BONUS SYSTEM FOE OF TOILERS
SCRAPPED IN THEIR PRIME
So Called Scientific Management Is
Constantly Increasing Number of In
dustrial Defectives—No Need of So
cial Insurance—La&or Wants Not
Charity, but Fair Compensation.
"The present speeding up of industry
and driving of workers at high tension
is constantly increasing the number of
SPEEDING UP OF INUUSI RY SOON BRIZAKh h£:ALI OF W JRKERS
That is the declaration of Warren S.
Stone, grand chief of the Internationa!
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers.
Mr. Stone has soxne decided opinions
upon the subject, believing that the
tendency of many scientific manage
ment plans is to undermine the health
of workers and render them unfit for
further employment when they should
be in their prime.
"One of the most iniquitous phases
of so called scientific management,"
said Mr. Stone, "is the bonus system.
Wherever you find the bonus system
find men overworked and suffering
from over fatigue that soon breaks
their health. The aim of all these
plans, we are told, is to obtain 100 per
cent efficiency. When that is achieved
very nearly so then what? Manage
ment experts immediately waut to im
prove upon perfection and get even
more out of the worker. By giving
him a slender share in the profits they
to turn his unceasing toil to still
"This question is closely allied
that of social insurance, which we
hear so much about. The first thing
to do in order to establish social in
surance is to divide workers into two
groups—those eligible for benefits and
those considered callable to care for
themselves. This governmental regu
lation would tend to fix citizens into
classes. And it would destroy tho
very foundation of our principle of gov
ernment—the spirit of independence.
Solution of the problem lies in educa
tion and prevention, instead of in
lying a remedy after the trouble has
"The workers of this country do not
want paternalism. They want a livin
wage, measured by the American
standard of living. I am opposed to
the paternal idea of government. 1 am
irrevocably opposed to any law that
will destroy the ,iimi- power of the
"Sponsors of social insurance point
to the wonders which they say have
been accomplished in Germany by such
means. Do you know that Germany's
normal rate of sickness is higher than
ours? In 11)1-1, before the war. Ger
inauy's poverty was much greater than
ours. And the whole idea of socia
insurance is predicated upon a theory
of government "hateful to Americans
"Labor does not. waut charity, nor
pity, nor coddling. We want that
which is due us—a fair compensation
for work well done. Social insurance
laws could not be enforced without the
aid of police power, giving government
agents the right, to invade the home
the poor man's cajt'"— and treat him
as a subject for i11« y rather than as
a man. It would n1 "i (hat the worker
must acccpt the services of a duly dele
gated physit-ian when ill. whether he
had any confidence in him or not. Ex
perietice in England has shown that
one of the most serious drawbacks of
social insurance as tried in that coun
try has been the poor quality of niedi
cal service rendered. The plan begets
graft, politics, pork, at every turn.
"Let me give you an instance of what
union labor is doing within its own
ranks. The Brotherhood of Loconx
tive Engineers has in effect $117,000.
000 worth of insurance, and not a sin
gle member of the organization is a
public charge. All of them come under
the insurance classification of an 'ex
tra hazardous occupation,' but we have
plan of adequate insur
ance that costs only about 3 per cent of
the men's earnings. Under this plan
they receive full benefits for a number
of injuries that would disqualify them
"It is of much greater importance to
prevent sickness and disability than to
pay sickness insurance. Cut down thi:
high speed in industry, eliminate in
sanitary conditions, make industrial
plants livable places in which to worl
and much of the need for state relief
of the individual will have been re
moved. And couple with that a wage
that not only will enable the worker to
live as he should live, but one that will
enable him to lay up a competence for
his old age. so that when he has work
ed out his natural period of labor he
can sit down in the sunset glow
by his own fireside and not be
Killed In Industry.
Commissioner Jackson of the Penn
sylvania department of labor and in
dustrv designated as the three storm
centers in Pennsylvania for industrial
fatalities the counties of Allegheny,
Luzerne and Philadelphia.' In each of
these counties more than 250 workers
were killed last year. Reports received
by the department of labor indicate
that 12,597 employees were fatally in
Jurod in lil(i. Of these 1.204 were em
ployed in general industries, 1,057 in
Inlnes and 830 were in
the employ of
FOR DAYLIGHT PLAN.
American Federation of Labor Indorses
Movement to Set Clocks Back.
Borough President Marcus M. Marks
of Manhattan, who is chairman of the
New York daylight saving committee,
announced that the American Fed
eration of Labor has. through its presi
Samuel Gompers. approved the
which was indorsed by the day
light saving convention, held in New
York. Mr. Marks added that with the
indorsement of organized labor, the
approval of the majority of the farm
and the backing of civil organiza
tions, the passage of the bill, now be
fore congress, to move the clock for
ward on May 1 so there be sixty more
minutes of sunlight daily for
suing five months, seems assured.
The federation's executive council,
Mr. Gompers announced, passed a res
olution which in part reads as follows:
We urge tho inauguration of a day
light saving project for the conserva
tion of time and opportunity for great
er leisure and open air exercise for the
masses of people, and we insist that in
order that the change may be benefi
cial it must have its general application
throughout the United States. We will
gratefully receive from and actively
give to any groups the fullest support
in the attainment of the project so long
as it shall be utilized for the purposes
WOMEN FORCED TO TOIL
Munitions Makers Accused of Threat
ening Husbands With Dismissal.
Threats to discharge the husbands
"Unless they induced their wives to
work have filled the ammunition fac
tories of New Eglaiul with women, ac
cording to Mrs. Florence Kelley. sec
retary of the National Consumers
league, who made an address at the
annual meeting of the Consumers'
League of Eastern Pennsylvania In
"The maim fact uivr-i. of ourse, deny
this charge.' said Mrs. Kelloy, "but we
have found evidence of it on all sides.
Most of the men who make enough to
support their families uave started to
buy their houses ihe installment
plan and t!r:- rauim! leave their po
The lvsuii, is thai when tue compa
nies order them to bring their wives to
work, although they do not need the
money, they have do so, and the
women, in order conduct their
homes in the daytime, work at night
The effect is clearly seen mi the health
of the children," she said, and reports
from nurses show that tuberculosis is
increasing at an alarming rate."
Federal Employees Organize.
Announcement was recently made
ior union to bo
affiliated wiii can Federation
of Labor of
cago. The 1-..!•r iM ?!. formation
of the tlliioti
a s» in a nation
wide campaign to organize all of the
400,000 employees of the government
into a great labor party for the pur
pose of increasing w and bettering
working conditions, it was asserted
that similar movements hsive V»
started in several eastern cities.
Jobs For Old Men.
More than 900 men at the aw of for
ty-five years, and many over sixty, in
Chicago have been placed in jobs
through the committee on unemploy
ment of which Benjamin J. Rosenthal
is the head and Charles G. Dawes
Shirtmakers to the number
are out on strike in New
industry is paralyzed.
Bricklayers and Masons' Intermit ion
al union in 1S57 had but -3,0u0 mem
bers. The total membership is now in
excess of 82,500.
Active work is now being done
the Canadian National Sen-ice Board
to supplant, male labor with female
Wherever possible in munition plants.
A well defined movement is under
to induce congress to change the
national holiday of labor to Saturday
instead of Monday. The reason for
this move is to prevent the loss of the
Since Oct 1 the membership of the
California State Federation of Labor
las Increased by more than 10,000,
naking it one of the largest if not the
jirgest state labor body affiliated with
.he American Federation of Labor,
Before and After.
would like to listen to
you all night," said Clarence as he rose
Six months after they were married
he chanced to stay out fifteen minutes
after his hour, and he had hia desire
In the early
THE BTJTLEll COUNTS
XVI. NO 45. HAMILTON, OHIO, FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 23, 1917.
New York's New Labor Law Prbvidea
For Better Education.
The Wellington law, ihe New York
state child labor statute, which went
a to effect Feb. 1. provides that chil
dren must remain in school until they
are fifteen before they can receive per
mits to work. Only those children can
o to work before they are fifteen who
are graduates of elementary schools.
It is believed that the number of chil
dren leaving school will be materially
decreased under the new law.
The Wellington law imposes upon
the state industrial commission the
duty of supervising the issuing of work
permits to children by the health offi
George A. Hall, secretary of the New
York child labor committee, said: "The
members of the committee are much
gratified at the advance in the stand:
ards of child protection which are ac
complished through the Wellington
law. It should be clearly understood
hat tire law does not affect the 50,000
hildren of the state who have been
legally certified to go to work during
the last year. Not a single child will
•e taken out of a factory or store as
result of the new law. It affects only
the children who will seek work per
mits from now on."
FOR PEACE COUNCIL
American Federation of Labor to Car*
ry Out Delayed Project.
The executive onncil of ihe Ameri
an "Federation of Labor, presided over
by Samuel Gompers, decided at a re
ent conference to carry into effect
without delay a project for a world
peace council, adopted at the general
onveiitiMi of i ho M-uanizat ion at Bal
It prefaced a manifesto to all local
unions, notifying them to be ready to
elect delegates to a world peace con
gress in the l.em- future. The purpose
)f the congi' i to get in each coun
try enlarged economic an 1 social stand
ing for the workiu.: eiases as a basis
for lasting peace.
The council .nsidered the recom
mendations of the Baltimore conven
tion in favor of a Pan-American Fed
eration of Labor, and at Mr. Gompers'
motion it was agreed to spread such an
alliance in, o and Vutral and
South A 11'• i :i i- far :i- possible.
LABOR PRESS MEETING.
Members of International Association
to Select Convention City.
v. dm.M of Springfield,
sei-rci ,i ii .• of the i ntematioi
al Lai- I i America, has sent a
letter i'i t. ii im-mber of the associa
lion a-i e t.'.m to vote on the place
I'M' li..'-e:i I V 1.'17 cMtveUlil-il.
j'he I..i'»-r 1• holds it s annual
meeting iu .May of each year at a city
selected by referendum vote.
The cities are nominated at the an
nual convention, and ihe referendum
is taken during the month- of January
and February. There are seven cities
in the race, and the vote will be an
nounced the last week in February.
There are nearly a hundred labor pa
pers throughout the United States that
hold membership in this association,
and it is growing every year. The cit
ies being voted upon are as follows:
Cleveland, O.: St. Louis, Columbus, O.
Dayton, O. Philadelphia. Chicago and
New Immigration Law.
The senate repassed the immigration
bill, with its long fought literacy test
clause, over the president's veto by a
vote of 02 to 19. and it thus becomes
law without his signature. The house
previously had overturned the vet
287 to 100.
The literacy test excludes all aliens
over sixteen years of age who cannot
read English or some other languagt
or dialect, including Hebrew or Yid
dish. Any admissible alien, however
or any citizen of the United States
may bring in or send for his father ot
grandfather, over fifty-five years of
age his wife, mother, grandmother or
unmarried or widowed daughter, If oth
erwise admissible, regardless of wheth
er such relatives can read.
Unions and Merchants.
What does a strong local labor move
ment mean to the merchant? Just
this: It means tinit the wage workei
has enough to spend for the necessa
ries and some luxuries in life, a twen
ty-five dollar suit instead of a ten dol
lar one, a three dollar hat instead of a
fifty cent one, better furniture at home
with other comforts, good seats at th(
theaters and a little saved against fu
ture debt accumulation. A poorly paid
nonunion worker is brother to the pau
per—that is. he is a poor customer at
best, even if he can remain honest and
pay his debts.
Labor Fights Canneries Bill.
fight to the finish is predicted by
labor organisations of New York
working with numerous men and wo
men prominent in social and industrial
reforms, when a cannery bill similar to
that vetoed by Governor Whitman
May 19, 1910, comes up before the le
islature. The necessity for making thi
cannery bill fight agaiu is augured
from the introduction of a bill by As
semblyman Dewley of Niagara, in
which the issue of permitting women
twelve hours a day
colonies greased paper was used in the
windows in the absence of glass, and
candles were in.
lamps of whale oil were first used.
Many Wage Increases.
Secretary of Labor William
son stated recently that more than
1,100,000 wage earners in the United
States received substantial increases
in pay In the months of November and
IHE FRUIT EVE ATE
Modern Research Seems to Place
It as the Cassia.
HOW THE APPLE GOT BLAMED
8ome Translator Used the Latin Word
"Pomum," Which Means Either
"Fruit" or "Apple," Instead of "Fruc
tum," Meaning Simply "Fruit."
A correspondent asks how the
came to be named
temptation in the garden of Eden
when the original Hebrew text and all
the translations speak only of the
fruit of the tree of the knowledge of
good and evil. It seemed that none of
the Biblical authorities had offered
answer, however, and
that a very simple one. which will
probably satisfy this inquirer and many
others who might
the same ques
It is true that in the Hebrew the
words are "etz peri," the fruit of the
tree, and the Greek and Latin versions
so translate them. The Vulgate uses
the word "fructum" for fruit, and this
could not iu any way be mistaken for
the specific fruit apple It is further
admitted by scholars "ho hold that
the paradise of the Bible, which is also
described upon clay tablets of Baby
lonian literature, was located near the
Euphrates and the Tign -r in
But the question of how the apple
came into the story is still unanswered,
and no tablet will answer it. for none
could mention a irr.it unknown to
the Babylonians, not -.)•••••••. iug in their
We have to go far afn i to ascertain
the origin of the error, for the use of
the word apple Is an error. It came
about from the confusion of two words
in the Latin. "Fructum" means fruit,
and so does "pomum." But "pomum"
also means apple, and some ancient
scholar filled with Lath' words wrote
"pomum" instead of "fructum" in
translating this passage, and it was
interpreted as specific—namely, apple—
instead of general—that is, fruit
There is, however, another reason
this confusion, and the persistence
the idea is shown in many
paintings by the old masters, who
sometimes depict a tree laden with
apples from which Eve has just picked
one and is handing it to Adam.
The apple plays a great part in the
mythology of the Greeks and Romans,
where we find the apples of Ilesperides
and the golden apple offered to the
most beautiful of the goddesses, which
started all that famous trouble for
Paris, endiu- in ti .•&> and deatmc
tion of Troy
The confusion ideas probably
arose from the
a tion of the ap
pie with critical in the affairs of
men and sugge* least the spe
cific iuterpretati translation of
"fructum" or -i omum'' by "apple."
The fact i- 'hut, so far as the Bible
itself goes, n-. specific fruit Is men
tioned, and i -po n of only as the
tree of the km•', of good and evil
But there is another fruit, tree men
tioned, and this is the fig tret?, for In
Genesis iii, 7, it is said, "And they
sewed fig leaves ether and made
themselves apron-" Possibly on this
account it is a Hebrew tradition that
Eve ate of the fig tree, but that has
never been introduced into Bibllca
The fig tree p!a.\s a very important
part in the myths of many ancient ua
tions. In legend the holy family rest
ed under a tig tree on their journey
Egypt. The fruitless fig tree of
Jesus is one
the important elements
in that parable.
The Flcus religiosa, or religious
tree of India, is sacred, and none is al
lowed to fell it It is consulted as an
oracle, and it is believed that when
Brahma assumed human form a blos
som of the fig tree was dropped froi
heaven to tempt him.
The idea of the tree of the knowledge
of good and evil, or wisdom tree, as
it has been called, has been termed a
moon myth by some scholars. Accord
ing to the Scandinavian mythology, the
great ash tree Ygdrasil runs down to
the well of wisdom and knowledge. On
this wisdom tree, the pillar of the new
moon, old Odin, chief god of the Scan
dinavlans, hung head downward to ex
tract the words of wisdom.
In India the bo tree of knowledge was
the shelter of Buddha for twenty-eight
days (the length of the lunar month)
until he received his illumination of
It is therefore plain that the tree of
knowledge of good and evil has many
parallels in the faiths of all ancieut
nations and that it was an error ever
to think that it could have been an ap
plo tree or that the 'ruit of the tempta
tion was an apple.—New York
septic power to vinegar and used it to
a large extent for this purpose not
withstanding its high cost
1910, accordtug to figures
ttf aicMtr w
Mf WHAT LABOR WANTS.
Tribute Paid to A. F. of
ical country, where n a pies could
possibly grow, so that the lruit of this
tree could not have been an apple.
In a tablet lately translated, which
originated in Nippur ami is now in the
museum of the L'nivei of Pennsyl
vania in Philadelphia, me fruit is de
scribed as the fruit of the cassia plant,
according to Dr. Laudon. This is pos
sible, for that plant i- weii Known In
First.—The same right to gov- iH
ern and control its asset, "la-
bor." the employer demands for Wt
iie his asset, "capital."
& Second.—An equal participation
in the necessaries and luxuries VS
of life accorded the employer.
Third.—The right, to protect
life and limb of the workers and
compensate them when injured fc'
til or their dependents in case of ttc
death, without private profit to &
Fourth.—The right to do these
Ml things iu combination that are 1%
Us not illegal when done by an indi
Fifth.- Equal opportunity with
is the nonprodueer and the employ- MS
er in educating and bringing up
LABOR HONORS GOMPERS.
Samuel Gompers, president of the
American Federation of Labor, was
the honored guest at a remarkable tri
ple celebration tendered him bv union
labor leaders in New York cit y. James
Duncan, first vice president of the
American Federation of Labor, was
The occasion was the golden wed
ding anniversar,\ of Mr. Gompers and
his wife. It also marked his sixty
seventh birthday and the completion
of fifty years of work by him for tho
cause of labor. Messages were read
from President Wilson, from every
member of the cabinet, from Governor
Whitman and Mayor Mitchel as well as
from members of congress, labor lead
ers abroad and many others through
In the course of th- evening Mr.
"It is the duty of every man and wo
man to be of service to their fellows.
There cannot be any backward step
now in the movement of the great
mass of the human family for justice
"I have mi great changes come in
Another speaker was Mr. Gompers*
ninety v. o i"
-I I. a.'.-r of uien ill
die United St ate
"Fifty Years' Sen e p. ami*
wus the letrend i., e over
the guests ia .v. Mr. Gom
pers, his v, i r. district
attorney Sv a.. —doner Gen
eral of In•'.!' aminetti and
many -.r persons. The
thronu of amid cheers, a
song the te u was:
He's the Man of Labor,
With ue as steel.
And Ins e'er connected
With a looked a.1
i:i the icU lovem*
He is iii.-. .• i e van
t! e s of the country
I 1 u i O a n
Power of the Label.
Sum everj -u of the "00,000
trade unio: e in this country consid
ered it a ,,e to buy prison products
or scab in for product-• suppose the
merchant.- knew ever 'liny of the
$l,500,00o,nhi pent by these trade vu
ionists would be silent only for union
goods. What Would you see? Every
store in this broad land patronized by
workingun i: would iiave a big union
label over it- do..r. Merchants would
themselves advertise the union label,
and manufacturers would produce un
ion products and hire union labor or gc
bankrupt. If unio men bought right
thev would not 11a e io vi rike so much
Would Aid Workers
August Belmont, speaking before tlu
National Civic federation, went on rec
ord as favoring the extension of work
men's compensation laws to all occupa
tions instead of limiting them to those
which are considered hazardous. lie
also asserted that he was in favor of a
national conference at which represent
atives of the various interests involved
could discuss the necessity of laws
Iwhieh would compel employers to com
lpensate their employees for oecupa
Remember the little union label.
Plans are progressing in Meridian
Miss., to build a labor temple.
Machinists of St. Louis have had
hours of labor reduced from fifty-four
to forty-eight per week.
The Lithographers' International
ancients accredited great anti
was greatly overrated.
It is the enemy whom we do not
pact who is the most dangeroug
THE PRESIDENT'S FLAG.
It Now Indicates When Mr. Wilson Is
at the White House.
the last quarter of a century
at least the American flag has been
raised above the White House when
the president was there, and if the
president went out for three
which is an increase
103 members since last report. Th
local union- affiliated is
Two thousand six hundred and forty
nine local unions are affiliated to the
United Mine Workers' international
union, the total membership of which
is 33(5.098, an increase of 8,0(13 mem
bers over last report. Canadian
bership is 4,426.
hours the flag was pulled down, so that
it would look as though the White
House was only protected by the flag
when the president was in residence.
The Woman's Relief Corps and the
Grand Army of the Republic have pro
tested against this for many years, but
it seemed without making any impres
sion. President Wilson, however, de
cided that the flag of the United States
should fly over the White House from
sunrise to sunset every day in the year.
It seems to be necessary, however, that
there be some emblem to indicate that
the president Is in the city.
President Wilson solved this problem
by deciding that the president's flag
should be raised over the White House
whenever he was In residence and
taken down whenever lie was outside
of the White House grounds.
The flag of the president of the Unit
ed States is the president's naval flag,
but it is little known to the public. As
it flies above the White House, it rep
resents the great seal of the United
States- namely, an eagle displayed in
proper colors, with the olive branch
in one talon, the arrows in the other
and above its head a glory in which
appear thirteen stars. This is display
ed on a ground of red, the flau itself
belli:: oi'ie The seal is iucNx.-.j l. •.,»
large ti\ e pointed white star ip-lcl
by a row of forty-eight star- resent
ing the states ,'n the Unio floats
over the porte-cochere of White
House, and is in a with
the staff of she flag
which flies from he White
House prep.!' National
FLASH AND OAR OF GUNS.
No Dev :e
life of the workers in
my time, and my aim and those of
the great organizations I represent
have been to better conditions and to
make each tomorrow, and each tomor
row's tomorrow a better day. Labor
stands witli I shoulders squared, not
defiant, but «i. rermlned to go on in
sisting that justice, freeucm and hu
manity must be Use first consideration."
an cut :iv
grouping ih i
merely by the t:
German ill vet
iner a minute qi:
pers, a n eui.o| "takers'
JuiuM- A i: i 'ai u'-]• -i", 'ared Mr.
Gouv liie I
as tney sunore
'Cei Has Proved
Square is the name. Spieis
jj ii i
ion is composed of thirty-four local
unions, and the total membership is
The Itaiiv-ay Postal Clerks' Interna
tional union has approximately a mem
All Suits and Pants made to your
individual order in a
106 HIGH STREET
Reliable Dealers in
Dry Goods, Carpets, Cloaks, Queensware
Millinery. House Furnishings
oss-Holbrock Stamps with
all Cash Purchases.
meet him at
Cor. Front and Hieli Sts.
Merchants' Dinner Lunch
Served every Day
Lunch Counter Connected
$1.00 PEE YEAR
added to the powder for this purpose
have been vaseline, alkaline soaps,
oxalates and resinatcs of soda, barium
and aluminum. None was successful.
The French tackled the problem as a
mechanical rather than a chemical one.
A gun is really only tin explosion motor,
and it seemed that there ought to be a
way of muffling its sounds and its flash
as those of other such motors are
muffled. It was not until 1000. wh*-n
Maxim invented his silencer, that the
problem seemed on fhe way to solution.
Many other silencers, most of which
quench much of the light as well as the
sound, have been invented since then,
hut none is a practical success in war
fare, either from the point of view of
sound or of light.
To learn figure ska tiny one must de
vote himself to figure skating. There
is a special figure skate, curved on the
bottom so as to make curves and cir
cles entirely possible. It is round toed,
and on this forward curl are deep cor
rugations for toe spins.
"One of the principal features of fig
ure skating," said an expert, "is the
curve. To be able to control the cir
cles means that one has gained the
power to maintain the body In grace
ful attitudes. Every one should skate
large figures first."
the otfieers of the Mexican
National Aviation corps, which is in
the charge of Colonel Alberto Salinas,
has invented an apparatus for the dis
charge of bombs from an aeroplane
by which three can be set loose at once
in divergent directions, thereby greatly
increasing the efficacy of this method
Don't Believe it.
"Talk about fishi ._ said Harvey
Titus, who was just under way.
Voi:h: ie i: you found on
your booh ml horse macker
"Do?" i i h- 'ener. "I'd get up,
take a .rer and
New York Te!
He Would, Indeed.
if th old fashioned man walk" i itito
u new fashioned grocery store and
helped hiuu'elf to a large juicy apple in
the old fashioned way the store detec
tive would ha jnd the bars
before he had i i he core.—Grand
Human Nature Text.
Mighty fev hi keep their place
an* stand raisin' with a new
suit of clothe.-. Mini a diamond pin. They
just can't keep from thinkin' that this
t!d world is only turnin' round to look
•l 'em.—Atlanta Constitution.
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