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HOPE.—Hy Henry .Ye,tie.
O why should \vc seek to anticipate sorrow, By throwing tiiv tlow'r of the presort away, And gather the black-rolling clouds of to-morrow, I’o darken the generous sun of to-day ? How often we brood over misery madly, Till we murder the Hope that was sent to Inspire; And Pleasure grown oid and decripid, turns sadly To shake his grey locks o'er the tomb of hi. sire. Cherish Hope; and though life by affliction be ‘haded. Still his ray shall shine lovely and guild the scene o'er, T like the dew drop that glistens on leaves when they're faded, As bright and as clear as it glisten'd before. FAITHFUL LOVE. Soft as the fleece invested flowers, Unkiss'd by winds—nntouch'd by showers, Mild as the bre itcv of summer's e ven, Bringing th" fragrant scent of heaven, er Caslalia's shining sands of gold, But not so fleet—so wild—so col l, Bright as the rare and orient gem That lights a Sultan’s diadem. Far as those blanch and balmy flowers That cling around th'Ogygian bowers. True as the maid whose tell tale sigh Was never found to breath a lie, Warm as the siroc winds that sweep Along the waves- of llella’s deep. Sweet as the sweets that dwell above, is mutual,—long and faithful love. To feel within our bosom's core A g»nial throb that we adore. To cling to oxe thro' life and death, To draw in love with every breath, To think tiiat if we lost that one, The world would be without a sum ; —For all that angels feel above, They feel—who cherish faithful love ! NAVAL PEACE ESTABLISHMENT. (co.vcluded.) The following projet of a bill is the most material of the Documents accompanying the Secretary's Report: A BILL For the re-organisation of the Xaval Establishment. He it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre sentatives of the United States of Ameriea, in Con gress assembled, That the Naval Establishment shall consist of not less than the following grades, and number of commissioned and warrant officers, viz : 1 Vice Admiral, 10 Chaplains, 2 Rear Admirals, 40 Pursers, 3 Commodores, 40 Surgeons, ?:> Captains, .56 Surgeon's Mates, 23 Masters Command't, 400 Maxtor's Mates and Midshipmen, 140 Lieutenants, 26 Boatswains, Bl Sub-Lieutenants, 26 Gunners, 10 Masters, 16 Carpenters, 0 Second Masters, 16 Sailmakers. And be it farther enacted. That whenever, in the ^opinion of the President of the United States, the interests of the country shall require a greater num ber of commissioned and warrant officers than is provided for by the preceding section, he shall be, and hereby is, authorized to increase the number in ♦•ach grade, so that the same shall not exceed the following, viz: 1 Vice Admiral, SO Chaplains, 2 Rear Admirals, 60 Pu sers, 3 Commodores, 61 Surgeons, 47 Captains, 102 Su geon's Mat.*?, 25 Masters Command't, 611 Master’s Mates and Midshipmen, 256 Lieutenants, 56 Boatswains, 73 Sub-Lieutenants,j 56 Gunners, 35 Masters, 46 Carpenters, 15 Second Masters, 43 Sailmakers. And be it further enacted, That the number of putty officers, seamen, ordinary seamen, landsmen, and boys, to he employed in the navy, shall Ire regu lated by the President of the United States, accord ing as the necessities of the public service may re quire. And be it further enacted, That the pay and emo luments of all flag officers, and persons actiu** as flag officers, and the pay and emoluments of persons attached to flag officers, when in actual service, shall be as follows, vi2 : >> S ~ ® o c =“3 7 § * g >-> - c - - Pi 3 ^ 4> — H o ^ u .2 _'' **• f Vice Admiral - - e.) ,4 2 Rear Admiral - - 150 18 Commodore - - 125 16 O Capt. appointed command- 31 “> er in chief of a sqadoron 120 12 - £3 Captain, acting as captain of the fleet - - U5 16 Surgeon, acting as surgeon 4 of the fleet - . - 100 8 ^ Lieutenant, acting as flag 2 Lieutenant - - 50 4 ° Secretarv to Vice Admiral 65 1 * Secretary to Rear Admiral 60 ] _j Secretary to Commodore 50 1 . =r Scc’y to Capt. commander 3, in chief of a squadron 40 1 Admiral’s or Commodore’s * coxswain - - 18 1 Admirals or Commodore’s steward - - - 18 1 r 5> Admiral’s or Commodore's cook ... 18 1 .lnd he it further enacted, That when a flag offi cer shall be appointed commander in chief of a fleet, or squadron, or when a flag officer shall succeed to the command in chief of a fleet, or squadron, upon foreign service, by the death or resignation of his su perior, he shall receive double rations while acting as such. And he. it further enacted. That, whenever a cap tain shall be appointed a commander in chief of a squadron, he shall wear such distinguished pendant may be directed, and shall receive double rations while he is authorised to w'rar such pendant as com mander in chief. And l/e it further enacted. That a captain suc ceeding to the command in chief of a fleet or squad ron upon a foreign station, bv the d->ath or resigna tion of his superior officer, shall be entitled to the same pay and emoluments, as a captain appointed to the command in chief of a fleet or squadron, so long as he performs the duties of that situation; but be shall hoist no distinguishing flag or pendant, that he was not previously authorized to wear. And be it further enacted. That the increase of pay and emoluments to a captain, acting as captain of a fleet,—to a lieutenant acting as flag lieutenant, —and to a surgeon when aeting as surgeon to a fleet, shall only tie allowed when those officers are actually employed in those capacities in a fleet or -/"squadron. And hr it further enact< d. That the pay and emo luments of secretaries mall only be allowed for the time when the respective officer* to whom they may be attached shall be entitled to receive the pay of active service. And he it further cnarfrd. That seven per centum of tho nett proceeds of all prize money, lawfully accruing to the officers and crews of tho vessels of n squadron, acting under the orders of anv of the flag officers of the squadron, shall belong to, and be divided, ns hereinafter directed, among the flag of ficers of such squadron: Provided, their flags arc flying within the limits of their station, when the capture is made. And he. it further rnarfed. That, if there arc but two (Ui^^l^^cntitlcd to share in the same cap ./'mi t /.Tic..' 7111 re-ei/e two |nfcrior, one third part of the Be more than two fins; officers ^uperior or senior officer shall T' half sh ill hf ^^B>c others. I'/, That captain*, when It* or squadron*, shall be In all capture.* made by t while they continue to rithinthe limits of their as captains in all other .'lnd be 11 further tnnc^'t. Tual ihc vessels of war shall be rated as follows, \iz : 1st Kate, vessels mounting 100 guns and upwards. 2d Kate, vessels mounting1 over 7-1 and under 100 guns. 3d Rate, frigates of the largest size. 4th Kate, frigates of the second size. 5th rate, post ships mounting 20 and under 36 guns. Oth r ite, sloops mounting 13 and under 26 guns. 7th rate, vessels under 10 guns. .‘hut be it further enacted, Thai the pay and emo luments of till officers and others, attached to vessels in commission, and the distribution of the nett pro ceeds of prize money accruing to such officers, and others, shall be as is astablishcd in the annexed ta ble and note marked C. .hid be. it further rnarlrd) That the Navy Yards of the United States shall be arranged in two clas ses, as follows, \ iz: Portsmouth, N. If. fLakc Ontario, Charlestown, Mss. Luke Champlain, :£ Brooklyn, N. Y. «• Lake Eric—while J3 Philadelphia, ft they are conti ^ Washington, l»> nued as navy JO, Gosport, Va. and one yards or sta South of the Chcsa- lions, peake. .hid be it further enacted. That the annual com pensation to the officers attached to the navy yards and navy hospitals, in lieu of all other pay and emoluments whatever, house rent or quarters ex cepted, shall be as follows, viz : .Vary Hos Rank. 1st Class. 2d Class, pilals. To a Capt. commanding, .$ 3,000 2,000 Master commandant commanding, - - 1,600 1,500 Master commandant not commanding, - 1.500 Lieutenants, - - 1.000 750 Masters, - 950 750 Surgeons, - 2,000 Surgeons. - "1,200 850 Surgeons’ mutes, if passed, ... CG0 660 750 Surgeons’ mates, not passed, ... 540 510 510 Pursers, - 1,000 Du. acting as store keepers, ... 1,500 1,000 Midshipmen, if pass ed for lieutenants, - 425 425 Do. not passed, - 325 325 Boatswain, - - 600 450 Gilnner, - 500 400 Chaplain, - 800 burgeons, acting n.s medical purveyors, 2,000 And be it further enacted. That captains com manding stations shall receive not exceeding the pay and emolument of captains attached to irrst rate ships, in lieu of all other allowances. Amt be it further enacted. That, if a cnptainshall be appointed to command a naval station, and a navy yard included withiu it, he shall receive the pay allowed to the commandants of the navy yard, and no more. And be. it furthtr enaefe'L, That, if a flag officer be appointed to the command of a naval station, he shall receive the pay and emoluments allowed to an officer of his grade, when employed a.t sea, and not commanding in chief. And be it further enacted, That the pay and emo luments of officers permanently attached to recruit ing stations, in lieu of all other allowances what ever, excepting to the commanding officer, who shall be further allowed a sum not exceeding three dol lAis for every person lie shall enlist into the service, and deliver to the proper officer, conformably to the instructions of the Secretary of the Navy, shall be as follows, viz : Rations r. a x K. Monthly pat/, per diem. If a Captain, - $75 ' 6 Master Commandant, - 60 5 Lieutenant, 45 3 Surgeon, - *55 3 Surgeons’Mates, if passed, 40 2 Surgeons, not passed, - 30 2 Midshipman, - _ _ oq o .'l iid be il further enacted, That, whenever an of-* beer shall be employed upon special service, relating to the navy, other than is provided for in this act, the Secretary of the Navy may allow him such rate ol pay and emolument, as he may deem proper, pro vided it does not exceed the highest rate of pay and emoluments to which officers of his grade may be entitled, when in active service at sea. And be it further enacted, That all officers not at tached to vessels in commission, to navy yards, na val stations recruiting stations, hospitals, or employ ed upon special service by order of the Secretary of the Navy, or a commander in chief upon a foreign station, shall be allowed an annual compensation, to be denominated reduced pay, and which shall be as is established in the annexed table, marked G, except in the cases mentioned in the next succeed ing section. And be it further enacted, That any officer who shall be furloughed, or who .shall have been excused from service at his own request, when receiving re duced pay, for any other cause than inability to perform the service, from sickness, shall receive an annual pay, which shall be called furlough pay, as is established in the annexed table, marked II :— Provided, he shall not have declined to perform ac tive service when ordered from furlough pay, nor have exceeded the limits of the furlough, except from unavoidable necessity ; in which cases he shall no longer receive any pay, and he further punished, at the discretion of a court martial. And be it further enacted. That the President of the United States may, in time of peace, permit cap tains, masters commandant, lieutenants, sub-lieu tenant#, masters, second masters, and midshipmen, to engage in the merchants, or any other sea service, and that to such of those officers who are thus em ployed, captains and masters commandant except ed, reduced pay may be allowed for the time they arc actually at sea, as an inducement for them to avail themselves of such opportunities for improving themselves in seamanship. And be it further enacted. That all marine officers and marines, stationed or employed within the lim its of a Navy Yard, or on board vessels in ordinary, shall be subject to the Laws and Regulations for the government of the Navy, in the same manner as they now are when employe ! on board Ships of the United States at sea. And be it further cnactcl, That all navy store keepers may be taken from the pursrrs of the navy, I or shall l>c appointed by warrant from the President of the United States, and be subject to the Laws and Regulations for the government of the Navy of the United States; and their pay shall be established by the President of the United States, having regard to tiieir relative responsibilities. And be it further enacted, That the President of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized to assign such number of the officers, petty officers, sca mcni and marines, of the Navy, to the different ves sels, navy yards, and stations, as he may deem most advantageous to the public service : Provided, That the whole number employed in each grade docs not exceed the number authorized by this act. And be il further enacted, That oil stich acts, or parts of acts, heretofore passed, as shall be at vari ance with, or opposed to the provisions of this act, shall be, and are hereby, repealed. And be it further enarled, That all the provisions | of this act shall take effect from and after the ! day of -next. * Unless entitled to more bv length of service. In that case, his annual amount of pay and rations. COMMISSIONER’S REPORT On the James and Jackson's River Canal, xrith the nrrompanying documents. Mr. Speaker of the House of Representatives—I be?: leave to present through you to the House of Re presentatives, my report ns commissioner of the James and Jackson's River Canal. RANDOLPH HARRISON. 4th December, 1823. The report communicated with the said letter, was al«o read, as follows :— To the General Assembly of Virginia—In con formity with an act, making more effectual provisi on to carry into effect, the act, entitled, “ an act, to amend the act, entitled, * an act, for clearing and improving the navigation of Jame s river, and for u , idling tbc eastern and western wat; by the James and Kanawha rivers, and lor other purposes,” the commissioner of the James and Jackson’s river most respectfully reports:— That alter the necessary preparation for entering on the duties of his office, he proceeded to the ap pointment of Mr. Moncure Robinson as his engineer, liu ving ihen employed Mnj. John Staples, us gene ral su|)criiitcndant of labor, and purchaser of mate rials, with instructions to engage a competent force, for widening and deepening the old canal, his next, and most important care was, to give a thorough in vestigation to the plan of operations then in pro cess, under the direction of the James River Com pany, and the alterations proposed by their engineer Col. John G. Gamble, which will be seen in the ac companying report to the Commissioner marked A. as well ns in his remonstrances to the J. R. C., refer red to in the said report, as also in the reply of the President of that board ; which last documents will be found in the 2d Auditor’s offire. The very high res pect which is <lue to the opinions of these two gen- j tieincn, was well calculated to excite much anxiety 1 and uneasiness in the Commissioner, who was to dc- , cide upon questions so important to the navigation. The most mature deliberation was therefore used on i a critical examination of himself and his engineer. I lie will take occasion here to remark, that he was among the Commissioners who were required on the 12th of July, ll'*20, to view the change which was proposed in the original plan of Moore and Briggs, according to a report ot Isaac Briggs, engineer to the James River Company, which was laid before them. Light out of nine of the Commissioners were present. They employed two days in examining it, and unanimously approved of it, except that part which related to the plan ol locking down into the river at Ball’s sluice, which was rejected. This j was afterwards adopted on another view, when I your Commissioner was not present, and a contract made with John Dalton, for the execution of the locks, from which he did not withhold his sanction. I he saving of $20,000, was, to be sure, an impor tant consideration, but deeming it always bad poli cy in canal navigation, to expose the main line of commerco to the fluctuations of the river, the Com missioner, after he came into office, determined to continue the level to a site below the arch, and lock down under the protection of the guard gate. The contract w ith Dalton was therefore annulled, a new one made, and twenty-five hundred dollars allowed him for the work done, and the expense of removing his materials. with regard to the use of Tuckalioc ravine as a part of the canal, we were of opinion it would be very impolitic to abandon it. The dam across James river, at Fore's fish-dam, is calculated to furnish a supply of water to the principal line, ft om the arch to Wickham’s bridge, a distance of? miles 52 chains, viz : 3 miles 10 chains to the guard lock at Fergu , son’s fish-pond; l mile 46 rhains from thence to the , middle mouth, and 2 miles 77 chains from thence to Wickham's bridge. ’I he plan proposed by Col. Gamble, would retain ! only 3 miles 10 rhains of this, viz. from the arch to the fish-pond, which would be altogether excavation and embankment, and consequently exposed to in jury from freshes; and abandon 4 miles and 43 chains ot natural banks, which cannot be broken, though during freshes the navigation may for a short time be impeded, as it will in a portion of every line of canal, where the water is received from the river. 'I he idea of the inconvenience which is so much dreaded, of its being filled with sand and mud from the adjacent lands, does not appear to be well foun ded. Hiu high land generally is not much mixed with sand; and that portion of the soil which is sand, when brought down by washing rains, is, by its gra vity, deposited beforo it reaches the ravine, which is situated in low grounds nearly all the way, at a const Inrablc distance front the foot of the hill. And this effect will be rendered more certain by the flow ing of the water up the bays at the mouths of the ri vulets which descend from the high lauds. This reasoning is supported by the fact, that in all the excavation that has been done in the ravine, there has been little or no sand seen. The alluvion is al most entirely mud, which, when the ravine has been once excavated, can he carried off by exciting a cur rent all the way from Y/ickliam’s bridge, which will rush through the large flood-gate? that are placed at the lower mouth, four feet below the bottom of the canal. And this can he done as often as occasion requires. And if this operation should be neglected, till at any time the mud deposited, shall become in a little degree compact, it is believed that nn iron drag attached to the stern of a boat, and dragged along while the current is flowing, will produce the desired effect. And here let it bo remarked, that the water in this portion oi the canal is entirely under control, by means of the guard locks at Wickham’s bridge, and the fish-pond, and the guard gate at the middle mouth. It may be drawn off entirely, or ad mitted in whatever quantity is desired, to the surface of the water above the upper guard lock at Wick ham s bridge, so as to scour the channel, without danger to those natural banks which time has form ed into too solid a mass, to be injured bv any cur rent that may be necessary to effect this object. In short, it is not hazarding too much to say, that this 4 miles and 43 chains can be kept clean at much I less expense than the sar.ie distance in any other part of the canal, from the basin to Pleasants’s Is land. Another objection to the abandonment of this portion of the principal line is, that this long sheet of water, from the fork of the middle mouth to | the western mouth, 4 miles and 20 chains, would ! become stagnant, and produce a deleterious etfect upon the health of the neighbors. But, the most important objection, so far as it re gards the navigation, is not yet touched. The ex pectations of that enlightened body of men in Kcw York, who have furnished light to our path, have been sadly disappointed in the distance to which a j lull supply of water as a feeder will sustain their ! navigation. The information derived from General i Cocke s letter, hereto annexed, is conclusive upon j tms subject, and shows that from 15 to 18 miles is ! ns inr as they can defend upon a feeder. Would J it not be bad policy, after buildinga dam over James ; river, to supply 7 miles 53 chains of canal with wa i trr, to cut off 4 miles 43 chains of it, and add so j much to the next line, particularly when there is too much reason to apprehend that a dam cannot be located at Plcasants’s Island, without the most manifest danger of very great injury to the lands, , and health, ot that neighborhood, (in this opinion, , every engineer who has seen the site since it was | designated by Moore and Briggs, as well as your Commissioner, agree,) and when it is considered too, that a lateral eanal up Tuckahoc creek, which there is every reason to believe will at a future day be constructed, must be supplied with water from the feeder up James river .’—This is five and a half miles. The distance from Wickham’s bridge to Maiden’s Adventure falls, is nearly 16 miles. We mast keep in view, also, that the nearer we arc to the great mart, for the commerce that is to be carried on through the whole line to the Kanawha, the more the locks will be used, and the. greater will be the draft upon the supply, and consequently t'-c bn. ter the distance to which we can rely on a fee ler._ And even if in the present state of our trade, it j should prove sufficient, may we not anticipate the period, when our bright prospects of increased com merce may be realised, ami our demand for water will be proportionably increased? It is true, that wc have reason to believe the clay through which our canal passes, is more retentive than that in New-York; and consequently the absorption here, will not be as great as there. But it is equally true, that we have more t< dread from evaporation than they. It would then he unwise to speculate upon the advantage, we have over them on the one hand, and the disadvantage wc labor under on the other, when there seems to be no necessity for it. A permanent dam might have answered the pur pose, for the principal line of the canal, instead of the guard lock at Wickham’s bridge, and if there had not boon a considerable deal of labour perform ed, in the excavation of the lock pit, and in putting down the timber and laying down the floor, as well as a large mass of the stone deposited there for the lock, we might have been induced to annul this con tract, and pay damages, as in the case of Dalton’s lock, to remove it to the fish-pond : But unwilling as wc were to undo more than was manifestly pro per in our opinion; and seeing that by going on with it, and clearing out the upper month, we should furnish more complete accommodation to the coal, and other trade from the south side of the river, by bringing it sooner under protection, and giving it four and a half miles more of towing path than it would have by floatirf* down to (he middle mouth • and seeing tco, that we should endanger the health of the neighbors less than by rendering stagnant the water in the creek, lor a mile and a half, we deter mined to let it go on to its completion, under the contract made by the James Iliver Company, with Thomas R. Conway, and thus have a living stream flowing through the whole channel of the creek, and the ravine. The entrance at the middle mouth is guarded by a guard gate, instead of a guard lock, as wa»contemplated, because it is much cheaper, and so near the dam that the river will seldom rise high enough to produce such a pressure as to prevent its being opened, and if uccessary, the water can be raised as high within, as it is without, and not en danger the natural banks of the ravine. A guard lock was placed at Furguson's tish-pond, as a pro tection to the artificial banks, in Ferguson’s and Shepherd’s furms, in ease at any time by a fresh in the river, the water should fmd its way across the Tuckahoc island, into tiie ravine, when it might not be sufficiently high, to invade them from below the dam. And here too a guard gate might have an swered the purpose, except at particular times, when it could not be opened, and the passage of boats in the principal line might be arrested : an in convenience, which we wish to guurd against at all times, except when there is a considerable fresh, and then it cannot be avoided. As to the comparative expense of the two plans, the commissioner hvs seen no estimate of the ex pense of continuing the high level through the farms of Messrs. Wickham, Curry, Wickham again, Am bler, and a part of Ferguson's. For himself, he has thought the reaso s for declining to adopt it, suffici ent, without making the estimate. From the view, however, which he has taken of the ground to be excavated and the culverts which would be required, he is tinder the belief that it would very far exceed the cost of the low level. Our next object was to locate the line to Plea sant's island in that way which would be most con- j ducivc to the advantage of the navigation, having a due regard to the expense which would be encoun- ■ tcred. It would have been very desirable to pursue l one level through the whole distance, but the same I level which required high embankments n various ! parts of the lowur portion of the section, particular- | ly in captain Randolph’s farm, where in consequence of the sleep and rocky hill sides, the canal must be located at the foct of them, and the embankments , rais 'd to the proper height, would occasion deep j cutting in the upper portion, particularly in the up- 1 per part of Dr. Trent's farm, and the Governor’s. We therefore determined to rise 23 feet 3 inches, by j three locks begi: .ling immediately below our grand * lock, which enabled us to leave a safe passage for I I uckahoc creek under an aqueduct, and at the same i time afforded a convenient and economical location for the lateral canal 5 1*2 miles up Tuckhahoe creek, to accommodate the coal trade in that dis trict, as well as to the principal line up the rivet. I We pursued this level till it was thought advisable ! to lock up in Sampson’s farm. Wc there took a le- i vcl four feet higher, which enabled us to pass Dover ! crc-k and Jcnito by aqueducts. This carried us to the site designated by Moore & Briggs, one foot higher than their bench mark. Upon trying the le vel as well on the north side of the river, in the farms of Messrs. James Pleasants, the Governor, Isaac W. Pleasants, and Wm. Henry Pleasants, as on the south side in the Maiden's Adventure farm, owned by Mr. John Gilliam, we found that the injury to t hese farms and to the health of the neighbors, would be too great to be justified, if any other plan could be devised. considerable portion of the broad and j fertile low ground at Maiden’s Adventure would be | covered with water from the bare surface of the dam, according to Moore & Briggs’ bench mark, without making allowance for the thickness of the sheet of water on it, and the gradual ascent which it would assume on every rise of the river, at the distance of from one to two miles above. Indeed no dam which would furnish a tolerable safe convey ance could be erected there, without producing hea vy condemnations for land, and serious mischief to the health of the neighborhood. By extending the section three miles fifteen chains farther, all private damage will be avoided. At the Maiden’s Adven ture falls, a much lower dam will be sufficient to di vert the water ot the river into the canal, while the lands opposite and above it, are sufficiently high to be out of the way of any damage whatever. It will be erected upon a fine ledge of rocks, extending entirely across the river, and at the same time that the canal will be under the protection of the river bank, which Is in no place less than 19 feet high for upwards of two miles down, near the mouth of Bea ver Dam creek, it will be located in the lowest part of the low ground, where the cutting will not ave rage seven feet in depth. Indeed it possesses ad vantages which will rarely be met with on the river. In the mean time, having fixed upon a period for drawing tiie water out of the old canal, when it was supposed the least injury would be done to the com munity, by suspending the navigation ; when the health of the people in Richmond, and those en gaged in the work, would be least exposed to dan ger, by the mud in the canal, and stagnant water in the basin; and when the millers who had a legal claim to the use ot the water, could best dispense with it; and having made an agreement to furnish a more liberal supply in time to manufacture the crop of wheat, as a compensation for the period du ring which they would be deprived of it, the labour of boating dirt, and strengthening the banks remov ed by the James River Company for the purpor.o of giving greater width to the canal; blasting down the promontory of rock opposite to Ilutherfoord’s and Chevallie’s mills, and all other blastings which would be done before the water was drawn off; boating rock, and building walls to support the high est parts of the new embankments; and depositing rock for building walls within the canal near the ba sin. when ground was too scarce to give the proper width by slopes; and all other preparatory labour was performed : These operations were carried on under the direction of the superintendent and as many overseers as were competent to the manage ment of 150 hands ; this number was increased to 200, when the water was drawn out on the 15th of May, according to notice in the Enquirer; at the same time that 80 to 90 hands were employed by John P. Shields to accomplish his contract with the James River Company, for the sect on above the mills. A sufficient force was a* the same time en gaged, to build a dam in the channel where the wa ter was discharged in th river at the old locks, to convert these lift-locks into a guard lock, by raising the walls of the upper chamber, with the stone which formed the lower one; and to take all other mea sures to divert the channel into that portion of the new canal, which was constructed by Briggs and Gamble, under their contract with the James River Company; so that this now canal was filled, and the water returned into the old one, on the 17th day of June. Since that time, a great deal was done in finishing the walls, which were raised to the in tended surface of the water in the old canal, while it was out; raising, widening, strengthening, and le velling the bank, and forming the tow path. It was to be expected, urv'er all the circumstance?, that breaches would occur in these newly made and ry b'gh embankments. Tim James River Compa ny determined, (and in the opinion of the commis sioner* very properly.) that the expense of blasting down the clifts of rock on the north side of die ca nal, was too great to be encountered, pnrtictdarlv as it must occasion incalculable delay to the naviga tion. They therefore adopted the plan of removing the hank on the south side, to obtain the increase of width and depth which was required for the large boats, which it i? in contemplation to use. In doing so, the bank was necessarily located on the loose rock and rubbish which w; laid below, and out of the way of the canal on its original construction. Time had formed that and the earth which was mix ed with it into a compact mass. They removed it to the depth of two feet below the bottom of the canal, & puddled it up to the bottom. Nevertheless, after the water was let in, it found its way through some weak and hollow places, and caused breaches in the hank. They were few in number, and as soon as thby occurred, a bay dam was thrown round, and but little delay occasioned to (he trade, which was carried on while we were repairing them. There is no instance of their giving way where they have been repaired, and there is every reason to hope that they are now strong and permanent. It was deemed ail important to rid off this bur thensome job in the old canal, which hail always been a clog upon the new one, in order to finish at one end, while we were extending our operations at the other. Hot the same reason, as well as for tho mir pos; of obtaining as soon ar possible, the additional k loll on coal, a vigorous effort was made to bring the next line to Tuckohoc into use this winter. To that cud, the most intelligent and energetic contrac tor that could be selected, Mr. John Boshcr, was employed at the earliest possible moment, to bulid the dain across the rivPr, which was a key to the whole business. In the belief that it would be in such a state of forwardness, that the navigation of the river would be stopped, before the canal Would be ready to receive the water, u lock was contracted for in one of the abutments, to be built of the best wood, viz: white oak, post oak, and heart pine, and the walls backed and filled with stone. Unfortu nately, however, in consequence of the contract being made at so late a period of the year, before the great mass of materials could he procured, and deposited ut the site, a favourable portion of the season lor laying it down was lost, and during the rest, the water kept up higher than it has been known to do for many years. The labourers be came unusually sickly, and in spite of all the most spirited exertions of this diligent contractor, who wa3 near losing his own life, by his unremitted en deavors to comply with his engagement, our hopes have been disappointed, ond a great proportion of the work on the dam, remains yet to be done.— Whilst on the subject of a lock in the dam, the commissioner will take occasion to remark, that he can devise no plan, by which the trade can go on whilst the work is drawing to a close, except by a lock of some description, or by landing the cargo above, carrying it round, and re-sliipping it in a boat below. This would be very inconvenient, be sides subjecting the owner to considerable loss by changing the carrier. The period of time during which the navigation would be stopped, must be ve ry uncertain. As the channel becomes reduced in breadth, the velocity of the current is increased, and being studded with rocks in all places which arc eli gible for the erection of dams, it is plain that before the work can be near to its completion, the ordinary force required to man a boat, could not descend with safety, and would be altogether unable to ascend, particularly in moderate rises of the river. And when the water is let into the canal, prudence will require that it shall be admitted in a small quantity, and the volume gradually increased, till the em bankments and all the other works arc sufficiently tested, before the boats arc allowed to pass. On the other hand, a lock will secure a safe and easy pas sage, the dam can be taken entirely across the river, carrying its whole length gradually to the intended height, and the water will spread’in a thin sheot over various parts that can be left open, and closed as the work progresses. i ne whole line ot canal to Tuck ihoc was laid under contract as fast as contractors could be ob tained, and the work progressed as rapidly as could be expected, until the sickly season drove many of the labourers from it, and it was impracticable to supply their places. It is however in a state of great forwardness, and will be ready as early as the dam can be finished in the next season. The next section from Wickham's bridge to Plea sants’ island, was also let to contract as fast as we could get contractors, who could obtain hands. The contracts are all taken to Jenito, and a considera ble proportion of the work is done. Notwithstanding the confidence that is entertain ed in the propriety of extending this section to the Maiden’s Adventure falls, the commissioner feels much delicacy in carrying on his operations beyond the point to which he is limited by the act of the Le gislature: Nevertheless, as it is nothing more than an extension of the section to a m >re eligible point! for receiving the water, he will take the liberty to ! exercise a discretion, which he infers that he is clothed with, unless it shall be the pleasure of the Legisla ture to instruct him to the contrary. lie is induced to do this, because of the evil which has resulted, from the lateness of tho period when the dam was contracted for last spring. If an opportunity should offer, he thinks it desirable that the next one should be put under contract without delay. There will be also some dry walling in that portion which can be carried on in the winter, when other work can not. The want of efficient contractors, as well as com mon labourers, has retarded the operations very much during the last season ; this has been in some degree owing to the law of the last session having been enacted at so late a period, that the time for hiring labourers by thp year had passed. Frequent propositions have been made by contractors from New York, but none have taken contracts till late ly. Oiu- has taken an aqueduct over Tuckahce, and another a stone wall and excavation above. If it should be the pleasure of tho Legislature to act upon this subject, at an early period of the session, there is little doubt that others will come forward in the ensuing season, as their work is drawing to a conclusion. The annexed Statements shew the amount of mo ney which has been paid on each contract; there is a further sum due on each one that is unfinished, which is retained to ensure its accomplishment. The estimates of whai is to be done, show what it is sup posed will be wanting to finish the canal to Maiden's Adventure falls. Each section is charged with it3 own amount. It is a subject of much concern, that they should so far exceed the estimates of theengi ncers by whom the work was recommended to the patronage of the Legislature. When we consider, however, the great extent of their survey, and the short time in which it was performed, we must at once perceive that they did not alloy, themselves time to make such estimates of what was to be i done, as could at all times be relied on for accuracy. It must have been a superficial view, that induced the opinion that the old canal could he widened and deepened for £3,750, a sum far short of sufficiency to iced the laborers who have done the work ; or that a dam could be built at Pleasant's island for £ <1,000. It will be seen, too, by reference to their report, that there is no estimate for a culvert, or aqueduct, in the whole line to Pleasants'sisland,except at Ttick ahoc creek, where an embankment, or aqueduct, as may be thought best, is recommended, and estima ted at .$ 1200. The sum estimated for a connexion wim me river io raise tne coal, and other trade from the south side cf the river ints the canal,is only $ 10,000. This defect was happily remedied by the James river company, when they adopted the sec tion to Tuckahoe, foi the purpose of accommodating that trade. But for this, the only means of bringing it into the canal, would have been by locking it up from the river. In which case, every lockful of wa ter, and the leakage which is more or less incident to all locks, would have been lost, and a deficiency of water the probable consequence. It is to he ob served too, that the estimates were made for a ca nal 36 feet wide at top-water line, as far up as Gra ham’s farm, for the accommodation of the large coal boats, and 30 feet above that point, and 3 feet deep; Whereas, the canal is now made 3 1-2 feet deep, and forty feet wide throughout; it being con sidered bad policy to conduct the water, part of the I way in a narrow canal, and empty it into a wider 1 one for the remaining part, without any additional | supply, and thereby increase its breadth, at the risk of diminishing its depth. No estimate is made for the condemnation of land, and the destruction of Wickham’s mill, or Tuckahoe, Watkins’s on Dover, and Woodson's on Jenito; all of which must have been paid for,or the | streams must be passed under aqueducts. If they i had been acquainted with the character of these I streams, which would afford very little aid in dry I seasons, and in wet ones would endanger the work, | by the prodigious torrents which they convey, it is ! probable they would have thought it bettor to en- j ! counter the expense of aqueducts, rather than the i risk of taking them in, setting aside even the cost cf ; the mills. In like manner, if they had been aware ■ of the quantity of sand and mud, which must be re ceived from the smaller streams, and drains, culverts would probably have been thought necessary, to | pass them under, and in some instances parallel ditches to conduct the washings of the hills into them. Indeed, such is our conviction of their im portance, that where we have not room to turn stone arches, we have resorted to the expedient of iron! castings. This plan of passing the streams by aque ducts, and culverts, will add much to the expanse of the canal in the beginning, but in the. end will sa\e a great deal in the cost of cleaning out, as well as in the delay to the navigation whilst the operation is going on. The excavation of earth has been done as low as, and in some cr.3es lower than, the estimate?, but the quantity of it far exceeds them, as well because the canal is wider, as because the cutting is deeper than it is reported. The excava tion of rock is in some places vastly higher. For example, the exr"n3t of wallmj and cx'-rttving round the first point of rocks above th* upper arcii, is estimated at § 1504 : wc have contracted for it K'ith three men, two of whom arc excellent stone masons, at § 9500, and we have reason to believe they will eave but little profit, although they have prosecuted tneir labors with as much diligence anti judgment, us any contractors we have employed.—— the next point of rocks above, is estimated at § 1081: we employed two men upon it, one of whom is an excellent stone mason ; they have exercised as much diligence and judgment as those last menti oned, and the work cannot be completed for the sum contracted for, which was §7,000. Another and a very important item, was not originally es timated, viz; the fencing on both sides the canal, the expense of which, the last act of Assembly makes it the duty of the commissioner to encounter. It will be readily perceived, it is presumed, that all these items added together, will constitute the dif ference between the original estimate, and the sum actually required to complete the work. We have endeavored to have it executed in a durable, and consequently, a costly manner, under the bnlief that it is not advisable to temporise with a work of this magnitude, where so much might be lost by the de lay incident to frequent repairs. 1 he commissioner has thought it a duty ho owed to himself, as well as the Legislature, to trouble them with r more full and explicit detail of his operations, than would otherwise have been ne cessary, in consequence of his deviations from the course laid down by Moore &: Briggs, to which he is directed by law to conlorm *• as nearly as may be.’’ I he statements shew, that there has been expended by tiie commissioner on the canal between the old locks, and the mouth of Tuckaur, §66,649 37 There was also expended by the James River Company, on the same portion, 22,000 00 There will be wanting to finish this por ,ijn» 40,808 00 '> Making an aggregate sum, fori the cost of 9 miles, 56 chains of canal, of $129,457 §Y lVliich amounts to an average sum per milc’ of §13,350 OO It will be observed, however, that only 7 miles, 53 chains of this, belongs to the principal line of the canal; the remaining 1 mile, 43 chains of the creek, bring cleared out for the pur pose of giving greater accommodation to the coal, and other trade, on the South side of the river. It must be remarked on the other hand, that this short portion is taxed with an expen sive dam, where, the river is 1100 feet wide ; and with two guard locks.— There is also a small sum included for fininshing the old canal. There has been expended between Wickham’s bridge, and Pleasant s isl *nd’ ... . 48,513 41 Iherc will be wanting to finish the ca nal to Maiden’s Adventure falls, 201,927 Making an aggregate for completing 15 miles, 36 1-2 chains, amounting to §250,470 41 And an average per mile of 16.200 00 Unenlightened as the commissioner was upon this subject of the important work committed to his management, he gladly availed himself of the op portunity afforded by Gen. John II. Cocke, who im pelled by a patriotic zeal for the success of our scheme of internal improvement upon the James & Jackson’s rivers, made an expedition to New-York, during the last summer, and explored the grand ca nal from Albany to Lake Erie, and kindly offered to direct his attention, to anv subjects of enquiry which might bc suggested. He accordingly address ed a letter to the general, a short time before his de parture, which is annexed marked C., and received his answers, also annexed, marked D. and E. Thw very valuable information they contain, is with great pleasure communicated. They will supercede the occasion of such general remarks upon the sub ject of our canal, as it would have been the duty, and the inclination of the Commissioner to make. He cannot, however, refrain from offering his most sinccie congratulations to the Legislature upon the important datum, contained in the communication, marked C., that the estimate assumed by Mr. Ful ton will be realized ; viz. that the transportation will be effected for cne cent a ton per mile, as soon □ s the canals arc in full operation. Such an cpini on, coming from such a source, is worth volumes of argument. It is founded, “ net upon the arguments of the advocates of the New-York canal, but upon facts which he has witnessed, at every step of his progress.'” If this estimate should be realized, it will require very little calculation to show that very great expenditures of money will be justified, for the attainment of such an object. IVlost res ectfully* your obedient servant, RAN; OLPH HARRISON, c. j. &j.n.c December 4th, 1823. (TO BE CONTINUEn.) NEWS FROM THE FRANKLIN 74. The National Gazette contains the following extract of a letter from an officer onboard the Franklin, dated Valparaiso, Oct. 1, 1823. “This is an important crisis in the affairs* of Upper Peru. The contending armies are each 10,000 strong, and a decisive engagement is daily expected. Should the patriots obtain a vic tory, the war will soon be terminated; but, should they be defeated, of which the most painful ap prehensions are entertained, theirhostilities mav continue for years. The royal army, or, as it is now styled, the national army, is perhaps Letter appointed than at any former period. The roy al officers now say. that they f.ght for the na tion and not for the king. On their tings is em broidered, Viva el Exercito Naronal: ibimerly their motto was Ferdinand the 7th. “Gen. Friere, the Director of Chili, isrxpec ed here to-morrow, from St. .Ja*0. He ic Vr,.,. King arrangements to dispach an army of 2,000 men to the assistance of ti c patriot army in Al ta Peru. It is feared that he has been too tardy in his movements. Had he despatched such a f( rcc two months ago, it might have decided the war in I en:. The great battle will, in all pro bahdUy, be fought before this detachment sails. “ I »e . ranlriin sailed from Callao on the 8th ?.?St f°r JViohn,ldo’ antl arrived here on the .h ']}}'rRO- A ^ rfays previously to our lea ving Callao, one of the younggetdlcmen, (Mr. Kelty,) was seized with tho Small Pox. The con tagion is spreading throughoutthc ship. Wchavc , now twenty-two cases, and, thus far, previous vaccination appears to be noprotcction. Thn gentleman who brought the disease on hoar 1 had been vaccinated, and his arm exhibited s> says our intelligent Surgeon) a well formed es char. Midshipman Wordsworth and the Com modore’s children arc now convalescent from this loathsome disease. Oar Surgeon (Dr. Sal terns unremitting in bis attention, and lias thus far lost hut two patients. We are fortunate in ha ving a fine, large, airy ship, by whic h the into can ’ e well accommodated.” W A SI IIXGTf )N MONUM EXT. Mr, Clumtrary, the celebrated smlplor at I imlico, near London, is now engng- d in pre paring a Colossal statue of Washington, which lie hopes to complete, and send to Boston with in the next year. Mr. G. was sel. eted some years ago, by President West, an W'ashing fon Alston, E«q. as the European arti ,t best quali fied to execute this work, hut his other avoca tions would not permit him to undertake it soon er. LiOtton \iVTIL Rftt YY COUNTRY STEEL. &c. hare hut rpctivcrffrom JYeie York, 4 fl Bales Cotton Yam, from No. 5 to 17 l Vf 10 tons Bar Iron, d do. Country Steel. axo H.uvE rx stonr., 80 barrels I^oaf and Family Sugar 800 casks Nails from the Belle Isle Factory, anxl’ Freeborn's Patent Ploughs. All of which will be sold low for cash, or nego tiable papnr. Brockenbrovgii & harvte.