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FRIDAY, JULY 1, 1932
YOUTH FACES A PROBLEM
In recent weeks, 756,000 boys and
girls in this country have graduated
from high schools, and 131,500 some
what older boys and girls from col
leges and universities. For all of
them this closed a period of hard
work. For most of them it meant
considerable sacrifice, their own or
that of their families.
Thus at great cost, not always to
be measured in money, these young
sters have been put through a pe
riod of preparation for better and
more valuable service. They are
eager to work, eager to start out in
life, eager to give service that will
justify the efforts of their parents
and of the public. And what do they
They find a world which will not let
them work a world which preached
to them in school about the dignity
of labor, and now will not allow them
to earn a living.
Their young strength and enthus
iasm are pushed back, rebuffed, left
unused. Their training goes for al
most nothing, for they find equally
well trained people, with experience
added, standing in the bread lines.
The industrial world will not let
them help to make it richer it just
doesn't want them. So far as the
economic organization of society is
concerned, these youngsters can get
off the earth.
Was ever such insane folly seen
on such a scale before?
The young man who cannot get a
job is not so crushed as the middle
aged or old man who has lost a job.
But there are other things to con
sider. The young man denied work
either gives up trying for it and be
comes a parasite, or he strikes back.
The youth of America can be turn
ed into the nation's greatest asset
or into a focus of unrest and revolt.
With the third crop of graduates
coming from school since the depres
sion began, it is about time to con
sider our youth at the gate.—Re
printed from "Labor."
THE CHILEAN REVOLUTION
Dr. Carlos Davila's revolution in
Chile, whatever it may in the end
turn out to be, is at the ouset at
least one definite thing—it is a na
tional protst against foreign ex
affairs. Cosach, the name under
which all Chilean nitrate production
was reorganized recently, was put in
the field to utilize the new Guggen
heim mechanical method displacing
manual labor, and it was given a capi
tal structure too heavy for the traf
fic. That seems to be one of the
main resentments brought to fruit
through the revolution.
The foreign investor who thought
Chile was his oyster seems to be due
for a session without his oyster.
Chile is but a part of that vast Latin
America exploited by foreign capi
talists for three centuries.
Whether Chile will go "red" re
mains to be seen, but that foreign
exploitation has caused the masses
of its people to "see red" was long
since clear to a great many people.
It fiar^y stems necessary to say that the problem of unemployment will
not be solved until the workers get jobs, or that this depression will not be
over until men go back to work. And yet these simple truths are lost sight
of and all sorts of schemes are put forward to get us out of the mess we
There ia nothing fantastic or half-way about the "Open the Factories"
plan. The plan is simplicity itself: give the unemployed workers access to
the idle means of production to produce goods for themselves. Can anyone
show how we can get the goods we have to consume without commencing
to produce again? You cannot have consumption without production first.
Some economist has stated that if an attempt was made tomorrow to
fut all the people of this country on a civilized standard of living and housing
there would be a scarcity of products. So no matter what way we look at
it, we see that it is necessary that workers get access to the means of pro
duction once more, so that more goods can be produced. We do not produce
enough today in spite of the so-called surplus. And yet there is sufficient
land, natural resources, mills, factories, transportation, etc., to produce
enough for all if these facilities could only be put into operation. The great
trouble is they are kept idle.
Planting jobless railroad workers
on unused land so that they may
grow at least a portion of the food
stuffs necessary to keep them and
their families alive is the favorite
method used by railroad executives
to meet the unemployment emergency.
"Subsistence gardens" is the technical
term used to describe the soil-tilling
Mr. R. H. Aishton, chairman of the
executive committee of the Associa
tion of Railway Executives, who is
also a member of the President's
Organization on Unemployment Re
lief, sponsored the subsistence gar
dens plan with railway executives
throughout the country as a ^prac
tical" measure to enable the thou
sands of railway workers whom Mr.
Aishton and his associates refuse to
employ to wrest at least a part oi
their living from the soil.
It is interesting to note in this con
nection that Mr. Aishton's Association
of Railway Executives regards as im
practical the proposal of the railway
labor organizations, supported by the
American Federation of Labor, to re
duce the length of the work day from
eight hours to six for railway work
ers and thus go a long way toward
abolishing unemployment in the rail
Mr. Aishton and his associate own
ers and managers of our railroads
carried their opposition to the six
hour day to the interstate commerce
commission, and persistently fought
it all through the investigation made
A job means life to the worker. How much the workers want jobe can
be seen from the following: If an employer would advertise in the newspaper
for help, so many would respond that the police would have to be called out
to keep order workers marched to the Ford plant in Dearborn, on a cold
winter day, to hold a demonstration to show they wanted jobs, and four of
them were killed by police in a recent mass meeting in a city in England
that was broken up by the police the slogan of the workers was "We Want
The point to be emphasized is that first of all workers want jobs, but
they also want jobs that will assure them of a decent livelihood. And there
isn't any doubt that if the unemployed could get access to the idle means
of production they could easily supply themselves, once they got industry
organized, with a sufficiency of everything they need. As ihudi at least
as those who are getting full time upon wages.
One of the worst features of our capitalistic system is the destruction
of foodstuffs to keep them off the market so prices will not be lowered.
Even though people are starving for the lack of these foodstuffs, they are
still destroyed because the demand on the market is not great enough.
In the Book of Ruth it tells of how during a famine Ruth went into the
field and gleaned after the reapers. She gathered the barley that the reap
ers left behind. We could do the same thing now. Those foodstuffs not worth
while harvesting for the market could be turned over to the unemployed to
gather for themselves.
This will accomplish the same purpose as if the goods were destroyed.
The purpose of not harvesting a crop, or of leaving it rot, or of destroying
it, is to see that it doesn't get to the market to lower prices. Brazil is now,
for instance, destroying many thousands of sacks of coffee every month.
It takes labor to destroy this coffee. If the unemployed workers in distribu
tion were now properly organized and this "Open the Factories" plan was
functioning, this coffee could be turned over to them to distribute among
the unemployed. In this way it would never reach the market. And it
would save the labor of destroying it.
Last fall many farmers did not pick their apples, peaches or plums.
It did not pay the farmers to spend the labor on them and ship them to the
market because of the low prices. Now the unemployed agricultural work
ers could have picked this fruit and distributed it among all the unemployed.
As it was, this fruit just rotted on the trees and the unemployed went
without fruit. It would not have affected the market one way or the other
if they had been turned over to the unemployed.
The government recently advised the cotton growers to plow under
every third row of cotton. Why go to the trouble of plowing under cotton?
Again, if the unemployed had been organized in this "Open the Factories"
plan, they could have gathered every third row of cotton, sent it to the idle
cotton mills to be worked up into cotton cloth, which in turn could be made
into all sorts of wearing apparel for the unemployed. As it was it cost
labor to plow under the cotton while the unemployed haven't got sufficient
clothing. Nobody benefited by the destruction of cotton. The market price
went down anyway. It certainly would not have gone any lower if the sur
plus had been turned over to the unemployed.
Every once in a while we read of surplus milk, or coffee, or peaches,
cr watermelons, or fish, or wheat, or corn, or cotton being destroyed or left
to rot because the regular market is over-supplied. A better way would be
to turn it over to the unemployed. They would save the labor of destroying
it, and would use some of the idle means of transportation to send it to
other unemployed workers. In this way the surplus would never get ta
market, but would get to unemployed workers who would not have been
able to consume it otherwise. It would have the same effect as if it had
been destroyed, and yet would benefit millions of people. It would go to
people who are now practically non-consumers. You would hardly call a
family consumers who live on the two or three dollars a week they get
Congress has approved of a bill for free distribution of 40,000,000 bushel*
of wheat. Here again, if the "Open the Factories" plan was in operation,
the unemployed could take this wheat off the hands of the government with
no expense for distribution, send it to the unemployed workers in the idle
milling factories to be ground into flour, and then to the unemployed workers
in the idle bakeries to be made up into bread for the unemployed.
by that body, under a joint resolution
of congress, to determine the prob
able effect of the application of the
six-hour principle to all branches of
the railway service.
The six-hour day would enable the
railway employes to live according to
decent standards. Moreover, it would
permit them to enjoy some of the
benefits flowing from the revolution
ary increase in their output during
the last few years resulting from the
application of labor-saving machinery
and methods in the railway service.
Shorter hours of labor, not vege
table gardens, is the most practical
remedy, and in fact the only remedy,
for unemployment. It is regrettable
that Mr. Aishton and his associates
are so vegetable minded. They re
semble the ostrich who blinds him
self to facts by sticking his head
in the sand.
AND THE MORAL?
A scientist has discovered a re
markable similarity between grass
hoppers and humanity.
Grasshoppers, he finds, do not
start out on mass forays to destroy
crops until they are overcrowded.
Then they change their dispositions,
even their shapes and color, and start
out ravaging. Like humans, being
too crowded and hungry, they go on
the march hunting food.
It is the idea that if the hoppers
can be kept from getting too crowd
ed they will not turn into locust
scourges and crops will be saved from
their mob appetites.
THE BUTLER COUNTY PRESS
STRUCK RIGHT CHORD
In a speech over the Columbia
Broadcasting System, William Green,
president of the American Federation
of Labor, struck the right chord when
in discussing the cause of and cure of
unemployment, he said: "One grave
mistake which has been made, and
which, in my opinion, is very largely
responsible for the unemployment sit
uation, is that industry has utilized
all new processes which science and
scientific improvement have develop
ed in order to facilitate an increased
production, while, at the same time,
it has clung tenaciously to related
old customs and old processes. While
embracing all that is new in inven
tion they have clung to all that was
old in process and policy. For in
stance, industry has persistently en
deavored, through its scientific labor
atories, to improve its mechanical
processes of production, to perfect
machinery, to produce more with a
less number of workers, and to in
stall newer and modern methods of
production. At the same time, it has
maintained the long work week and
the long workday. It has persisted
in its determination to facilitate and
increase production while maintaining
the old standard work day and work
week. They refused to adjust the
working time so that it would con
form with the increased productivity
of workingmen and women made in
evitably through improvement in me
chanical processes. If fewer em
ployes perform more work, then
changes must be made in working
time so that those who are displaced
may be employed. A reduction of the
hours worked per day and the days
worked per week is the price, if it
may be put that way, which industry
and industrial management must pay
for the substitution of mechanical
processes for hand service and hand
labor in industry. Results have been
highly satisfactory where experi
ments have been made with the
shorter work day and the shorter
work week. Its practicability and
necessity have been clearly proven,
Where it has been inaugurated more
workers have been employed and in
dividual efficiency has been increased
It is clearly evident that the time for
the inauguration of the six-hour day
and the five-day work week has ar
rived. If universally applied the slack
of unemployment would be taken up
Organized labor is entitled to vast
ci-edit for victory of the furlough
plan for government workers as an
alternative to out and out pay cuts
The furlough plan compels all
workers earning over $1,000 to take
a month's vacation, but it preserves
the rate of earnings per month
which labor always considers vital.
The measure is a big feather in
the cap of labor as a step toward
national reduction of working time
It is not a five-day week measure
but it tends in that direction, which
is all to the good.
RACKETEER GOES UNTAXED!
Congress has just laid upon the
American people the highest tax they
have ever known.
Meanwhile the racketeers, high
jackers and bootleggers, operating an
enormous industry, escape tax free
leaving honest business and honest
labor to pay the bill.
Congress could at any moment
legalize beer and wine, place upon the
business a proper tax and enormously
relieve the whole nation.
Why does congress fail to take this
just and obviously logical step?
NEAR ELEVEN MILLION MARK
The 11,000,000 mark for workless
is in sight. President William Green
of the American Federation of Labor
this week estimated current unem
ployment to total 10,634,000, the
highest figure yet announced. The
federation's figures on unemploy
ment have gained general recogni
tion for accuracy. President Green
estimated that 6,894,000 of today's
army had been laid off since April
Minimum Wage and
Hand Labor on Nebr.
Lincoln, Nebr.—The 10-hour day
hand and team labor in preference to
machinery, minimum wage of 30 cent3
an hour, and the vise of material
made in Nebraska will become effect
ive on $1,700,000 worth of state high
These conditions were included in
the advertisement for bids for the
work, made public by Governor Bry
an, who said that preference would
be given to those who agree to the
conditions federal engineers, he add
ed, had approved the specifications
which would apply to all subsequeni
jobs during the year on both federal
aid and state contracts.
*Tf Where with aw
we tell tha truth
about many things, sametimea pre
feundly, sometimes flippantly,
It seems amusing to find repub
lican political leaders planning to
"soft-pedal" the Volstead issue.
Why not try to soft pedal the
Rocky mountains or the Grand con
yon or the Atlantic ocean?
There are things that can't be
evaded by silence, or wished
away by the expedient of concen
trating on something else.
It is true that there are moun
tainous issues before the American
But the fact of other mountainous
issues will not remove the Volstead
The Volstead issue is a mountain
ous issue chiefly because political
leaders have tried to shush it into
Things that are real cannot be
shushed into nothingness.
The more real the issue the more it
sticks in the consciousness of peo
ple until there is proper settlement.
The Volstead issue has been so
hedged around with the dodgings and
shushings of politicians that it has
become irrepressible. It will remain
a paramount issue until it is settled,
partly because the hositility to its
consideration has been so persistent,
so tricky, so resourceful, so all-per
The issue is like prohibition itself.
Politicians have said, "You must not
drag this issue into the light to settle
it." So the people have said, "If we
mustn't, then we WILL4" And they
It will do no good to say that this
issue is going to be smothered.
It merely happens that the issue
cannot be smothered.
It can be settled, but not smothered.
Had there been a frank, American
willingness to consider facts on the
part of those who stand for Volstead
ism, there would not have been a
fraction of the pitesent vbhemence
on the part of the millions who hold
Volsteadism to be wrong.
But the effort at repression of dis
cussion has strengthened and fired the
determination to discuss.
Now there can be no stemming of
the tide, no holding back the flood.
And now Volsteadism is doomed.
It can be at once removed as a po
litical factor by the simple expedient
of admitting that it is before the peo
ple for settlement. It could have been
removed that way long ago.
And there is nothing un-American
or contrary to the principles of either
political party in saying to the peo
ple, "Here, take this big issue and
settle it as you will."
But candor seems seldom to reside
long in the breasts of politicians.
As a consequence Volsteadism will
be a major issue in this campaign.
Politicians have lost the power to
say it nay.
Perhaps it will be a lesson to the
forces of anti-liberalism in American
It is possible to thwart the people
for a time, but not forever.
It is, as we have been taught, pos
sible to fool them for a time, but not
The issue is not a glass of beer,
but a vital principle of American
democracy. The wets didn't make
it that way. It just happens to
be that kind of an issue and the
American people have come to
see it that way.
Whenever the people come to see
the truth, that minute deceit and op
pression get the gate.
David Dubinsky Heads
Ladies' Garment Workers
New York City (ILNS)—David
Dubinsky, secretary-treasurer of the
International Ladies' Garment Work
ers' Union, has been chosen president
by the union executive board to suc
ceed the late Benjamin Schlesinger.
Dubinsky has a fine record of service
to the labor movement and is con
sidered one of the ablest officials of
the Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.
WILLIAM C. ELLIOTT AGAIN
STAGE EMPLOYES' PRESIDENT
New York City (ILNS)—William
C. Elliott was re-elected president o:
the International Alliance of Thea
trical Stage Employes and Moving
Picture Machine Operators of the
United States and Canada, at the
organization's 31st convention, held
recently at Columbus, Ihio.
A Leader for
Joins Galaxy of Bursted
Princeton, N. J. (ILNS)—Employe
stock ownership, always condemned
by organized labor as a snare, a de
lusion and often something worse, has
shown that it cannot stand depression
any better than most other lines of
Princeton's industrial relations
section has completed a study of what
has happened to employe ownership
of stock during the two and a half
years of depression and finds that
plenty has happened. The employe
who bought stock will be lucky if he
breaks even and has for his trouble
only the worry and the loss of the
use of his money for other purposes.
The university picked 20 big com
panies for its study. These normally
employ a million and a half workers.
They include two steel companies, two
each of public utilities, railroads and
automotive companies, four oil com
panies, one store chain and seven mis
cellaneous manufacturing companies.
Of the 20, five have quit cold—their
plans have been dropped finally and
definitely. In five others no recent
offering has been made. In two com
panies no dividends have been pakl
for two or more ye&rs, one quit in
1931 and four quit in 1932.
While subscribers in most plans
were protected against heavy losst.s
by various so-called bonus provision
five of the 20 plans had no such pro
visions. Some companies have
It is reported that in the mai n
stock owners will suffer but little in
actual cash loss, but the point is the
glowing promises made to workers
by stock-selling corporations have
fallen fiat as a pjancake, and the
worker cannot cash in on them, as
he was told he could do.
Only nine of the 20 companies list
ed are still paying dividends.
Meanwhile unemployment has add
ed its own grim disillusionment.
STRIKE FOLLOWS PAY CUTS
Whippany, N. J. (ILNS)—Follow
ing the third consecutive reduction in
pay, 150 workers employed in two
paper mills here went on strike, clos
ing the mills. A conference of repre
sentatives of the workers and the
owners over a 10 per cent wage cut
failed to reach an agreement and the
strike was called.
Coxey Urges 25 Billion
Community Bonds for Relief
Edgar K. Wagner
Men's and Young Men's
Washington.—In a hearing befofe
the house committee on banking aftd
currency, Jacob S. Coxey, mayor of
Massillon, Ohio, advocated the enact
ment of his bill to finance a twenty
five billion dollar unemployment re
Regularly Priced at $35, $40, $45 and $50
'T'HESE are for men and young men who
want fine clothing at a mighty low price.
Hart Schaffner and Marx and other nation
ally known makers tailored. They're new in
style, fabric and color—and the greatest of
great values at $21.85.
The bill provides for hon-interest
bearings 25-year bonds of all com
munities, to be deposited with the
secretary of the treasury as security
for an equal amount of legal tender
treasury notes to be printed for and
issued by such communities.
Mr. Coxey contended his plan wouWi
furnish money to employ 6,000,000
jobless on public improvements and
would give banks money to loan In
place of frozen assets.
2,741,000 JOBLESS IN ENGLAND
London.—-There are 2,741,000 un
employed workers Jin England, ac
cording to a report by Commercial
Attache W. L. Cooper, of the United
States embassy. This is an increase
of 81,000 in one month and of 111,000
for the year.
adjusted the purchase price as quota
tions went down, but in some cases
the quoted prices have fallen so fast
the companies could not keep up wi1
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