
Brute force alone no longer con
quers on the field of Industry.
Those unions which seek only
to increase wages without re
gard for the social, moral, physl
cal and Intellectual well being of
their numbers soon go upon the
rocks.- Denver United Labor
Main Points Affecting Labor In Meas
ure Recently Passed.
Here are the main points In the antl
injunction law of Massachusetts.
It Is not unlawful for workers to
combine to raise wages, shorten hours
or better working conditions.
No Massachusetts Judge can issue an
injunction in Industrial disputes except
In cases where Irreparable Injury tc
property or to a property right Is
threatened, and then only In case*
where there Is no adequate remedy at
In construction of this act the right
to labor or to carry on business shah
be deemed a personal not a property
This should dispose of the Injunction
in labor disputes and bring back gov
ernment by law.
It modifies tbe judge made law of
conspiracy by declaring a lawful act
done by an individual Is lawful when
done by a collection of individuals.
This overthrows repeated decisions of
courts which have held that an action
by a collection of Individuals may be
unlawful—a conspiracy—even though
the act Is lawful when done by an In
The act restores so far as Massa
chusetts is concerned the sound prlnci
pie of law by declaring that the right
to do business and the right to labor
as an employee is a personal and not
a property right
Where an employer claims to be
damaged by an act done by Ms em
ployees he must seek redress in the
law courts Instead of asking for In
Junction relief.
The law. In short, puts so called in
Junction Judges out of business In the
state courts of Massachusetts.
Hereafter injunctions shall be used
as originally Intended—In questions
dealing with property where no law
covers the case.
It gives legislative distinction be
tween the workman and the product of
his toil
Would Kill the Unions.
The Employers' association of Stock
ton, Cal., has taken upon Itself the
task of regulating the trade union
movement and has "resoluted" to the
effect that if certain practices are not
abandoned lnstanter said association
"will take Immediate steps to protect
its members by insisting that the pres
ent employees of the members shall
withdraw from the union with which
they are now affiliated or resign their
positions." The antls are especially
grieved over the practice of unionists
refusing to patronize hostile employ
era. The central body has notified the
employers that "their letter has been
received and filed," and the workers
have stripped for actloa The flght
promises to be another Los Angeles
turmoil, as the same Influences are be
hind the Stockton union smashers.
Mediators at Work.
The government's effort to adjust the
differences between 55,000 locomotive
firemen and engineers and the ninety
eight railroads west of Chicago with
view of preventing a strike that would
involve 160.000 railroad employees was
begun in Chicago recently when the
three members of the federal board of
mediation and conciliation met with
the conference committee of the gen
eral managers and later with the em
ployees. The federal board is com
posed of William L. Chambers, chair
man Judge Martin A. Knapp and U
W. W. Hanger, assistant commissioner
of labor.
The Bridge Builder.
An old mar, going a lone highway.
Came at the evening, cold and gray.
To a chasm vast and d««p and wide.
The old man crossed in th« twilight dim.
The sullen stream had no fear tor him.
But he turned when safe on th* other aid*
And built a bridge to span the tide.
"Old man," said a fellow pilgrim near,
"You are wasting your strength wit
building here.
Tour Journey will end with tbe •ndinf
Tcu never again will pass this way.
Tou've passed the chasm deep and wide
Why build you this bridge at evening
The builder lifted his old gray head.
"Good friend, in the path I have oom*
he said.
"There followeth after me today
A youth whose feet must pass this way.
This chasm that has been aa naught to
To that fair haired youth may a pitfall
He, too. must cross in the twilight dim
Good friend. I am ouilding this bridge tor
Ho Breathes Differently From Whon
Ha Telia tha Truth.
When yuu are telling a Urn you
breathe differently from when you are
telling the truth. The difference was
discovered by inetuia of some teats
made upon his students by Professor
Benusal of Gram.
He prepared cards bearing letters,
figures and diagrams and distributed
these among his pupils. These were
required to describe the cards correct
ly, except in certain cases when the
cards were marked with a rod star
and the students receiving them were
required to describe them falsely. Each
student was watched carefully by his
fellows, who, Ignorant of the nature
of the card, tried to judge from his
manner whether he wsb telling the
truth or not The watchers were un
able to judge with any certainty.
But before each man began his test
the time occupied In Inspiration and
expiration was measured, and the
measurement was taken again Imme
diately after he finished. It was found
tbat the utterance of a false statement
always Increased and the utterance of
a true statement always diminished,
the quotient obtained by dividing the
time of inspiration by the time of ex
Dr. Anton Rose, commenting In Die
Umschau on these results remarks
that the discovery furnishes a certain
criterion between truth and falsehood.
For even a clever liar la likely to fall
In an attetnut to iwane detectia* hv
331 East 5th St.
HolbrocK Bros
Reliable dealers in
Dry Q«ods, Carp*ts, OUaks, du«tnBwar«
Millintry. JL«ub# Furnishings
fosB Itolbrsck Stamps witk
all Oasfe Purchases.
Meet him at
Holzberger's Cafel
rnwiririTOiifaiiwinmin in mi««—BiHirn fii tiiiiuwiwwMMiaaiwwMBMiiMMiBiMM I
Cor. Front and
Merchants' Dinner Lunch
Served every Day
Lunch Counter Connected
-.v. f1
He Was a Stayer.
Two millionaire business men will
lunching In Fifth aven»e when aa old
greybeard stumped by.
"That's Brown. He works for me,"
said the first business man.
"He's an honest looking chap. Has
he got staying power?" asked the sec
ond business man.
"He has that" said the first "He
began at the bottom of the ladder
twenty years ago. and he's stayed
there ever since."—New York Tribune.
Early Rising.
Bibbs—1 believe In early rising, don't
you? CilbbB— Well, there's no abstract
excellence in early rising. It ail de»
pends on what you do after you rise.
It would be better for the world If
some people never got un! -London
Te leera oh
Till H.H. lines Sirvici Bisinfictors
Used by all ths leading Cafes
and Business Houses in tbe city
Ne Bad Odors and Perfect fiaa
itatiem at All Times
i" i
Just Bear In Mind
The Ohio Union Bottled Beer
When jreu want a feod Seer, all who have draak
It ara delighted. NathIng but Hap* and Mall at
Quality are used In making aur
Zont-Heit, Special Brew
"Said by all Leading Cafas In Hamlltaa
Ohio Union Brewing1 Co.
Cincinnati, Ohio
"j"1*^ J|

91.0# PEE TEAS O
breaming irreguiany. Trofessor Be
nussl having discovered that men aft
unable voluntarily to change their
respiration so as to affect the result
Solved the My story.
Tho late Sir Edwin Durning-Law
rence, famous for his theories that Ba
con wrote Shakeoieare's works, used
to tell this story against himself. On
one occasion, talking ou his favorlto
subject to an old i&dy. he Impressed
on her as final proof the "fact" that
Shakespeare could not write his own
name, let alone the plays. "Oh. I seer
the old lady said. "I quite agree witfe
you now. Sir Edwin. You mesa that
he dictated them!"

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