Newspaper Page Text
By International Labor News Service.
Washington, D. C.—Wages have increased and hours of labor decreased for workers in the cotton mill indus try since 1913, but wages are still miserably low, especially flrhen meas ured by the decreased purchasing power of the dollar. The same is true of wages and hours in the woolen and worsted in dustry. These conclusions are drawn from a study of payroll records of cotton, woolen and worsted mills made by the United States department of labor. The federal investigators studied pay rolls of cotton goods mills in New England and in the Southern states in which the cotton goods industry is centered. The investigation of wool en and worsted mills' payrolls was made in the North. Average Wage $17.48 The average weekly wage in the cotton mill industry has increased 105 per cent since 1913,, but men cotton mill workers made only an average of $18.67 a week last year, which is $3.11 a day, or about $81 a month. Women made an average of $15.89 a week, which is $2.65 a day, or $68.85 a month. Cotton mill wages were highest in 1920. They dropped in 1922, took a spurt upward in 1924 and have been falling since then. Average full-time earnings per week of males decreased from $20.87 in 1924 to $18.67 in 1926, those of females from $18.15 to $15.89 and earnings in the industry as a whole from $19.72 to $17.48. The only occupation in the factory that pays an average of more than $30 per week requires an average of only 25 men. Two other occupations requiring together an average of about 28 to a factory pays $26 a week. Three other occupations requiring to gether an average of 75 men pay be tween $20.50 and $22.25 a week. These are all men. The others, both men and women, get an average of under $20 a we$k and as low as $11 and $12. Miserable Pay for ,Women These are average wages the coun try over and are higher than the wages of Southern mill workers and lower than those of Northern mill workers. The usual wage for men workers is from $12 to $16 and $17 a week in the Southern mills and from $18 to $24 a week in the Northern Miserably Low Wages Paid In Cotton and Woolen Mills, Government Study Reveals JOIN THE A N O U mills. For women, the usual wage in the South is between $10 and $15 a week, and in the North $15 and $25. A similar study of wages and hours in the woolen and worsted goods in dustries in 1926 shows a decrease of approximately 8 per cent,in full-time earnings per week between 1924 and 1926, the average earnings of men in all occupations combined having de creased from $28.44 in 1924 to $26.87 in 1926, those of women from $22.84 to $20.61, and of men and women combined from $26.17 to $24.21. As with the cotton goods industry, 1920 was the peak year for wages in woolen and worsted mills. Between 1920 and 1922 there was a pronounced decrease. This was followed by an increase in 1924, and this increase was followed in turn by a decrease in 1926. Bad Economic Condition Indicated The figures reveal that many thou sands of textile workers are getting wages barely sufficient for existence and give point to the demand of Sen ator David I. Walsh, of Massachu setts, for an investigation of economic conditions. Senator Walsh introduced a resolution for such an investiga tion but it was not acted upon because of the long-drawn-out filibuster in th( closing hours of the senate sessions. MEETING CALLED To Plan Unionization of Mo tor Industry By International Labor News Service. Washington, D. C.—By authority of the executive council of the Amer ican Federation of Labor, a meeting has been called for March 24 at the A. F. of L. building in Washington to consider plans for the organization of the automoblie industry. This is to be continuation of an ad journed meeting held last December, at which it was decided to convene representatives of the interested unions who should carry power from their respective organizations to waive jurisdictional barriers to a united drive. A resolution passed at the last ses sion of the executive council advocat ed that, workers in the auto industry be organized into federal unions until such time as sufficient strength is de veloped to warrant separation into their respective crafts. £2 per week 1 0 E S S O N S i E This is your final opportunity to take advantage of our exceedingly liberal offer to members of the club. The lists will positively close— SATURDAY, MARCH 19 There is still time for you to "step out in front," to win a social welcome everywhere, to prepare yourself for the big money paid to professional Banjoist if you desire. Come iff and get the details of this offer, which includes Gibson Banjo. Uaniil ton's Oldest Music Store The MUSIC STORE. 10 Strtrtfi Third PKoiv^ 3G6 Total of Deportees is Unknown Mystery To Fear By CHESTER M. WRIGHT Editor, International Labor News Service Washington, D. C. Deportation without trial, in cases numbered per haps by the hundreds, certainly by the scores, has thrown a new prison ship into the category of hated hulks of world history. It is the Maximo Go mez, which lies in an isolated section of the bay at Havana, Cuba. Through it, during the past year, have passed many of Cuba's most truly patriotic sons. For the foreigner in Cuba the Maximo Gomez has been a constant menace, a hovering iron demon. Within the last two weeks I have talked with men who have gone through this stark prison ship. The Maximo Gomez was taken from the Germans during the World War. It is without accommodations for prison ers. That it has not become a pest hole is a sheer miracle. Number of Deportations is Mystery Deportation is the fate reserved particularly for foreigners whom the president of Cuba does not like, or who are reported to him as undersir able. So terrible is this floating dun geon that men fear it second only to death. No one knows how many de portations there have been within the year. A thousand? Two thousand? Five thousand? No one, save perhaps the highest government officials, can tell. Therein is a part of the horror of it. It swallows men and they do not come back. Cubans, too, are deported. There was one Cuban who ran for a local political office. His election was con tested on grounds of non-citizenship. His record was examined and Presi dent Machado himself certified to the man's Cuban citizenship. One yea? later—just recently—President Ma chado issued an official order for de portation of the same man as a "per nicious foreigner." High Union Official Victim Another Cuban himself told me his story. He is the father of 17 children. He was a high union official. He was ordered deported, exiled for one year. He was taken from the Maximo Go mez and put on a ship for Cadiz, Spain, via New York. In New York harbor he escaped. He was recaptur ed and taken to Cadiz. From there he got word to his family. He was penniless. He got a chance to work his passage back to Cuba, arriving there on the day his period of exile expired. He is today under threat of death and he walks in the shadow of that threat. Deportations are by official order and the daily papers of Havana chron icle them briefly, as if they were mar ket quotations, or ship clearances. On the day I left Havana I read the notice of two such deportations. Men marked for deportation, via'the Maximo Gomez, have no recourse at law. The writ of habeas corpus does Enter—Exit Three Secretaries in Succession Is Loss of One Union—Men Marked Have No Recourse at Law—Maximo Gomez Swallows Union Men ind Political Foes of Machado. Prison Ship in Havana Harbor Is Terror of Cuban Workers Adds Toilers Among not exist. If, in an unusual case, the prisoner's friends discover his arrest in time and sue for a writ, it is craft ily withheld until the prisoner is on the high seas, beyond reach. Thus the fiction of maintaining the law is somewhat maintained. But men who go down into the bowels of the Maxi mo Gomez come up again only to be put aboard ship for over seas. Spaniards Now Avoid Cuba Most of the deportees have been Spanish. So has the terror of the prison ship spread that Spanish sea sonal immigration for the sugar sea son has practically ceased, forcing upon the unhappy island a new and serious problem. The sugar season runs from 90 to 120 days. It is han dled by incoming seasonal masses of workers, formerly mostly Spanish. With these workers literally afraid to come to Cuba, fearing deportation or death, black Jamaicans and Haitiens are manning the fields this year. They come in for the season, the em ployer engaging to see that they de part when it is over. Experience has taught that they do not all go home. Many remain, creating a new prob lem. Their living standards are low er, their regard for Cuba nil. Three Secretaries Deported One of the most amazing of the de portation cases involves the organiza tion known as the Federation of Workers of the Ports, or Longshore men. A little more than a year ago the secretary of this organization, a Cuban with a large family, was exil ed for a period of a year. The union elected a successor to the exiled secretary. This secretary was at once deported. Another successor was elected and he, too, was deport ed. After the deportation of this third successive secretary the union stopped electing secretaries. W. F. CAHILL & SONS Funeral Directors Established in 1875 The Last Word in INVALID CAR Equipped with all first aid for Doctor and Nurse. Long wheel base and balloon tires assures easy riding. All Comforts for Long Distance Trips Phone 200 PARLORS 229 Dayton St. Vfi The union of longshoremen for a long time did not function at all under these heavy blows. It now functions in a quiescent manner, knowing per fectly well that it may not indulge in any of the normal activities of a trade union. The Maximo Gomez feeds upon men who are charged only with what are termed political offense they are charged either with beinrc dangerous radicals or pernicious foreigners. The bogey of bolshevism cloaks the whole black performance. Cuba's president knows that the American government hates bolshevism. So it usese that pretext. I know bolshevism. I hunt ed for it in Cuba. Examination of typical deportation cases proves that bolshevism has nothing to do with feeding the hungry Maximo Gonuz. Lese majesty is one of the crimes that sends men there. Trade union activity is another. Every other pos sible charge is secondary and all other charges put together would not give the festering prison ship a good week's meal of human misery in a year. Mystery of Ship Terrifies You arrive at the toll of this boat that rolls in the blazing sun thromrh perusing newspaper files, through checking up with men whose Chair Seats Caned A Specialty FRANK GEORGE 1351 High St. Phone 4332-X 5% Interest Compounded ON SAVINGS THE COLUMBIA SAVINGS & LOAN CO. 612 61 A KENTSCHLER ffl&j By International Labor News Service Indianpaolis, Ind .— According to the vote of union carpenters of the District Council of Carpenters of Cali fornia, the agreement between the union and the Industrial Association of the Bay region has been ratified by the members. The vote was 1,732 for and 623 against. Under this agreement the strike is officially terminated. The District Council agrees to retire from the building material business on both sides of the Bay. The Industrial As sociation agrees to abolish the mate rial permit system, except in cases where the contractors refuse to pay he $9 a day wage scale to carpen ters. According to information from headquarters of the United Brother hood of Carpenters and Joiners here, the ratification of the agreement was not expected. Although the agree ment was not altogether what the union desired, it was the best one that could be negotiated under the circumstances, it was said. General Organizer Muir, of the union, who had charge of the situa tion in California, says that in his opinion the agreement is a step to ward collective bargaining which will lead to a satisfactory solution of the itnYv W friends and associates have "gone the route," through men who have friends "on the inside"—through such devious and hai*d-to-find agencies are the partial figures secured. Nobody who will tell knows the whole story. The mysteri ous picking up a men in the dark to feed the Maximo Gomez ranks next to the terror of the mysterious death in Cuba today. W Y ONE DOLLAR PER YEAH Union Carpenters Approve Settlement of Strike In California Bay District WHITTALL RUGS Are Non-Competitive WHITTALLS ARE WOVEN FOR YEARS OP SERVICE —NOT MERELY TO SELL SITIML II! i ifffT V* r. .. &-> '.J 'fr -f-V industrial problems which have caused so much dissatisfaction in this dis trict. The strike had been on for many months and the action of the employ ers compelled the international union to go into the material business in order to supply contractors employing union carpenters with supplies. Un der a plan of the Industrial Assoica tion, contractors employing union la bor exclusively could not buy build ing material from dealer-members of the association. Contractors were forced to agree to use union and non union carpenters on a fifty-fifty basis. WE PAY HITTALL Rugs have never sought to enter into competition on a price basis. Such a thought was not a part of Matthew J. Whittall's plan. All during his lifetime, even when his mills were struggling almost for their very existence, Whit tall rugs and carpets were always priced on the basis of the best materials and the utmost manu facturing care, regardless of the prevailing rug market. Mr. Whittall was firm in the belief that a pro duct of superior merit must, eventually, receive recognition, and wrhat he believed, he followed unswervingly. There were times, many of them, when the maintenance of this quality principle was a real hardship. Yet, despite these handicaps, Mr. Whittall had the gratification of seeing his busi nes sincrease steadily and constantly year after year. M. J. Whittall Associates would no more think of abandoning its fifty-year-old policy of pro ducing the highest type of machine-woven fab rics than of transgressing the ethics of good business. It is true that even today Whittall Rugs and Carpets command a higher price than the ordi nary run of floor coverings. But when the cost of a rug is divided by the years of service it gives (the only safe index to actual rug value) the re sult is overwhelmingly in favor of Whittall quality. Let Whittall rugs demonstrate to you the prac tical economy of buying the best in floor fabrics. Look for the name WHITTALL'S THK MARK OF Ql YLITY woven''into the back of the rug you buy Hamilton's Exclusive Selling K-R-E-B-SRepresentative THIRD AND COURT Get an Ozite Rug- Cushion for your Whittall 5% ON ALL SAYINGS Compounded Semi Annually The West Side Building and Loan Association Main and Streets on r,r' ifflFflTVT'' '-v a**** .. jr -HbXyd n)n'' A :4f 4