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Entered as Second-Class Matter, December 18, 1917, at the Postomce at Butte, Montana
Under Act of March 3, 1879.
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STI'ESI)AY. .JUNE 24, 1919.
Has He 1M1/ 1'":"i. sellDlent a
iys hItti lit t.\vit \'lhenI the
M ade Good Ii,., ., 1o Illll l ', to 1''e.
o n T h i I ,.,, d iffe r ''r a. I'r,1 l it ml1 n nII ll. 1 i rlnr .( .
on rS rtlie.lvl\- \\1('n 11 is lint in lle
l'tt1,nn11 Il I 1, t I al \\le('n Ie is in the
runl, eenu.ilo Illil tlhe air\\kl\rnl
Illiingi is lie ('1 11 m e ;l ,l ack ll a t ln
Silitl nis\\ve'r \\littil I s. l\. 11 is al sVtt\s
I. l. rol' tllts fV r ii 1111111 n I l li\'have t
I'lttr lnlirtely it himstieslf'. Ti(rIef't re. \we 1111is inisist in
('\'('I'\ ;ins lanc III(·l · li cl t Ilhe Iparl' is ( ine n11(' 1111 11 e lch (I ll o h s
Itr'set'tt' t' t il there ,ll is(,iss flit' ssies ItIvet'en Ilitn , ilttl
NI.0 . s(ll;1il';11 1(I. ill 1('(' \ li 'll hii\ ' I (.',lllllllli('ifi ll
\v 'illli (ech olth r.- I'l, si'- ('- i l \\'ilsm ''s lnf'lln .\ h1111e'ss,,
THE CANADIAN SITUATION.
The i.- eI l - m; l niml risonment lll'lle \\'inllllil.g strike-lealer'.
ldoes tl illtappear 1 ' have hadil i le resull lesired bli the (.lana iian
a lhnriites: oin lie c.lillvry iI has l( 1let e ffe(el of sotlidifying
all.t ' lthe l,.lies of l;lhrl . The \)ll rkers see lure ('lear I I' llih t
'ii\' Ii' l Ihll i i k l l ill eI i lllal. I, a.ilc ' l .'llllil l( l . l
iver l i i iima combinelai against Iithe aIi1 ti11e capitalist class gan
heii' c('hl.ss governn l.
V(inllejoier. Newi iesluuinsler. Calgary and other elies are
(:'Il .i ii l lilsidly in supp l o the \\'i ileg i o II r ers a d, le \\ 'ss IIt e
'Iernlenli i.s prepared li nl in.oli.'r te ; I en.lmi.paign of slal l'l.Ir,
lie' 11\\'.rk rs i.( . ' i l ll . il.ill
As I Ipro ' o ' l the nli elivompromisiiv g. iillil e ii the rthilless
policy ,f' inilernalinnal capialism" as evidence of our entry inio
liem iid oI imt perialii.i liens t liov i tihe t1Canadian gov-ii
e irnlel l illn arre ling pil cel'u l s.I iilk lirs by li dozens, li l( l 1alie
use il' rl( I'eloe.s of thle glovernme nt 1) Ireallt eig t ll t il' er
when we t u l lsider . il i' 1i e IhI workers ii nieel nily in.s.li ing c lai mhe
right f i' allec-ive itbrghinling. the right ol ri all workers tIn stiup
i he li le il s i oitl lite rli ii ii s t ,i n ln bii.in i o e delt n it .sIil iinl
I(icinl iorgan of l l at ie t I it- l Il lle \st pri ince, its the following in
i For i ou t lish i eioni s l elinii.uil n iiilst e e liIh v i e g n enl li t til
tti'e uuiiii.ll 'tl' tie L iiill i hIh eii'tl e wtl ! , iie .i tluiid iiithe \ Iliil
~onltry. 11 ihas lill ha .mlll l\'e' I ,r by l 'ler '-in-('le ln il <l i'l i.i g
tli he Ia ill .h t t it ill co e lnsinu ie l ll Ilc liii les. T lhe hlltei
il or su. pilliti y Vas Ilh e arresii l of I iiien ho havli e t een il lives i'
ill thei \ i'in ileg istriket. t11 has been i'inred i'hat there are In
]it llst ' t.lii 'tilt sii the iii th I iiiellle ,it \\'th u t`las l h t \ltoi*
he ale tilie tshe se.lntine isihe press we lulat n thal W. A.in
Pli'itellrl is lt he atresii l , i fii h is ntll l lte in ah iu i il l . ..s
isli ii i 'lu i l li -l illi i ii, , illt the l i nt, ait ics, i lliem ilw
there Itni sui'Iuicnt inel ligenie int Ie iitinel n reognize thaIs il
l arrestil ofi IThese l en. i sl uvel o i li,. l iing ti eing abou it Isel
liiiitent` of l I lo l ble sltill only prolong the ruggl e.i l a t \'h n
there is li ly one eii tI.u l it . lihal m t i ling itO hisee t oi l i . . go -
tinit iil? Thlse t peoplll tle iof tlis liat will not he . uled by such
leinih isra li. ihods ali is Ilare being. i lipleo by the g erhivun i t itil
the icni it . The cru niit people will neiver stnh s l' or the i lt.id
of Ilin .who havI neniitti wrong by it specially sieleell0d tribun- i
al. l 't.lihiii . 111 have si th till i iiu br.illltes lh 1 l ai , whichs t
they tave nI ti fler(' is t hl usuaI pro esses of the lt \\' t dle( -
tr iss sitievmiets as to the lil alleis of the itr uuuuk ling i ior
iney are true. The s lilence is to ho deport ation. Poor silly in
tieiaaloi g.. s id t if mbelililty. Io theyl think ithat the workers
stgilte with the gso s N l'h iit ilal brut litihe s l lmel out lastl i un
rtese? l ,en were driven olinut of 1 province gitl ierilt withli
ilhe ui the knowledge ofli the class iuiintl e iof iverinlenl s, i. l,
instead of the working class miovemntV t being hhmii edlil or re
stricted, il Was spread as i. resu.lt, iistc in this iiase, if the lmen
are deportedl, the same results will he achieved. Ding Canuteb
ione showed his san.tbi lht Ilii lmiitions a . his powert: it Wouli
ie, inleed. klii in ss i t. ati-ie ne wouh l l sioh that aggr'il egn- ilii
lin of l onges titie s s t (tiiists the limilatintls of theirs. To mine
iIack to thle arrft st o ussell and his comradesyilo. The charge
iil is 'r editio.us (iinsptioi y to olereiihe \v the , i nstliu tin ualie
power of go\'erl, ient. lio Thet wayvr have these menli tII ti
overlhrto the constioaion? Is striking ai allenupt two r aso?
Is il against the consl.tituini Is d nut in iihe right of colles live
Largaining, un l to strike e t enforce IthtI dem oll ? I' s3l, thent
we have an autocracy in this country tha t Would put thei ('or
mai military machine to shrine. dl nuitke it look like a pink
teo alongside of a real Canadian autocii cy. WVilh haste that is
i sign iof madness, isl ineptitude, the government is ci try
ithese men this week. i trvy Ihoe by po\\','s grlled to it ty an
amended order-i1(-(,n lutlil.
'\\'hen the trial is over, the trouble will not he settled. The
strike will hint be elnded. aln , instead of achievi-ng the ,ljeelt
the government has in view. iinimely, stam.inpi ,ill' ho labor
organizatiols, and by so doing hbing a cessalion It the lIbor
uiresl, which ,alilt he achieved by that or ally other lie'thod
:`o long as tihe system exists, the Irouble will be ihiensifiel. and
if Iho people of this country are wise, they will not let the mat
ter rest until the question has been settled, and settled at once
and by oi general elec-iion. The government was elected In
carry o1i the war programi. and not io arry 1 n a war against i
organized labor. It is doing hi.s, and organized labor will not'
shrink from the fight, but will, by its activities, :firing about,
not the overllhrow of the constitution, but of the present in
,olmpetent-even from a ruling class standpoint-go\verli
lueli. The final arbiters must he the people; governments
may coiie, and governments may go, but the people will event
ually control, not only the powers of government, but their Own.
destinies., T e end is not ,,et. Rut 1he P vliierm int is .erthiiily,
ridhin for ai lfall, auid ai heavy-$ ole atl that,"
Union Stock Holders in the
Butte Daily Bulletin
UNITED MINE WORKERS OF AMERICA-Locals: Sand Coulee,
Stocket, Roundup, Lehigh, Klein, Washoe, Red Lodge, Smith
FEI)DERAL LABOR UNION-Livingston.
MACHINISTS' UNION-Great Falls, 4Iutte, LiVingston.
MACHINISTS' UNION--Great Falls, Butte, Livingston, Seattle.
CEREAL WORKERS-Great Falls.
BLACKSMITHS' UNION--Butte. Miles City, Seattle.
ELECTRICIANS' UNION-Livingston, Deer Lodge, Butte, Anaconda,
BAKERS' UNION-Great Falls.
SHOE WORKERS-Great Falls.
PLASTERERS' UNION--Great Falls
RAILWAY CAR REPAIRERS-Livingston, Miles City.
BREWERY WORKIERS' UNION-Butte.
I1OD CARRIERS' UTNION-Butte and Bozeman.
STREET CAR MEN'S UNION-Butte, Portland.
METAL MINE WORKERS' UNION OF AMERICA.
PRINTING PRESSMEN'S UNION-Butte.
STEREOTYP'ERS AND ELECTROTYPERS' UNION-Butte.
BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL IRON WORKERS-Butte.
BROTHERHOOD BOILERMAKERS AND HELPERS--Butte and
STEAM ANI) OPERATING ENGINEERS-Great Falls.
BUTCHERS' UNION-Great Falls.
INTERNATIONAL MOLDER'S UNION, LOCAL NO. 276-Butte.
LAUNDRY WORKERS' UNION, NO. 25-Butte.
PLUMBIERS' UNION-Butte, Seattle.
BROTHERIIOOD RAILWAY CARMEN OF AMERICA, LOCAL NO.
224 - Miles City.
TRADES AND LABOR COUNCIL-Miles City.
I-HOD CARRIERS' UNION-IHelena.
BROTHERI-IOOD RAILWAY CARMEN OF AMERICA, COPPER
LODGE NO. 430-Butte.
BUTTE FOUNDRY WORKERS' UNION-Butte.
PAINTERS UNION- -Butte.
TAILORS' PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION-Butte, Portland.
BOILERMAKERS, SHIP BUILDERS AND HELPERS OF AMERICA
-Tacoma, Seattle, Livingston.
INTERNATIONAL BROTHERHIOOD OF BLACKSMITHS AND HELP
ERS, LOCAL NO. 211-Seattle, Wash.
WORKERS', SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' COUNCIL-Painters' HIall,
BUILDING LABORERS' UNION-Seattle.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL
IRON WORKERS AND PILEDRIVERS'JOCAL NO. 86-Seattle.
AND THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS IN I;BUTTE AND MONTANA
REVOLUTION FOR HUMANITY, NOT
'Thie rve\"ullii ll we aIre ( aiimIli g 1o aI hie'e is Ii.r lllmaiiity. not
I' -ii V lIinry 1I v'ii li c l I ll rights (.I' m( i\l, ni I, v'indicalel Karl
Marx or I'erdliilaul Lassalle or FredIerick IEnglels or any otlher
scialist tllleoreliciail. Thal is Ihe thinig to remember it we
\\ ll I I I nln ersfa l thilie aimn al (Iireelion Iof our li nhl rs. And
the \'ay In hIe aware of lthe signil'ieant-lnl sometimes forgot
en-- -fact that hll e revi olllilo is for h miram nily, is to restore our
((mi tll with hlinanitly. Io Ikeep illrselves as closely in ltouch
\witlh Ihe i lls u u1(l aslpij alions filf Ie liciii ,tioi mau i as ipossible.
'I'lal meai.ns IlIhatl \\'e ought to Ie alble to see iin Ihe most degrad
ed hl ai lllli i I llg a ir ell,\\' liii1nal being; a humaunin being to uon
l i rsI l u iii t Il love, not l slhriniik from . Thal uimeatis that we
IughtII l ICie aibl I s(1e i lhl I l manl hiiweve degra(deud lie may
le. the possibililty it' I(rtloslt a lhi(e inlIienIit hlrrel to him only
lhigh I i h.i( lio i li imposed by modeIi iI sciety. Siome workers
ii hii' 'amiisc Iose imIIiselt\'es ill a hVii(iiiil ofl ideais and 111 heories,
in ell(\lll -sounll(liNlg cries m l mi ldhibbolelhs, \whli(ch h \ave no e llln
ing, simply e n I( s Ilicy are i .tl lonerly enouigh related il
thei Illilln s I llh e (' 'il ile reasonii fo' their I hl)(.rs I the lerrilble
eCuil li n ini o which hll ' piesen l struetlure il' society has de
g'1il'(leo 1ioll iul women. II is ilolally IIto i hat, merln were
lhorn free mll ellial. II is literally [rue that capitalism li1
sl-lv Il's iliel 7IIi l( d l.lr l(,s lli('ln- - Il uillg lih he iverage mai Ibme
lie(ves hill 'll' lthe ; ll hiler of his ( i"ill loel illis jii ust hI cause i lie
enljolys Ithe .privileges 'of (slillg a vote once a year). It is
IIllor trl'heIl T'lwim lion tllrI e socialis Ill ,(restore meen andl
w' en il(l to 1iI t I ul('ll lnii(tlill eullahlity to which Ihey were des
liiiedl nl Iheil. hirl'h.
lMost o.' us irecognize IHal n as theory,. ;'We do not realize it
;is i 'eatily. \W e (io nolt realize it as ia ieatlly te('illse we speak
oil lIII IIliI Iv ill I'erIIIs of stllisltics, not in tle I s I of ii lividual
hilla ili (llle s. witll hearilts blienllh g ill their breasts and with
hunlligeir (l' l I r'st rtI;ill ng Ihleire bdllies. How barren are all
principles. all lphrases iun.less we el(ter into soilmi kind of corm
lunion witlli o r fellow m.le . llaren. iiit ill themselves, butl
;ilbarren beuII sl e the rebel is likely to iorgel that these ideas,
!tise prinmciples. these plulases have iimeainmig only as they re
hlle It i (h e llenmlteu l 'tot iolivi(ldu l huii la l beings ot' many
'llne('s, of Ill0 llll" liotlsl, of I lma nllly color'S.
I iless we realize thal it is fIor ihuilma ity thal we are working
illl(1 ot toI ' a theory ft snii lisnls , ilelely ais a theory, we are
likely Io hbe ellu h cikii s nli riillin . Ill jl' ob-hold rs and clock
i'ilchers in the lalbor andll s ialist niivemeint. Thiere are
'nouigh hacks a.11I roulineers, Joib-.,o lers and clock-watchers
ill the imoi\ienii t lo(lay. .(Io save tu, 'romli enlllaling them. To
become like theml \\'ouIlI spell IIe eiii1 it inspiration a d .' rob
its of V~hal('v(eI power w\e neigll have as propagandisls or
illsp ilI S.
MORRISSEY AND KELLER CASES COMPARED.
'iTh'e a(lion of1 (nimmnly Aollrney lJacksoni in preferring a
ichage tof inliter agaiist Lewis Keller in cinnectioll with the
iealh of 1'tuby 'Pasciue. without even waitinig 'or the verdict of
the coroiner's ji.r', attords ail inleresting comparitison with his
atlit.dle iil the Morrissey (ase.
'Thei evidence so l'ir u.c(ov'erl in conneetian with the death
,t' l iss Plascoe does not wvarrant alnything nmore than a charge
of arni slallghler,. it it warrantls lilnt, yet the charge placed
iagainsl Keller is the same is Ithouglih hie had deliberately mur
dered Ihe ulll'orltu ale girl,
As fr1 as we know. Klell."is general reputation is fair. al
least he has never served the mining intlrests ill the capacity
i' a tI.polential nmuiiii rer. (a( l it can ie 'aid that hlie is not an
The evidence in ltie Morris01 y ucase certainly jiustifieC' a
charge of niaishlaughiter, if not Inlirter, bhut when the Bulletin
niol e thei expoise of the inacIs. we were threartenedl with prose
(ltiol I'rr criminal libel by the same iiulividual who now ac
ce.is the Ithdletin's story of the Keller-Pascue atffair and pl)aces
a lchalrge oi' miiutdelr againsl Keller.
11 is impoissible to escapue the conlusion that the greatest
crime iin Ilite. in the eyes ,f the coutinty allorney, is to not
have Ithe Ibacking of the .\. 1:. i.
It one has that, he (.Ii slay with inimpu ilty, certain that the
vii(ce of, the copper god, speaking ini his behalf, will be listened
Ito and its mandates heeded.
.ledioi rily --A necessar.y i lila allatio I 'u.or ciuui ressnlen.
JUSTICE TO RUSSIA
THI, FRENCH AND RUSSIAN
Opening Address of Frederic ('. Howe
There are many reasons for this
meeting for justice to Russia. Some'
of them are official, others human.
There are two reasons that are offi
cial that seem to me to voice the
spirit of this call. On Jan. 8, 1918,
three months after the establishment
of the soviet government, President
Wilson outlined the policy of the
United States to Russia as follows:
"The evacuation of all Russian
territory, and such a settlement of!
all questions affecting Russia as will
secure the best and freest co-opera
tion of the other nations of the world
in obtaining for her an unhampered
and unembarrassed opportunity for
the independent determination of her
own political development and na
tional policy, and assure her of a sin
cere welcome into the society of free
nations under the institutions of herl
own choosing, and more than a wel-.
come, assistance also of every kind
that she may herself desire. The
treatment accorded Russia by her sis
ter nations in the months to comie
will be the acid test of their good
will, of their comprehension of her
needs as distinguished from their
own interests, and their intelligent
and unselfish sympathy."
This is the only official pronounce
ment of America's attitude toward
There is a later one, concurred in
by all of the allied powers. Scarce
four months ago at Paris, Jan. 22,
1919, in inviting the soviet govern
ment to participate in the Prinkipo
conference, President Wilson, with
the approval of the allies, said:
"They (the representatives of the
associated powers) recognize the ab
solute right of the Russian people to
direct their own affairs without dic
tation or direction of any kind from
outside. They do not wish to exploit
or make use of Russia in any way.
"They recognize the revolution
without reservation and will in no
and in no circumstances aid or give
countenance to any attempt at a
These are the official declarations
of the allied powers toward a sister
nation, which for four years was en-j
gaged with them in a common war!
But there are human reasons for
this meeting--human reasons that1
need no official sanction. For four,
years I have faced men and womlen
and children from the continent of'
Europe. and I have learned that peo
ple, whether Russian or Polish, iltal
inn o(r Ilishll, have the same common,l ,
universal, simple, honest wants.
They want a home; they want their
children; they want to make a living
and he free from oppression of any
kind. They are the kind of people
and there is no essential diference
that Lincoln spoke of in his appealing
way and in no circumstances aid or
this meeting is that in Russia yonder,
our ally of a few months ago, hu1n
dreds of thousands----yes. I am ad
vised millions of people-are dying
They can be fed, and America in
the past hast asked no question aboutt
the political lineage of people who
were dyinlg of hunllgel'. SIhe sent re
lief to India. She did not ask permis
sion to send relief to Ireland. We are
sending it now to Armenia.
And in the passion of the press, we
should not forget that this Russia,
gave two million of her people at the
front. She was a valued friend up,
to a few months ago, and if reports
are to be believed, regiments went
to the front against machine guns,
with nothing but their bare hands--"
so betrayed were these Russian peo
ple by their rulers and leaders!
other call to the American people to
voice their good will to Russia. For,
three generations, people from Rus
sia have occupied this hall and other
halls, and America has sent gener
ously. She has used diplomatic chan
nels to abate and end the tyranny of
that country. She has protested
against lpogrolns, against oppressions,
against the old order. And why
should America today turn her back
upon t hese, the finest, most disin
terested traditions of our land!
I know nothing ih international
matltersl that has a stronger appeal
to men thanu the right of every peo
pile, be they great or small, be they
white or black, to worlk out their own
destiny in lheir own unilmpitlede way.
Like all new doctrines in the
world, this doctrine is having some;
difficulty in acceptance. But this
world wants the variety, the char
acter, the culture, the refinements,
the contributions of every people.
And I should like to see the peace!
council fromn Alerica establish a de
partlment filled with men who want
to aid aspiring people, to help them
in their own--not our way--in their
own way-to realize their own con
ception of life!
\\'ell, I must not forget that I ami
merely the holder of the gavel to
night. But before introducing the
speakers. 1 want to call attention to
a parallel-a parallel to what is go
ing on in Russia today. Something
over a hundred years ago there was
another revolution that shook the
world. It issued from France and for
causes aliost exactly simnilar to those
that led up to the revolution in Rus
sia. There was corruption in the gov
Scott Nearing's Special Article
DO THEY SEE?
Judge Elbert H. Gary. chairman
of the hoard of directors of the Unit
ed States Steel corporation, made a
speech in February, 1912. in which
he was reported by the newspapers
as saying that the conditions in the
U:nited States at that time were sim
ilar to those preceding the French
revolution. Replying to a question
as to his exact language on this oc
casion Judge Gary wrote, (Feb. 17,
"What I said, in brief substance,
was that there is a feeeling of un
rest throughout the world; that it
must Ie admtted there is at times
and places cause for the feeling;
that it behooves those in charge of
large interests and in the possession
of wealth and influence, to personally
become actively interested in improv
ing conditions; that this is good mor
als and good policy; that all of us
tiulst admit we had committed errors
and haIl been negligent, and there
ernment, the king was weak, his ad
visers ignorant and corrupt. The
peasants were hungry; they were in
poverty and ignorance, kept so by
the state and the church. The revolu
tion was the only way out. For all
attempts at reform were frustrated
just as they have been in Russia.
Finally, the revolution broke. It
spread. It consumed the old older.
There have been other revolntions
since, bilut tile F.rellch revolution was
the only revolution of the past cell
tury that was economic. In this, too,
it was like the Russian revolution. It
was not political... It' didn't dethrone
the king alone; it was economic. The
peasants took the land of the old no
bility and distributed it among them
selves. They confiscated it. They
ended fedualism by ending the cause
of it. Instead of a few thousand own
ers, as there were in Russia, Pjus.ia
and England, there are now 4.000,
000 land owners in France. That is
the explanation of France. That has
been her strength. That was the real
bulwark against Germany. The
French revolution wonl the late war.
For the peasants fought for their
homes. IHad they been serfs they
wounl not have stood as they did like
a stone wall on so many occasions.
Blut England, Germany and Russia
did not understand, or chose not to
understand, the revolution.
The feudal classes of these coun
tries made common cause with the
feudal classes of France to crush the
revolution and prevent its spreading.
The liberalizing influences were halt
ed at the British Channel at the River
Elbe. They did not secure a footing
in Great Britain, Austria, Hungary.
Germany or Russia. They left the
old feudal nobility that still owns
the land in these countries intact in
their economic as well as their po
This was the greatest c'l'datity that
hals befallen the world. It enthroned
reaction all over Europe. Tle holy
alliance was an alliance to save prop
e'rty as well as thrones. Europe was
kept chained to the middle ages by
the coalition of the old ruling nobility
which was willing to destroy France
to preven tile French revolution from
The world has been paying the
price of the suppression of thi, French
revolution ever since. It is paying
for it in the war which is drawing 0to
a close. For the militaristic classes
of Europe are the old feudal classes
which still own the land, which still
control diplomacy, which have par
celled out the world in the interest
of their investments during the past
50 years. The tell million 111en who
have given their lives in this war
are p)art of the offering which society
an!d civilization has m1lade to the
strangling of the French revolution
by the julnkers of Europle ai centullry
ago. For central Europe is still feudal
as it was two centuries ago.
This organization to overthrow the
revolutionary movement in Russia is
as portentious to the world as was
the coalition against the French rev
olution. Yes, it is more so. The his
tory of the future will be written in
what happen:s to Russia. This in turn
will write the history of tihe( rest of
Eluropie and possibly of America as
well. It is conceivable that western
civilization m111ay be destroyed by false
steps in regard to IRussia just as the
Europeanll world has colne close to
destruction by reason of the false
steps of a hundred odd years ago.
Why? Because Russia is imponder
able. She contains nearly 200,000.
000 virile people. She contains great
w ealth and endless resources. A re
actionary Russia, an industrial Rus
sia, a Russia in league with the Ori
ent or with Germany might sweep
westward to the British channel. That
is one danger. It may he remote. But
it is no more improbable than the
alliances that have been formed in
Europe within the past generation.
Bult revolutionary Russia wants
only peace. She alone of the powers
is ready to scrap all militarisnm and
end iall wars. She wants to devote
her attention to other thing::.
Russia, too, accepts without reser
vation the Mlagna Charta of peace
with which America entered the war.
She has ended secret diplomacy and
opened her archives to the world.
She freed Persia and declared that
slhe would not accept Constantinople
from any one but the Turks them
selves. She has declared for an ap
plied self-determination of peoples,
and said to her people you can gov
ern yourselves as you like, even in
your smallest local affairs.
Russia has spoken across the seas
and accepted our ideals of peace. She
has sent them to the heart of Ger
many. According to Ludendorff, it
was the Russian propaganda back of
the German lines that broke the pow
er of Germany. It bred revolution
and resulted in the dethronement of
the kaiser and the military caste.
Russia is tilhe problelm of problems
of the world. She contains one-third
of the population of Europe. She is
seething with something new that
cannot be quenched by arms. It can
only be overthrown by ideas. To at
tempt to police Russia in the interest
of reaction means a continuation of
wars and possibly the complete de
struction of the European world-it
may be by war, it may be by revolu
tion, it may be by disease and pesti
lence Ibred of hunger, and the emanci
pttion of the people.
fore, the wise and fair thing was to
recognize our faults and improve our
MIost people in 1912 thought that
Judge Gary was going too far in
making such statements. The situa
tion in the world seemed too stable.
and too secure to justify any such
gloomy predictions. The events of
the past six years have demonstrated
that Judge Gary was a wise prophet.
Like many of the other leaders of
American industrial life the Judge
sees the forces that are at work in
the world. He realizes that changes
are coming in social organizations,
and as a wise man, he is prepared to
make the best of these changes.
Prophecy is dangerous. Theorizing
often produces weird and improb
able results. But there is a type of
vision represented by men like Judge
Gary that is imperatively needed in
the United States at the present
moment. If the master class in Aler
O- - -
Today's Anniversary. i
Cabot Discovers America,
June 21th, 1479.
It is one of the ironies of fate that
the New World should bear the name
of America, thus perpetuating the
name of an adventurer, Americus
Vespucius, whose claim to being the
"first discoverer" of the western con
tinent was based on a falsely dated
letter. Justice and convenience
would both have been better served
if the true pioneers and been given
their dues, and the name of Columbia
had been given to the southern con
tinent, and that of Cabotonia to the
St. John's Day, the twenty-fourth
of June, is a historic date for Amer
ica, for it was on that festival in
the year 1497 that John Cabot set
foot on the soil of North America.
It was then that he set up the ban
ner of England, and from that hour
the fortunes of this continent were
destined to be swayed by the Anglo
Saxon race. His discovery laid the
foundation for the future suprem
acy of England in North America,
and, although this claim was long
disputed by the French, the Span
iards and the Dutch, the conquer
ing Anglo-Saxon eventually trium
phed over all opposition Grepit Brit
ain and the United State;, the great
nation founded by Erglaptd's rebel
lious colonists, now dlominaie tihe
continent, thanis to. o,. ismall ex
tent to the daring and ~iardihood of
John Cabot and his sons.
Just where Cabot first planted the
standard of England, and by its side
the Venetian banner of St. Mark-
the one in loyalty to his master,
Henry VII., the other in affection for
Venice--will never be known. Wheth
er lie touched the shores of the con
tinent on "the dismal cliffs of La
brador," or on the wild coasts of
Nova Scotia or New Foundland, will
never be definitely known. That
Newfoundland was his first stopping
place is held by a number of histor
ians, and the capital city of St. John's
perpetuates the name of the saint on
whose festival the landing was ef
fected. The Labrador theory has
much to support it, but the concen
sits of modern opinion seems to favor
Cape Breton, which forms a part of
what is now the province of Nova
In some respects Cabot deserves
e.ic;feor praise than Columbus, and
certainly his achievements were in
finitely greater in their importance
to North Americans than those of
Americus Vespucius. Columbus had
succeeded only in attaining the is
land fringe of the continent before
Cabot set foot on the mainland. Cabot
sailed over waters far stormier and
more difficult than any encountered
by Columbus, and his equipment and
resources were vastly less, for he had
but a single tiny vessel, the Matthew
-the first vessel to touch our Amer
ican shores. His discovery of the
North American continent preceded
by more than a year the third voy
age of Columbus, when he came in
sight of the mainland of South Amer
Like Columbus and Vespuclus.
John Cabot was a native of Italy, and
it is believed that he was born inl
Genoa, the native city of Columbus.
Venice has also claimed the honor
of being his irthiplace, but this is
disproved by official documennts. lie
settled in the English city of Biristol,
and it was there that he sailed on
his menlorable voyage of discovery,
having received a patent from Henry
VIII., authorizing him and his three
sons to search for islands, provinces
or regions in the eastern, western or
The first important gunpowder
factory in America was established
on the Brandywine river, near Wil
mington, Del., in 1802, by Bleuthere
Trenee du Pont de Nemours, a
Frenchman, who was born in Paris
149 years ago today. As a boy he
was placed in the royal mines of Es
sone to acquire a practical knowledge
of the manufacture of gunpowder.
He renlrined there till the outbreak
of the French revolution. He came
to America in 1799, and, discovering
that only the poorest of gunpowder
was made in the United States, and
that in the crudest way, he decided
to enter the powder industry on this
side of the Atlantic. In 1801 he re
visited the Essone mills, to procure
plans, models and machinery and
with these he opened his first pow
der works on the Brandywine. His
inlant industry was the beginning of
a great one, and ever since the Du
pont family has largely controlled
the powder-making industry of the
The Dunkers or Dunkards.
The first society of Dunkers or
Dunkards, a sect of German Baptists,
which now has more than 100,000
communicants in the United States
and Canada, was fdiiinded in schwart
zenau, Germany, 211 years ago to
day by Alexander, .lal and seven
others. The name "Dunker" was
originally given them as a nickname,
and was derived from the German
word meaning "to dip." They were
also called Tumblers, from their
mode of baptism-putting the per
son while kneeling headfirst under
the water. The members prefer to
be known by their official name of
Brethren. The church in America is
divided into four sections, the Con
servatives being by far the larger
branch, the others being the Old Or
der, the Progressive, and the Seventh
Day. The original Dunker societies
in Germany were cruelly persecuted
and about two centuries ago they
were forced to leave that country,
emigrating to Holland and Friesland
and later to America. The expa
triates were cordially received in the
English colonies of America and most
of them settled in Pennsylvania,
Maryland and Virginia.
ica could realize, as the workers are
beginning to realize, that the United
States must go through the same
process of industrial and social de
velopment that is taking place in
Europe, the inevitable changes could
be made with less disturbance and
with far greater constructive advan
tages than will result from the pres
ent short-sighted, dog-in-the-manger
policy so generally adopted and ap
plauded by the American ruling class
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