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Constitutional Whig. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1824-1832, April 05, 1825, Image 1

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. f r», . - ur fir (4
irerfr. (dues days n,ul Fridays,) at five dollars per annum,
payable in advance.
i j Previous to a discontinuance of the paper, all ar
rearages must be paid up. And those uho may wish to
discontinue, will noti fy the Fid it or to that efjic't, at least
thuty .lays before the period expires for which they sub
Ij For advertising—IS cents a square (or less) fur the
first insertion, and 50 cents for each continuance.— Y7te
number of insertions must be noted on the MS. otherwise
they trill be continued and charged accordin^li/.
I Advertisements from the country to be paid for in
adianre, or assumed by some responsible individual in this
place, or Manchester.
’ * All letters to the Fid it or must he post-paid, or thetj
reiti receive no attention.
a t/or.yf: y-a t-la ip,
OFFERS llis services to those who are engaged in law
suits in the Courts held in the riiy of Richmond, to
prepare their suits for tiial. He will pay paitieulnr atten
tion to getting the pai ties speedily before the Court, the
neglect of which causes great delay, lie will also attend
to the suits at rules; to the taking of depositions; and be
fore the commissioner, he proposes to do what the parties
themselves now have, to peiform, and whatcvei else may be
necessary to hasten a final decision of their cause. For
the utility of such council lie refcis to every member of the
Jan. 25—tf.
The Universal Hat Warehouse
IS removed to the house two doois above Mr. Robert
Rill s, and tv\ o doors below Neil son’s Dry (Joods Store,
ne ly opposite the Bianch Bank of the United States.
March 29 — tf
150 to 200 Square Bales of Cotton.
1AM authorized to sell from 150 to 200 well packed
. square bales ol Cotton ot the ensuing^crop, at a price
considerably below present rates.
Market Bhujge:
II'ho has on Consignment, fur Sale,
20,000 lbs. of S.nithfield Bacon,
100 bbls. of Whiskey,
50 do. Apple Brandy,
25 do. Peach do.
10 do. N. E. Rum,
20 do. Crab Cider Vinegar,
100 do. cut and whole Herrings,
Family Flour, Mountain Butter,
Corn, Salt, Soap,
Best Spanish Sugars, Arc.
March 25
Cut Nails, Ground Plaister, and Fami
ly Flour, fof Sale.
FIVE Hundred lo a Thousand kegs of Cut Nails
weighing 50 to 100 lbs. assorted, from 3d. to 30H. ’
Also, Cut Nails for tobacco kegs and hhds. warranted to
All kinds of Iron and Steel Rolled to order, and with
40 Tons of Ground Plaister of Paris packed into barrels
or hhds. according to order,
100 Barrels of Faintly Flour,.that is proved to be good.
For Rent,
The handsome SUIT OF HOOMS over our Store,
airy and convenient, and a very neat OFFICE, fronting
on 10th or Ctoss street. Possession may he had immedi
mar 22—>.v3t
Whiskey, Sugars, Molasses, &c.
WE arc now receiving hy different vessels from Phila
delphia, New-York, k.c.
11-1 Mints. Philadelphia Whiskey,
lol bbls.cfo. part old ancPsuperior quality,
5(1 hhrfs thy New Orleans Sugar,
5-1 do. St. Croix Sugar, a portion prime,
50 do. Molasses, of unusually prime quality,
"" nags prime green coffee,
750 sacks Liverpool blown Salt,
500 heavy Spanish dry Hides,
for sale, on accommodating terms, by
March 11
House Painter, filazier, &c.
T> ESPKCtkoi.i.y informs his friends and the public «im
lhal hp co"»in»ies his business of HOINF
PAINTING, GLAZING, &c. at the well known st'ind,
corner of Harris s building and immediately under the
office of the Constitutional Whig. He has7 on hanrl a
general assortment of the best materials from New York
tvnich will enable him to execute any commands entrusted
to linn satisfactorily, on the most reasonable terms. llr"in
tends attending to the most particular part of the work
personally, and will employ none but the best workmen.
i . B. Ceilings Whitened, and Walls Stained in dis
temper colours.
March 15—tf
Valuable James River Hand
W11//,^ Ofl/w’ °n ’hp,;,rom'SlS'public auction, on
the 20th day of May. my Estate CURLES, lyin«
30 J?me* R,ver’ about 12 miles from the city of Rid*
morn!, containing five hundred and odd acres of land. The
fertility of this Estate, with its many advantages, are too
well known to require detailing. The terms of sale will
* one thirdOn 60 days; one third in 6 months; with the
"Vi months-the whole to cany interest from the
If: A cl1fiar a,Kl '‘"disputed titlewill be made.
the IT • arC1di;POS^1 Pwrrhasc arc invited to view
w.S”Er,7" a,e ,cr""-'1 ,n
March 11— 211 _WADE MOSBV, Sen.
*T*HE subscriber widies to sell his TRACT OF LAND
Anna'll !rCr,C,’"nty,n" ,ho s°"'h bn,,k of *»*« South
S"VeU Hun'lrpH Fifty acres
about 300 acres „,f„ir,,. This tract adjoins the lands
f Dr. Swann, R. Sneed and others The terms will bc
accommodating. JNO s iriKMIlVC
March 15—8t FLEMING.
Ward Election.
I ME election of Common-coiincil-men in the srvi
* warf,s,w,ll be held on the first Wednesday in \
Mad' V,/ " tvard’ Nn- lt«» the L’liio.i IJotel
Mad.son ward. No. */. at the Eagle Hotel-and i„ Mo,
ward, No. 3, at the Sliochoe Mill tavern. Polls will n
to each ward at 10 o’clock, A M. “The freeholders of
wiliim said city, whether improved nr not, and whether s
freeholder,resides therein or not, and the housekeepers
Inhabitants of the said city, who shall have resided the.,
at any time, for the space of three mouths without the
ter mission of one twelve months, ar.d possess in thei, <
ri;'> within the same, moveable and immoveable prop,
to the value of one hundred pounds,” a e entitled to v
,, W. D. WREN, Sergt. C. F
March l«r. 1827. ,
imuaij ^avuaweut.
HOUSE OF COMMONS, Tuesday, Feb. 15.
Cnl/ioUc Association.— Alter some miscellaneous bu
siness, tlie discussion on tlie motion respecting' associa
tions in Ireland was resumed. Sir K. Wilson expressed
hunsclt assured ol the inexpediency and unfitnes-. of the
association; but bethought the proposed measure as un
lit and inexpedient for its suppression. Mr. Lockhart
supported the motion for bringing in the bill: he aigued
that the association was unconstitutional, taking upon
itself the functions of a parliament, and tlie privileges
ol the crown—Mr. Orenfell gave a qu.difi <1 support to
the motion. He regarded the levying the rent wiihjea
lousy. It the House were to divide on ihat point he
would vote with the administration: for other provisions of
the hill his assent or dissent would wait u on his know
ledge of what these provisions were to lie._He spoke
w armly in favor of thegeneral claims of the Catholics
winch he would call rights, not claims—Mr. M. Uo
bertson spoke much in the same compromising manner.
—-.-ur J. M. Newport opposed the motion. He argued
that government, b\ enacting penal codes while they
ought to be meditating the concession of rig.Ms, were
raising dangers of an alarming magnitude. lie spoke
ol l ie striking increase of Catholics over Protestants in
11 eland; \eta few years, and the prooortion would be
Mil! more alarmingly on the side of the danger which
itoiild result from withholding the rights of the Catho
lics until they shall have become the overwhelming ma
jont v, which a few years inoie would render them.° He
concluded with a (Tinning, in contradiction to what liad
. been said in the home before that evening, concerning
the popul r sentiment m regard of the Catholic claims,
that the opinion of the people in favour of Catholic eman
cipation had strengthened, not retrograted.— Mr. V.
1- il/.gerahl gave his support to tin bill; and he did so. he
said, Hrith hearty sorrow. j|e thouglil the association
unconstitutional, its interference with the law superflu
ous or mischievous; fur justice was, unqui -t.onably
purely administered in Ireland. He thought the associ
ation must be suppressed; hut in so much as this mea
sure of necessity must tend to delay still further the
great question ofemmcipalion, he sincerely regretted if.
He spoke also in extenuation of the language of the as
sociation; he thought too severe a measure of critical jus
tice was dealt out to it iu this regard. He re|oiced in
the commission that was appointed to enquire into Irish
affairs. This was calculated to do much good; it tran
quilised, bj giving an opinion to the Irish people that
their case was under earnest consideration by the Le
gislature. J
Sir r lancis Burildt apx( spoke. ITo began with an
ingenious commentary on that expression of the address
<>l the association to the Catholics of Ireland, which has
he, n so much in debate, uamoly, "Hrc conjure you hy
hit hate ymibeur to Orangemen.” He endeavoured to
prove, by various quolations from the poets, that this
expression was allowable, without the necessity of sun
pos,n;r that ii was dictated by the evil spirits ofhate and
icv.-nge. I lie hon. baronet at the same time pressed !
upon the consideration i f the house, asfui therextennation
ot t i-muci vituperated sentence, the general excellence
and right'eelmg of the address. lie ccn-und the un
lairness ol singling out an expression insulating- it. and
then putting the worst constiuction upon it to which it
might be liable. From this mode of examination of the !
meaning of anydocument, the very sacred volume lt
seli could not escape censure. After this able criticism,
the speaker proceeded to the moral question. He
aigue l for the innocence of the association from the
very names (bat composed ii. There were to be found
there Earl Fingal for the Catholics, and Earl Filzivil
ham lor the Protestants. Was it possible to suppose
Mii'cbiel in an association so led? There was besides, -all
the wisdom and worth ol'the Catholic body, which rose
in mass to defend the association from the calumny of
civil intentions or evil doings. He distinguished'be
tween the Catholic association and the late liridge
•street association, between which a parallel had been
drawn, in hope to perplex the opposition. The one
a as offensive, the other defensive. In the acts of the
association, wherein they hail interfered in tiials, there
was no prejudging, no persecution. When lie had firsi
heard the ci y raised against them on this account, and
uu.cu me Slims ai meir disposal, he had looked to
iiearol bribery of juries and judges; hut no fact, no in
sinuation of this sort had been advanced. Me uro-ed
the importance of this qu stion, not to Ireland alone,
hut to the empire at large. It was, he said, the most
important measure that had been agitated since the re
volution. Me had it m hi, power to assure the house of
(lie purpose ofsubmi>sion to parliament of the assoria
j Mo,,: hut lhe.V prayed to he heaid at tin bar before the
a'.t [M-’See f(>r tlic.ir suppr< ssiou. The lion, haronet,
ttien took up tljo subject of the divisions in the cabinet,
winch he handled with some felicity of humour, illustra
leg the divided state of the cabinet by quoting Milton
where he described the reign of chaos over the warring
an.i con I used demon's and atoms of things. Me pres
se ! and repeated the general arguments, affirming that
the suppression of thi* association might be called with
propriety the first step towards destroying constitutional
i >■ Me drew a parallel between tho present con
duct of administration towards Ireland, and theconduet
of that administration by whose folly America was lost
to hngland He deprecated a bice effect now. He
concluded by a warm recommendation, addressed of
course, lo out of door readers, to the Catholics them
!\Jr. Canning followed. He divided thesubject into
separate points ot consideration: first as respected (hat
| association itself; secondly, as it was connected with
the general question of Catholic emancipation; and
last!, as respected himself, in his official relations,
i be.se last had been introduced, though (lie former wasnot
strictly belonging to (he question, and the latter not at
all. W iti. respect to the association, said Mr. Canning
,1 think it alien to the constitution—I think it destruc
tive to the public peace; and, in the whole course of
tins long debate, I have not heard the direct negative
given to these propositions. In regard of the former
assertion, that it was alien to the constitution Mr
Canning thus describes it. Is any further considera
tion necessary to prove it than the character that un
questionably belongs to it according to its own repre
sentation. sclt elected, self appointed, self consti
tuted, self adjourned, self renewing, acknowledging
no equal, denying any superior authority, levying rno
11-yon the people, interim mg, laudably as some say
improperly as • liters think, with the administration of
j justice, not preju gmg, for that is not tin- fit word, but
j condemning, beforehand, the individuals whom it takes
upon itself to bring to justice; in some cases in which
they are found by the courts to the guiltless, rejndging
tii it judgment, and proscribing those whom the law has
set ire. . and declared lo be innocent. On the second
point, the iniiucnce of tin- a -oci.iium uj on the peace of
the counity, \ir. Canning proved bis assertion by the
a I read; sufficiently noted expression in the Catholic
address. He was the uist to bring that expression be
fore (he notice of parliament, and he had heard nothing
yet to convince him ilia! he had donc.iiiilairly in put
tm ' .1 torw ird. lie could know how to pardon what
w .s too violent in language, when uttered in the heat
i and « 'tcitetm-nl of debate: hut this was writt -n and
I deliberate, and iie thought it most fair to bring it in
) evidence ot the animus of the association, and to ask,
inferring, could (he association informed by such a mind
and spint. fail to he hurtful to the peace and unanimity
of the country.4 In a vein of the richest humour, Mr.
Canning critici rd the attempts of Sir James M’intosh
and Sir F ancis Uurdetl to extenuate the evil of that
expression; but humor, which depends so essentially on
'vords, would be nothing in so strict an abridgement as
a*temI»t; we must, .hereto,e, pass it over entirely,
i r* banning strove to shew ihat there was not, as had
been urged by the opposition, auy iiiconsisiency be
trt cen the several parts of the King’s speech in which
Ireland had been noticed. The general prosperity of
Ireland was undoubted; but that fact did not necessa
rily prevent the existence of a particular evil, which if
suffered, was calculated to retard the progress of im
provement, by deterring enlei prize, bv diverting capi
tal, by destroying confidence, and by strikin''- at the
very root of the pubhc welfare, by setlin- 7- r-hbor
against ne ghbor. The Might Honourable ot Cretan
next proceeded to the general question of emancipation,
le argued here chiefly upon the injury which (he as
sociation had done to the general question, lie con
tended, that it had made many indifferent persons hos
tile, and the hostile virulent. lie argued, that the es
sential constitution of the united kingdom held the as
cendancyol the p totes taut chinch as an important ar
licit*. I he proceedings of the association went to ere
ate an apprehension for the safety of this article of the
consutufmu; like totlns, had been, in real hostility, to the
Catholic question, though mooted by its professed
friends, the resolutions winch had been moved in 1JJ23
touching, with no delicate hand, the revenues of the
Irish church. I hese things conspired to alarm the
fri. iids ol the Protestant establishment; and he conjur
ed those who united in friendliness to the general ( atho
ic question to unite in allaying these apprehensions:
he felt assured the inert body of the British people was
more hostile to the Catholic claims now than they were
a few years ago. They were only to be reconverted
to a liberal sentiment by gentle persuasion, accompa
nied always by ll,e unqualified assurances of those who
should agitate the question, that the ascendancy, the
constitutional ascendancy of the established church
was not in their thought,, to touch with any hostile
hand. \\ e cannot give spaed to a more extended no
tice of the very able argument in tin's kind which Mr.
f aiming delivered. Lastly he addressed himself to the
subject of Ins own conduct in the administration. He
took a sketch ol the Injury of the seveial administra
tions since h.s entering into public life, showing that in
none had there been unanimity on the Catholic question
unless in onc.an unanimity ol opposition, inconsequence
O' wl.ic.i It was he tiad refused to accept of office with
that administration. He had a rigid, he thought, to
eel soie, that to him, and to the present adminisliatioc
m particular, should be addressed the censure v. hid,
equally belonged to all. whig or tory a.lm.nistrations,
that had tor the last 25 yeais held office. This expo
sition, occupied the ritrl.i . _ _ ,
tm.e, and the history which it unfolds, and the envau
feelings which it developes, are highly interesting, hut
we cannot occupy our space longer with it. l ie sal
down amid long and loud applause.
Mr Brougham spoke in reply—He professed him
soli the unqualify ing defender of the association—the
advocate ot tne Irish people to meet, to consult, to pe
tition, to remonstrate, aye to demand their just rights.
More, he declared Ids fiank and solemn, opinion, which
he wished to reach Ireland, that the firmer and stron
gc- they remonstrated, provided they did it peaceably,
the greater would be their just prospect of success, in
the attainment of those privileges which made life de
su able the existence of a man useful to himself and
to Jus country. Mr. Brougham then examined that
point—the interference of the association with the
course of justice. I le contended they had never done
so in a way to give offence to the sp'irit of the laws.
He reviewed the two cases, whic h had been brought
ward by the original mover of the bill, shewing that
m many particulars he had been misinformed. l" was
contended that justice was irnpartia. in Ireland: he de
nied it; lie proved it was not so; and he further took ihe
evidence of Lord Wedesdale, the Irish Chancellor in
preference to the evidence of the gentleman who. in
the course ol the present debate, had said justice was
impartial in Ireland. That authority had affirmed that,
in Ireland, there was one law for the poor, and another
foi (bench. Mr. Brougham ridiculed the c.ontradie.to•
^ censures that bad been heaped upon the association.
He contended the association contributed mainly to
the tranquility of Ireland.
vied; every thing, in short, that ivas necessary to make
the assimilation complete; yet what was more innocent
than the Met ho list conference? I fe affirmed the false
hood o< the assertion, that with a book of subscribers
here was also a book of non-subscribers. He shewed
how carefully the association had stood aloof from all
question tyroign to the single question of these claims.
' malty, he made a slight answer to Mr. Canning's pro
fessions of unabated sincerity m friendliness to the
Catholic claims; lie said Mr. Canning was raising in
etrer-t the no popery cry. the greatest ill he could possi
hlv do the C atholic cause—lie urged the Catholics to
keep i\ their old and fast friends, [naming particular
ly I .ord IJonoughniorc,] pressed upon them union and
firmness, and finally, addressing himself to the ministe
rial benches, be said with energy, that this bill, if it
passed, would alienate the Catholics for ever from the
government: it would turn discontent into rage, and fur
nish rage with new weapons. On vour beads, said he,
be tbe consequences of this misguided pohev; vou, not
we, must have to answer for if, if your present mea
sures should have, as they must have, fbe effect of teftc
mg Ireland from this country. The debate ended with
this speech.
The house divided.—For the motion 270: against it
123.—Majority 155. Adjourned at four in the morn
The Irish Charitable Socrd v of Boston, celebrated
the last St. Pat ick’s Day in a very hospitable manner.—
It gave sumptuous dinnerat the Exchange Coffee I louse,
at which were many invited guests The Rev. Mr.
Taylor, Rector of (tie Catholic i hiirch in Boston, gave
the following toast:
“ The TU. tT,n. Cm. Canning, His FtrilinnicMajesty's
Serrclarr/ of Stair for Foreign Affair*.—M»v his ad
ministration form an epoch in the hisiorv of hjs coun
try, by the abolition of all odious?distinctions and civil
disabilities on the score of religion, and by the admis
sion of the lri«h Catholics to the temple of *he British
The lair President.—It is said Air. IVfonroe’s claims
on the government amount to $43,000. It is understood
that ho is in debt about £100.000, and that his prop, rt .,
consisting of two estates in Virginia, will not sell for
that sum. ITis debts were contracted many years ago.
Since be has been President, his expenses have not ex
ceeded his salary, fie i3 represented in a speeli made
in f ongress as a man of “easy generosity.” The bus
bands of his two daughters arc not rich.
The Manchester (England) Courier remarks, that
the number of individuals annually mutilated by machi
nery in Manchester, Birmingham, and I^cds, would, if
stated upon paper, appear almost incredible. In Man
chester, alone, it has been estimated as averaging, one
year with another, considerably above 1000 persons.
[Hampshire Gazette.
JFortfun State Dnptr.
Of the Vice President of Colombia. charged with the
f internment, to die. Congress of 1825.
Fellow-Citizen-, of the Senate,
and of the House of Representatives:
This is th. tin t prescribed by the Constitution for the
assemblings of the I epiesentatives of the Republic,
fo deliberate for the good of our constituents. If
(he meeting ol < ongress at the Uvo last sessions was
effected c ore slowly, from causes, which the enemies of
the Republic have affected not to perceive, as natural
to the mf .net of societies, the present one will con
vince them, that we are approaching a more exact
observance of the Constitution. I felicitate Colombia
and yon. on ibis event, so auspicious to the sta
bility of the political system, and I anticipate from the
!,re.'u1”'soss;,m t,,(; happiest results. The Executive
in fulfilling bis duties and contributing to the success
ful termination ot your legislative labours, presents to
>o"a eoi r«*c. view of the state of the Republic, in the
various branches of the administration.
The government of his Catl.olie Majesty, far from
abandoning his ancient pretensions to sovereignty over
th.s country, which justice, experience, and the decline
of Spam would-suggest, still indulges views of continu
ed hostility, without affording the least hope of concilia
Jho Executive is assured, that the ( abinet of
Madrid is aware ot our disposition to adjust existing
differences. and to terminate a state of war, which for
fi.teen successive tears, has involved both nations in
serious evils. rl he e(Torts of the Executive to obtain
peace with Spain, on the basis of the recognition ofom
independence, has not diminished our vigilance. The
Congress may be assured, that our means of defence
are. at present, abundant; and that any 'enterprise of
Spain against the Republic, will only serve to increase
the splendour of our arms, and to humble, more .Jeen
Iv, the Spanish power.
Out relations with the American governments are of
!h • fri' ndly character which should s„bsi-t amongstafes
mam a! ing l.e mine cause. The aid which we fur
u s' ed to 1* ru has effected so import .i t a chauge .n .h it
eonnCy. tha Hs independence mid hberi\ are no longer
Jiubtful. T!i I.iukuator President of Colombia, has
there disp'av d. in a peculiar manner, those virtues
";"7 :,'e ‘”e 'nh'-Mtance of great men alone, and to
Which the Republic ot Colombia owes its existence.
Encircled In difficulties almost invincible, eiunnelled
m* r..ni.-n.l against an enemy, who to superior numbers
' 1 t‘,e Pr'de ot victory; labouring under the evils
01 " :!,,, of discipline, and of weakness and perfidy, and
uncertain of the timely arrival of the reinforcements so
real.ill ordered hy the Congress. the Lirurator has
removed every obstacle, and, aided by the patriotism of
he faithlul I ernv’ians, and the valor of the united army,
oas given freedom to an important part of the exten
Mve territory subjected to the Spanish arrnv, after ha
ving defeated it at Jnnin, with severe loss. 'J'lie Ex
ecutne entertains a hope, that the auxiliary troops
ivlnch left Panama, for’Peru. in OcUih* r, may have ir
rived opportunely, and that hy inert-using the forces in
the held, they may aid in securing the advantages al
ready gamed, may hasten the liberty of Peru, and per
m ament I v establish the destinies of South America
rlns additional glory was reserved for Colombia; and
•or you, the pleasure of having afforded the means with
,111 your powei: of which, your decree, permitting the
| I.iiikrvtoh to leave Uie territory of the Ronublic will
eve! he esteemed the most important. According to
a resolution of the Legislative power, I have not ratified
(In convention of limits between Colombia and Peru.
However great the importance of this subject may be,
, d*;cis,on ,°^n would settle questions of moment,
t m Executive has suspended the negrociations, whilst
the Peruvian Republic is occupied by Colombian trooos '
wluch will furnish an example of good faith and gene- '
losity. I
The Republic of Mexico lately furnished a warn
ing lesson to the usurpers of the pwwei ot the people.
Ge..eial Iturhidc left the exile imposed on him hy
law. and entered the Mexican teiritorv, in a manner
alarming to the government An act of < ongress de
clated him to lie a traitor, and worthy of death, and he
was executed without opposition. This measure of the
Mexican government was certainly important to its
peace an t prosperity. More iccen't information from
that quarter conveys intelligence of bold and decided
measures adopting for maintaining its independence
against the designs of Spain, and to cause the people
to reject every proposition for an union.
The provinces ot Guatemala arc in peaceful enjoy
ment of their sovereignty , which they, of their own w'ill
declared. An accredited Minister from their govern
ment, near that of the Republic, resides at present in
this capital. I his affords a favourable occasion for an
understanding on points of great interest: the estab
lishment Oi boundaries betwixt Colombia and Guata
mar,i, 13 oi me inmost importance, bocaii-c ot certain
foreign pretensions to li.c coast of Mosquitos, anil
because the dividing line is altogether undefined. The
Executive, adhering to the fundamental law of the 12th
of July, 1821, has declared that part of the Atlantic
coast from Tape Crucifix a-Dwx to the river Chagies,
to belong to the Republic, and , very settlement not
made with the permission of thegovermnent. and accor
ding to the laws of Colombia, to be illegal. 1 submit
to your consideration this decree, ami the principles I
have adopted, for preserving the integrity of the tcrriio
r\, and the rights ot the Republic, and lor defeating the
purposes of our enemies.
The heretofore unsettled state of the Empire of Dra
zil, has not permitted us to enter into relations of friund
ship and amicable intercourse with its government.
Our boundaries should he settled w ith if also. We are
assured ot tiie friendly dispositions of the Emperor to
wards the Republic of Colombia; and we, on our part,
have avoided giving any ground for complaint or mis
understanding. When negociations shall be instituted
with the Brazilian government, the Executive w ill see
that they be conducted with the g- od faith ajid fr .nj<
ness which characterize his principles. In regard to
the fixation of limits, he will be guided by t lie last trea
ty between Spain and Fortugal, concluded at Madrid
in 1777.
With the United States, we preserve the most inti
mate and friendly relations. The treaty of peace, friend
ship, navigation, and commerce, entered into hv the Ex
ecutive with the government of those States, hv means
of Plenipotentiariesdniv authorized, will he immediately
submitted for your consideration and approbation. The
principles which we have adopted are tu just that they
require from me no recommendation. The govern
ment of Colombia never evinced greater devotion to the
spirit of civilization and humanity, which should distin
guish governments of free people, than in this treaty.
Colombia lias the enviable distinction of being the first
State of Spanish America that has piesented itself to the
i world hv nubhe treaties with the nation most favoured
bv the genius ofiibertv. You will also consider the con
i vention formed with (he stune Stales for putting an end
to the disgraceful traffic in African negroes. Our laws
; are decide flv against this infamous commerce, and by
; them the Executive has been directed in his measurer.
The I uv of the 21st of July, of the year II, prohibited
the introduction of; laves; and the provisional ordinance
regulating privateers, declares those vessels that shall
be captured within the waters under the jurisdiction of
the republic, trading in African negroes, to be good
prize. But as the penalty for infraction of the law. is
! not defined, and as it would be beneficial to the human
i race to have the provisions of the privateering ordinance
l enlarged, the Executive has thought that the conven
tion with the United States might supply these defects.
conceive n to be my duty to giv> vou particular in
formation of tin '.-late of our rdaiious with Europe,
M ,l,cl M '** exhibit to tlu w orld the pi inciples of the po
licy of ( olomhiu. The commissioners of his Britannic
Vlaje-ty, resident in this capital, request! il of the Exe
cutive to fumish the proper exequatur tor the cousuls,
w hum the King bad'appointed to some ot our ports. As
this application did not use the customary titles, the Ex>
ecu live determined to defei the exequatur, until the
commissions ol tlicsc agents should be properly presen*
iat,d addressed in the terms usual among nations'.
! On the arrival ot the consul-general at this capital, he
i immediately presented his commission, with the assur-.
j ance that those ol the consuls for La Guira, Maracaibo.
I ^rthagena, and Panama, were ol the same form. The
j commission mentioned the “Provinces of Colombia,” in
I sl°ad ot the “Republic ot ( oloinhia,” under which name
thefundanii tital law designed this country to he known,
Irom the year 1819. 'I he consuls were also acciedited
to the “established authorities,” instead of to the -Exe
cutive power,” or “President of the Republic.” as (hey
should have been, consistently with the principles of
public law, and of our constitution, and in accordance
with the practice o the government of the United Svr.tta.
I In- Executive viewed these equivocations as a neces
sary result ol a state ofindecision of the British govern
ment, as to th<- recognition ol (In independence of Co
lombia, which tin* ministers themselves of his Britannic
Majesty had declared to Paihamcnt. For it certainly
was a rnanife-t contradiction, to accredit consuls for the
ports of C oloinhia. hi the regtilai and proper lorrn, ar>
coruing to the law ot nations, and not to recognise llie
independence and existence of that government. The
Exeiutive promptly adopted the course most honorable
to the Republic, and useful to the interests of; the Bri
tish nation. Placed in this delicate situation, where
the Republic might have been deceived, by m\ Elsely
j acknnw legging as accredited consuls, persons who were
iieitb i si m n> (lie government of Colombia, nor seemed
to be d< siined I'm the ports of the Republic, I did not he
sitate to it tuse the exequator to their appointments,
and to declare to t.ie Commissioners of his Britannic Ma
jesty the reasons for my determination. But I assured
j them that, as another instance of our friendship, and
perfect regard tor the British government and people, 1
w ould permit the pc-rsonB appointed as consuls, to pro
tect the commerce and interests ot English subjects, in
quality of agents for commerce and se.truen. The com
missioners accepted this condition, without refuting the
arguments used for a refusal of the exequator. If the
congress recollect, that in my last message l promised
not to commit I lie dignity of the government and t lie
interests ot the ( olomhian people in the course of the
negotiation to be instituted witli the commissioners of
his Brit .unie .Majesty, they will perceive, by this expo
sition. that 1 have lullilled that engagement. Public
law doe-snot recognise the admission of consuls as a per
fect obligation of one nation to another This obliga
tion is solely the result ol treaties or conventions, mutu
ally agreed to, or ol a slate ol peace ami fnendship
among people reciprocal'}- recognised as independent.
I his principle, adopted by the English government,
in reference to the consul-general of Buenos- A vies, at
Loudon, would have justified the Executive in defer
ring the exequators; even it the consular commissions
had been made out lor the .Republic and government of
Colombia. Nothing has occurred subsequently to this,
in relation to lie recognition of our independence. The
government ui ids Britannic Majesty makes this event
to depend on citcuinManccs, peculiar to the interests of
Great-Britain, and on the nature of the information that
may be rco< iv„J fnoin fh-'-rr cmnmiBSioners. But if that
government will yield to the influence of the public sen
timent, and if the information that ha«J been Communica
ted, as to the state of Colombia, has beeii dictated by
justice and impartiality, we may expect an immediate
decision of this important question, bj the King of the
United Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
I ho same rtsuit attended lie commissioner from the
King of the Netherlands. Tin ChevalierQuarteP pre
sented himself at (his court, with powers furnished to
him by the Governor, Rear-Admiral of the Island of Cu
rac<.a, in obedience to instructions from his government.
This commissioner gave us assurance of the friendly
sentiments ol the King of Holland towards the Republic
ot < olombia. and i t hi, disi edition to cultivate and cs
tiblish relations of friendship and commerce, that might
He mutually Leiu-fn I lie Executive received these
expressions gratetully. and professed a like disposition
towaids the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The com
missioner requested exequaturs fm the consul-, appoint
ed to the Governor, Rear-Admiral of < uracoa. which
tho Executive rolused; because the appointment of
these agents belongs to the govci nment which accredits
them, and not to it- subordinate authorities. But as it
was necessary to give to the gov- rnment ot Holland a
proof of the sincerity ol our professions of friendship, 1
i permitted these persons, dcsignt d i<» be consuls, to act
| as commercial agent-, in this way, the Executive be
lieved he ha-J reconciled the respect due to the priori.
j I'itb ui wit* law oi nations, ar.il ins own dignity, \\ ltn
(lmse oi utility and friendly intercourse, practised to
wards neutral of friendly nations.
Flie President ol Mayti accredited a ptfpiio agent to
this government, who was charged with a proposition,
to enter into a treaty of defensive alliance against the
invaders of either territory, The language of liberty
used in the agent’s propositions, and the private assis
tance received by the Likekator from the humane
and benevolent Petion at a time of great distress, did
nol seduce the executive train the proper course to be
j pursued on this delicate occasion. Hayti had defend
; pd her independence against the pretensions of Prance,
; to w hich she originally belonged, and Colombia had
! defended hers against those of Spain. A defensive alii
j a»cc with Hayti would have drawn us into a war with
I a nation of " fiich wr have no complaint, and should
j nr,t provoke it to hostility. It is the interest of the Ro
I public, tl'at its enemies be diminished, but the proposed
treaty would have indieas-d them, and afforded to
j spain a favorable ground of application tor France to
engage m die war against America. The interests of
j I layti ami Colombia, from their former dependence on
, different countries, can never be the same. Those of
< olombia and the American states, formerly dependent
on Spain, are identical. Their principles being the
same, the government of the Republic proposed, and
concluded the confednration of the new American
I states. The treaties existing between them and us, by
! dieir nature, forbid us to enter into an alliance with a
| people that did not belong to the Spanish nation; and a
defensive one with Hayti, would create a new enemy
j to our allies, without their consent and deliberation.
' Ft is known tliaf the ea-dern part of this Island catne
into the possession of France by the treaty of Basrlea,
and was afterwards ceded to Spain by that of Paris';
that in the year 1822, the inhabitants of the town of St.
Domingo proclaimed their independence, and unfurl
ed the Colombian flag, at me close of their political
existence; and that the chief of Hayti has reduced this
territory under his government, tor reasons which 1 do
not certainly know, although authorized bv his funda
mental law. fhc conduct of President Ro.cr should
net excite the enmity fSpain, Iho on!, nation with
which we are at war, because the authority of Hayti
when it occupied (he part of the Island originally Spa
nish, did not occupy a Spanish territory, hut an inde
pendent country disposed to place it-elf under the pro
tection of Colombia. These considerations hare in
duced the executive to refer the proposition of the
Ilayfian Agent to the Congress of the plenipotr ntiaries
of the American government. Prance and our allies
will perceive, in this course of conduct, the good faith
and principles on which the nolicy < f the Colombian
government is based.—France, particularly, will ac

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