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iEntered as Second Class Matter, December 18, 1917, at the Postottice S at Butte, Montana, Under Act of March 8, 1879. iPBONES: BUSINESS OFFICE, 62; EDITORIAL ROOMS. 292. BUSINESo OFFICE AND EDITORIAL ROOMS, 101 S. IDAHO ST. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: One Month .- _...........- .....$1.00 Six Months ..........-... ..$5.00 Three Months ....».......----.... 2.76 By the Year ... ...-.. . 9.50 OFFICIAL ORGAN OF. THE Montana Strtte Federation of Labor; Metal Trades Couoncil of Butte; Silver Bow Trades and Labor Assembly; State Metal: Trades Council WEDNEIS1)DAY, OCTOBER I1, 1920 "The Great Steel Strike" It is not often that the story of a strike makes interesting reading. Strikes are generally sordid things, carried on with a routine that varies but little. Yet a book has been written about a strike that is not only interesting, but Ilint opens up a new w\'rld for the C avr'ge reader----a \v llhi where miert and women struggle, stiffer and die to secure ttlC,re bread. It gives' not glimpses of this world alone, tI!1 opens lip long vistas wlhere ithe reader sees two giganlici social fttrces in combaL t. "V. Z. Foster has written sulch a book. it is called "The Great Steel Strike." A rather small voltinie, it is packed with a mass of evidence that e ffectually relfutes all of the stories spread broadcast by the press agencies of the steel-trust. It shows in detail just \vhat theli steel strike was---the revolt, of underpaid, overworked ltoilers against, conditions that had he conme unbleaiable. Mtiore importanti even tharn that, it shows the tremendous power otf the steel irust ant its allied interests---a power that the miasses of the lpeople sense but dimly. 11. L. Menicken, o.ne of ttie hest-known literary critics iii .America, ,rpublisher and co -editor of the Smart Set magazine, has writ ten a review of Foster'.: hook, probably the first he has ever written of a work idealirig with labor matlters exclusively. lIe says: "The Foster parnhlilet, I supptotse, will he furiously haimmeedi iin the newspatper'slhetr'ie these few lirlesget into print. The althor' is the sitiiie Foster who was exhibited before Ihe public, a vetar ori so ago, as the anti-Ghrist. ,f the steel strike, andt liter inlvestigalted at. great length by a coriniittee of.uriiniskull 'Unitied States senators. tHis own account oif the strike, simple., modes! antd car'efully docui merited, proves what I siisl,tettlel at the time, to-wit, that the current newslpper aertlccuntts of botih tlihe strike anld the mart were absolutely dishonest. As between Foster and the newslpapers, I believe Foster. lie disposes of most of the charges made againriIsf hiimn---thallt the strike was in spired by the Ilolshevilki, that it was uinder'taken against the oppotsition of (iompleis, that. it. was carried on by vio lence. that. it \iwas planned as ai rl\ev'ollion rather' than as a stlri'ke. Ills evidenciite on all these pl iints seems to riie to be ('ccluesive. And he is elually convincingwhen he says that the striker's were deniied their common right to free assemblage alld f'ree speeIh, Itlat, t hey were attacked and often murduered by tiihug's enrliloyed Ity the steeool comepanies, anlld that the police anlrd soliier's aildedl anld an.betted these thugs. I an againist str ikes, andl and glad that these of the steel mills were defeatid. ilMy syminpallthies iare wholly on the side of capitalism. Bitt if eapitalisnt keeps onl sooeeking ty,secuei itself by tilamptling iii tire plain rights of its op paoients, lnd by deb nclhing the already corirlipt antl stink ilg press, anid by turint lithe law into its slave and the governmeont into its pirnp, then it. will keep on r'aising lip such able and relentless eileinies as Foster, and sooni or late, they will give it such' a clout nacross tihe occiplut that its so-called birains will be spattered all over the universe. "The Great Steel Strike"' is one more link in the chain that labor is relentlessly Iti'ugin-g aboutl the gr'eat induistrial monopo lies of this natitin anii their press agencies, a cha.iii that will ibe used to drag themi fri'om the( exalted position they now hold. Thie feudal condlitiirios ili the steel industry, tihe spy systems and the private arnmies imaintainell by the inidurstrial lords are all described. The lui ,pet part that gove'rniment, plays vwheli the interests of capital and the inter'ests of the worlkelrs clash i. shown by dozenis of illstnines. .T'l'hroi'ugh it all runs the story of unbelievable sacrifice by mien who are scorlnfully referred to in the press as "igiorantiit alionis,'" tIhe tale of the unconquler able spirit that still lives and that will in the near future force the overlords to acknowleldge the fact that their recent victory, gained with the aid of the governirnent aid the press, was but a temporary triumph. ''The Great Steel Strike" should he read by every' worker as well as byv all other persons who wish to kinoiw the forces that are at work uindenlcrnatah on11' social strulctutri' Criticism of the State As children fear to go into the dark, the great mass of the A merican people fear a chlange in affairls of the state. The system newspapers pretend to sec "red" in every criticism of the state. There is a lack of concentrated indignation against wrong and injustice in the state of Montana. True, the pr'i mary election was a protest; but it was only a mild one, and even now the pettit'ogginig remnants of the old political pirates have a certain hope that they can arrest the will of' the people fir tlie change thley are so anxious to obtain. That these milk irosed maggots will be able to do much in stopping the great wave of p,olitical discontent which is sweeping over Montana is doublful. The people have been patiently hearing so much injustice for such ia long time that they now no longer fear to criticize either the state or the corruptionists who have been buying things from Sears-Roebuck with postage stamps.. What is this anuthority" of the state that we have all been standing in so much awe of? Who are these people who have been allowed to carry on almost unrcstricted and unerlticized? T.hey are nothing more or less than the servants of the ipeoplh. Let it be here Stated that whore there is no resistance to inuins tice and harzdly any public crilicism, thlie stale itself is in great Sdanger. The system ne\'wspapers, the public officials now in office, the Anaconda Special Privilege interests, the tax dodg ors, a lot of big property owners, and a bunch of raw recruit conservatives fear any kind of criticism as a -lot of people once feared the end of lhe world. Instead of the liberty-loving rebellious spirit that used to be sulpposeoily an American characteristic, we have degenerated ihto, a set, of. whiners who permitl a seconnd-rate class of men a.qd an infamous police system to rul9 us without lifting up our voices in protest, never saying a word about the doing of nt.l.hlg.gr 'We are too.fearful of the future. Every time the 'Ar'' iaeTilrda hispered "shutldown," tIhe miners scampered off 16 their hýhles like so marrny raLt when a terriCrPr .og ,arles rn trhe scene. ' The unmitigated nerve of.iewo w1ho. put themselvesl'orward for a state office after being fouund guilty of fraud is simply un bearable to decent citizens. Is there any sense in refusing to criticize these kind of fellows whnr have not a spark of man hood-left? Then there is the lunch of office-seeking maggots who try to creep inlt any 1,d pcdlitical bed and bite the occu pants. Who are libese e.olie.s that they should rot he criti cized? The kept press has l,~cirme so terrified of its 'adver tisers and of "the interests," so filled w\ith.pi.opaganda, and so stuffed with down right lies that no one believes half what th.ey read in it. Too ,rig have we been .oeptin'g things withi; out criticism. The mental pig-wash that the systemrr papers print is sickening to those good people who are striving to re djrst. coonditions thail Ihese "law and ord'er" bushwhackershave thrust upon Montana. Is Ihis uncrit ical obedience to "author ity" to go on forever? Is Montanai to blush always for its sen ators? Are such men as Nelson Story, Jr., of Ilozeman, who is ruºning for lieutenant-governor on the same ticket with Joe Dixon to pass unchallenged and uneritieized? Is it an unpar d(onable sin, to say thllt William 1.. lHolloway is running on the same ticket with Nelson Slory, J r., after he had found the latter guilty of misappropriation of putblic funds? The voters ,1' Montana rniust eliminate this fear of criticism of (air public officer arid those who alre seeking to become public officers. We have been sleeping on our rights too long. The Plight of the Postal Employes No body of workers has been subjected to more miserable tyranny than the postal employes. Under Postmaster Bur leson most of the privileges gained by them through years of struggle have been taken away and protest has been met with discharge. 'Their efforts to bring their starvation wages up to the extremely modest standard o t' o.lher, workers have been met with measures thit ,co.uld hardly have been severer had thie postal emphloyes broktin into open revolt. At one time, the postmaster general even denied the postal employes the right of pictilioning congress. It is. now proposed by the representatives of private interests ii congress and the senate to force the postal employes to sever their connection with the American Federation of Labor and rany stirring speeches have been delivered on this subject by the "mnawsh" members. It seens to be the. impression of most of ,or elec ted rep(Cresentatlives thant employes of Ithe various gov erniment. departments should not be allowed to call their souls their own, that this privilege is reserved for congressmau'and senators only. Just why the postal employes believed that Senator Harding meant what he said about .the rights of employes and intended to institute industrial tribunals for employes in public service is a mystery, bhlutl anyhow they sent a delegation to interview him and inquire about the "prompt and effective" enforcement of his pledge concerning industrial tribunals. Sena;tor Hlarding was greatly pleased to see the delegation and greeted threm very cordially indeed. i;e heard what the. delegation had to say and then remarked that. "this will make fine enanpaigni material," promising an ansNfer on the morrow. Alas! TIomorrow never comes so the p6stal employes are still awaiting an answer. 'We fear that at thi.s time riext yeas they will still be waiting unless they disregard all the fooiisih advice ahout the honorahle position they occupy, etc., and de cide to exercise the economic power that they undoubtedly possess. The experience of the postal employes with both democrat and republican administrations should have convinced them by this time that nothing is to be gained by supplication. It seems that by the reactionary any dislike of direct action is always interpreted as weakness. Ilis own love for force and violence makes him unable to understand those who believe that rea soned argument is still a power. Protecting the Home Everyone appears to agree that the home is molt essential 0o civilization. More than that, it is the essential of continued human life. Even the lowest tribes have Ihad family life, and only in civilization, so-called, do we find family life in danger. The danger is not from some free love legislation, as the politicians keep ranting about. Family life is so much the center of nature and human nature that if laws were passed carrying out the wildest fancies of the politicins, practically none but the idle rich would take advantage of them. The Turks, for instance, legalize plurality of wives, yet practically nio Turk outside of the very wealthy and high government offi cials has more than one wife. Wife N,. I a nd the problem of sulpport constitute effective barriers. The dangers, as we find them in civilizattion, are due to fac tors which make family life hard or impossible to large num bers of people. The standard of civilization is such and the rewards to ordinary human beings so lýo', that the husband may _not he able to support his family. Each additional chitd, because of increased expense,, becomes a menace to the rest. The family needs a home. It needs food. It needs clothing. It needs social and educational olpportunities. 'And unless the wage covers these things the civilized family is impossible. If the family is already started before the .inescapable want appears, the wife must go out to work and neglect the children. i' this fails, there is the county home. In every civilized- country a large part of the young men realize that they have, no chance to support a family 'and do not marry. This means that as niarnny women are denied fam ily life. The further we go in "civilizati,,n" the more unnal ural does tlhe life in the great cities become, with the altetld ing increase in vice and crime. Th'e danger to the home is real. It lies in the inability of so marry of our people to 'aintain their homes,properly be cause of lack of rsufficient 'ihome. The lome wa.s not created by law and is rnot in existedihe simply because of the rantings of politicians. lt isra natural institution, which is threatened only by the greed of monopolists and olther social leeches. Big Business is a kind pf lbrigandag,. There are various sizes and types of grufters and prohileer,. The Big Business I man is in a position of advantage where he can nWlct society r and then Iherle is a hqst. of small fry that. try to imitate Big SmBusiness. They are a piliable crew. Lloyd ýeolrge said: 'c.elf-ildel rrnialinl is a phrase and is f not intended to mean anything." Platform of Judicial Candidates Contrary to the eustomrary silence of judicial candidates as to the'principles which will govern their official conduct, the candidates of the Nonpartisan and Labor Leagues hereby com mit themselves to the following declaration: We assert, in rspn, et'of the judiciary, the basic ideal s on which the American iepublic was buill: (1). Tlhat the people shall have full liberty publicly to discuss, by; speech, writing or assemblage, those things which 'eem of importance to them as citizens; (2). That this liberty be used to make their laws and gov ernment conformable at all times to the greatest corhmoni good. Not only during the late war, but througlhontl the preceding years which witnessed the concentration of economic power and resulting diffusion of insecurity and want, the courts have powerfully aided in denying to the people these once unques tioned rights. They have exlendedl protection to property and withheld it from humanity. They have nullified laws the most beneficial to-political and economic freedom. They have re stricted the operation of legislation by initiative. They have largely destroyed tihe right of ftree discussion. And finally, they have worked in nearly every instance to relieve privilege of its just burdens, and to promole the riscendancy of the eco nomic over the political state. We pledge ourselves, if elected, to vote for substantial jus tice between public and private interests, as well as between individuals; to consent to no jtdgment whereby the legislative or popular will is defeated through hostile intprpretation or.on unsubstantial' grounds; to translate into fact, wherever pos sible, the lheoretital equality of all men and classes under the law; and to respect no precedent conflicting withn these prin ciples or arising from a disregard of human rights. IIAlll W PE ASE, W. W\V. PALM Ei. Government Without Discretion By CHARLES M. KELLEY. Alfred P. Thornm, representative of the railway executives, bluntly told officials of the treasury department that they are without discretion in the distributidn of the $300,000, 000 "revolving fund" established by the Cummins-Esch bill. When rail roads ask for funds, they must be granted, for that, Mr. Thornm con tends, is the plain intent of the transportation act. Secretary (Houston has taken the position that if the railroads can finance their needs the government is not required to provide funds. Mr. Thom takes the opposite view. Even if the railroads can get money from private investors, if an in terest rate higher than 6 per cent is demanded the roads may come to the government for relief and the government must immediately give it, whether or not the 'officials be lieve the managers have not made an earnest effort to finance their needs. The attitude of Mr. Thom is typ ical of the viewpoint of railway managers. They fared so generous Ebbets and Dunn--Owners of the Champion Teams Charles H. Ebbets, the "Squire of Flatbush," probably . discovered Brooklyn. Anyway, no one now re members a Brooklyn team playing without Charley at its head. He has been connected with the Dodgers 38 years, first as secretary and for 18 years as president. Ebbets has had a good many lean years on the other side of the East River. The Giants had the money and the prestige. Charley got around this to some ex tent by putting on "special days." The first anniversary of a mascot was as good as the birthday of the Brooklyn Bridge. But times changed and pennant possibilities and Sunday baseball helped the "squire," add he helped the team by some judicious investments. Ebbets got close to the lans. He wanted them to feel the team was theirs. Instead of motor ing away from the park immediately after a game he would hold "open house" in the grandstand and invite the public to make suggestions as to how to run the club. He pulled an other new one this year. When it began to appear that the Dodgers had Co-operative Chain Stores and Democracy (By C. I'. LOW'BRI.) (Editor National Co-Operative News.) Among the numerous warnings to the co-operative movement of Amer ica by Dr. James P. Warbasse is the following, in the July number of Co Operation" : "There is no objection to a cen trgl organization starting branches if it can fulfill the following condi tions; "1. The branches must be near enough so that the members can attelid meetings of the central organ ization. If 'the" branches are not near: enough so that the members can attend meetipgs, then a central organization shquld not establish such branches; 'bdt societies ehould org4nizq independently and federate to create a central organization which they control. "2. It must be possible for- the average member to attend meetings without the loss of employment or without undue expenses;' if it is im possible for ,members to attend on account of expense, they are virtually disfranchised and democratic control does not exist." Two of the fundaniental princi pled involved' in the co-operative movement are collective action for the common good aapd democratic control and the great problem of the co-operative moveplent is to reap the banceit of combined centraliled ef fort without losing democratic con .trol by Ate rank and file. The dae tor's dictum. would. apply to the ly in their recent demands upon congress that they seem to have imbibed the thought that the gov ernment exists solely for their bene fit. For the first time in the histoi'y of this nation congress has set up a privileged class and has granted it extraordinary privileges and sub sidies, creating precendents that certainly must be an incentive for new and more exorbitant demands from railroad managers. They not without reason imagine that they are greater than the goverhment itself. The arrogance of Mr. Thom's re cent demand directs attention anew to the need of an awakened public opinion and a recasting of views concerning our policy toward the railroads. Private management must of necessity rely more and morel upon governmental help. If the gov ernment is to be responsible for the needs of the roads, it should also be responsible for. their man agement. The role of paymaster and money lender is not one that our people will long tolerate. a chance he announced that the men and womien who saw the games day by day would be the ones entitled to see the. world series,- and that un used rain checks would be the basis for. ticket distribution.. Thereafter Brooklyn rain checks: became legal tender on Long Island. James (Jim) .Dunn, head of the Cleveland Indians, was pushed or fell into a good thing when he bought the club early in 1916. Charles Som -ers, one of the founders of the Ameri can League, and owner of. the Cleve land club, found himself in financial t-ouble. His bankers assumed charge of the club and put it on the market. Cleveland fans failed to produce the money to buy the team and Ban Johnson, president of the league, finally disposed of it to Dunn, a big Chicago contractor. Dunn and his associates had money to spend and they put a big bunch of it into the club. He put across the deal where by Speaker came to the Indians with in a few weeks after he assumed charge. pioneer stage of the movement 75 years ago, but when the co-operative movement begins to attain national proportions, the delegate system must be used instead, to insure demo cratic control. In England it was found impossi ble to assemble even all of the dele gates of the affiliated co-operatives of the Co-Operative Wholesale so ciety into one. meeting place, so the' presen,C,..W.; , system- was in augui.tedayS' bhich ddlegates are elected to meet in the various whole sale centprs of Manchester, London, New Castle, ,te, where matters ot policy are dbPcded and the .members of the co-operative wholesale board are elected. The board of directors of the: Engli-,gh Cb-(Opera'tivtd Whdle sale are thus enabled to operate branches that are not near enough "so that all members can attend'the nmeetings of the central organiza tion." In the field of retail co-operation, it will surely not be contended that it is possible for the eighty-seven thousand members of the Leeds Co Opdrative society to find one hall big enough to accommodate them all at a members' meeting. Messrs. Landers and Wilkins of the English Co-Operative Wholesale board informed the . writer ihile visiting in this dountry .a yed. 'agq that the retail co-operative .societi q of two whole countries had amatga a Into nno,..Subelyhthe verage memherghip of this anmalýmat.d society cannot attend meetingt "with out loss of emrployment or undue ex pense." The goal to which the English co opet'at:ve movement is reacthing is the amalgamation of all retail co operative sbcieties into one national co-operative society. That the future co-operative move mnctnt will be operalted by ihltaini store syslem covering largo areas of terri tory is patent to any observer who stud:eos the situation crltically. Hard ly an issue of the English "Co-Oper ative News,': or the "Scottish Co Operator" comes off the pros with out the announcement of the amalga maitioi o'f the smaller societies into larger grotips. In Belgium, since the, war,'the amalgamation of loyal co-operatives has proceeded at such a pace that it has been announced that all the societies in Belgium are practically united into not more than 14 societies. Russia presents the ex ample of a co-operative system with a greater total extent than any other in the world, all operated on the delegate system, from the retail co operative society to the big central controsoyas. In America, except for the isolated and rare surviva ls in the form df small co-operative societies, the hope of the movement seems to be in or ganization of co-operative societies as chains -of stores with united strength enough to resist the attacks of the enemies of co-operation and to develop efficient systems of manage nient and operation. Granted that the co-operative movement must be organized big enough and efficient enough to meet the competition of the private chain store system, it behooves the real friends of the co operative movement to; insist that a democratic system of delegate con trol shall be developed which will prevent the development of a bureau era.tic autocracy controlling the co operative movement. It is tinoe that the co-operators of America develop a national organ ization that is democratically con trolled by the rank and file through a delegate system by which it can develop and control its own export advisors and not be dependent upon any outside critics and advisers not controlled by the, rank and `file of the co-operative movemnent. The National Co-Operative Whole sale has helped in the organizatiion of retail co-operative societies on the chain store plan that are demo crutically controlled through a dcle gate system. For this, it hap been criticized by Dr. Warbasse, notwith standing the fact that he is p.resident of the Co-Operative League of Amer ica, whose membership is scattered from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Arctic to the gulf, a majority of whom find it impossible to attend meetings of the central organizatiion, and for whom it is not possible as "average members" to attend meet ings without loss of employment or .without incurring "undue expenre." A delegate system is the only method by whicir a large co-operative society can be democratically con trolled. 0 0 Harding and the Negro 0- -o Senator Harding assured a dele gation of negroes that the G. O.' P. 'will not fail the American negro." If there is one thing that makes the republican record conspicuous since the reconstruction of the southern states after the civil war it is its betrayal of the negro. By liilitary might the govern ment, in control of" the party, used the 'negro iin the south to' establish the supremacy of northern capital ism. Then it released the negro to the tender mercies of. his former masters. The constitutional amend ments that were desigied" to pro tect the negro became useless through republican co-operation with the southern democratic oli garchy. Through all the years of white supremacy and negro disfranchise ment the republican party 'could have invoked the second section of the fourteenth amendment and reduced the representation of the south in congress, where legislation deprived the negro of the vote. In this way the republican party could have controlled some congresses which it did not control, force the enfranchisement of the negro, and punish its democratic "enemy." But the republicans have never seized this advantage to increase their power or to serve the negro. No' more remarkable example of 50 years of -co-operation of both parties in nullifying '-a fundamentlal law of the land can be cited than. this. Yet there are negro politi cians who go to Mariin .and barter the rights and the future of their enslaved fellows to a party guilty of this treachery and listen to the assurances of its leader that it "Will not fail -the American negro." What has happened. to the her·'o in the southern states is as much due to the republican party in the north as to the democratic party in the .south. When negroes un derstand this they will smash both. ' Fear yourself, not the power of others. Science is stranger than supersti tion. WHERE THE BULLETIN IS SOLD Iacnqes Drug Co., Harrison and Cobban. 'George A: Ames Jr., 316% North Main street. Palace of Sweats, Mercury and Main streets. Everybody's News Stand, 215 8 Montana. Depot Druag Store, 8625 Eas Front street. Harkin's Grocery, 1028 Talbot. Hielena Confectionery, 786 Bast Park,.st'reet. - Pat McKenna, 314 North Ma- i t. Watson Drug. Co., 1017 Talbot. Athens Grocery, 603 Uteh avenue. Halkas, 819 East Front strLeet .Hw ...... .1.419