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BY PLEASANTS & ABBOTT.
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, MONDAY EVENING JUNF n. imi Vol. VIIl.- -No. l jEriilay Evening, June SI. IE;' Tho first rumor mentioned in the following cx tfuct from tho National Intolligonccr, is affirmed by several other papers to be tru«0t The Philadelphia In tplircr says it learns from authority entitled ‘to credit,^ that tho appointment has been made. “A rumor of tho day to which we uttacli some cred it, is, that tho Mission to Russia has been o fie rod to Mr. Buchanan, late Member of Congress from Penn sylvania. “Wo have now reason to bolievc that the War Depart ment has not been offered to Col. R. 3Tfc Johnson, as was reported somo days ago." S^ate Rights and Nullification.—Certain debtors ?o the Cornmonwealth’B Dank of Kentucky have ap pealed from the decision of the Stato Court® to tho Supremo Court of tlieU.S. They tako the ground that the act incorporating the Bank was unconstitutional. Tho Kentucky Reporter says the appellants are clamo rous supporters of Gen. Jackson. We infer, also, that they belonged to the new court and stay law party while it existed. We learn by tho Register and Star that a meeting lias been held in Raleigh for the relief of fho sufferers by the firo in Fayoteville. A subscription was opened, and a resolution adopted, thut the authorities of that city subscribe one thousand dollars. Fayetteville in Ruins!—Never have we, as public journalists, been called on to record a more awful calami ty than that which has just befallen our ill-fated sister town Fayetteville; and it is with feelings of deepest c-oinraisscration that wo perform tho painful duty. The melancholy intelligence of the almost entire destruction of that place by fire was conveyed to this city on Mon day through the medium of letters addressed to some of our oitizens. A iieSQ iciiors Slave VllttV mu wuuiu ui uiu uuomvM part of the town was laid in ashes. Tho fire originated in Mr. James Kylo’s kitchen on Sunday about 1 o’clock, P. M- and raged with unconqucrablo fury until about ;t00 houses, which had but a few hours before been tho cheerful abodes of a happy and prosperous poople, were reduced to a heap of smouldering ruins. It was not until 5 o’clock in tho evening that a stop was put to its dreadful ravages. Among the buildings included in the general devas tation, are the United States and Cape Fear banking houses,—(books and money saved;) tho Lafayette and Rlansion Hotels; the old State House; and tho two print ing offices; tho Presbyterian and Episcopal Churches; and almost every store in the place. The only public buildings loft aro tho Court House, Jail, and State Bank. The loss is incalculable. Besides that of tho citizens, many of tho farmers and planters throughout those sections of the State which trado there, have lost tho greatest portion of their last year’s cotton crop, which was lying in tho ware-house unsold. We arc glad to learn that no lives wore lost. On Tuesday evening, pursuant to the call of the In tendent of Police, a meeting of our citizens was held ;rt tho Court House for tho purpose of adopting mea sures for extending to our suffering fellow citizens such relief as our city may bo able to contribute. [Raleigh Star. t ‘ *— Wo saw in tho Washington Globe, a few days ago, a most outrageous attack upon the Judiciary of the Dis trict of Columbia, for its decision of tho caso of Mr. Nourso. Tho Judges were charged with being politi. ral partizans, and that their docision was corrupt. The following, from tho National Journal, is a temperate and mp^t triumphant refutation of this scandalous at tack. Wo see also, by the Globe of Wednesday last, that it has oponed its battery upon the samo court forit9 judgment rendered upon a verdict of a Jury in favor of IVIr. Phillobrown. We have seen the time, in tho An cient Dominion too, that such phillipics would have been visited with the gentle admonition of contempt of Court. Wo hope the Judges will not act so injudicious. ly% as to take any such notice of tho Editor of the Globo. Evils of this sort will euro themselves, and the sooner for being let alone. They aro but symptoms of the violcnco of the disease Jaeksonism is labouring uhder—tho throes and agonies of dissolution. THE CASE OF JOSEPH NOURSE, Late Register of the Treasury. Our attention has been callod to an article in the “ Official,” under the above head, and we arc fair to con fess, that we have not yet met with one, evon emanating i)om the same source, more in keernng with the whole character of the dominant faction. ^Nothing is too ele vutad in purity or character for its denunciations—no part of our institutions arc too sacred to protect it from vituperation and the grossest calumny. hu wurt'U()[)riM;u tuai 11- wus an uujuubui jccung to the “ greatest aud best,” that Mr. Nourse should be adjudged a defaulter. Wc. knew that Gen. Jackson and 3Ir. Nourse were at issue upon their personal veracity as to the conversation which was alledgcd to have oc curred botwoon them when the latter was ejected from offico We kuext) that the most wanton and cruel course juf p* rseculion had been pursued in relation to this gon tlcrnan when he bad voluntarily offered to give the most ample security to cover any amount which a jury of his *Uttmtry would find that ho was justly indebted to the government. We knew, that in dospito of this offer, a singular and almost unprecedented writ had been issued in his absence, to sequester all his tangible property, and that no decency or delicacy was observed in tho pro eroding. We knew that he had sought a safe-guard from the vindictive and indignant feelings of tho Executive ,-in the ordinary courts of justice. We knew that he had resorted to the only fomm which the law allowed in his Case, that of a Court of Equity. IVe knew that the Jhdgc who nlone hod or could take cognizance of the cause, had decided on the matters of law with Mr. Nourse.— We knew that the substantial merits of the caso had been submit tod. at the instance of the District Attorney, to three as competent and disinterested men as the United Kthtes can furnish. Wc knew, that in making the refer ence, as well as in tho selection of the Auditors, tho personal and political antipathies of the President were /jousultcd. We knew that these gentlemen, against whom no man can bo found to breathe an imputation, were unanimously of opinion in favor of Mr. Nourse’s claim to its whole extent. We knew that this report was fully nnetioned, and that, no exception to it was taken by tho earned counsel for tho government. We knew, that at "ho personal instance of the President, against legal ad vice, an appeal was taken to the fiijfcUit Court. We knew that counsel was employed to assist the District Attorney in tho management of this ease, the President and llcaven only know nt what prico. We. knew that it was argueff in the presence, and with the aid of the officers of the Treasury Department, two gontlcmcn of high standing in tho profession; against a single indivi dual on the part of Mr. Nourse. We knew that one of the Judges, going into the hearing of the cause, with prepossessions unfavorable to the claim, was convinced, und so declared himself by the argument on behalf of the Government, that it was a legal and equitable claim. We knew that the opinion of the Court was unanimous twid unhesitating. We knew nil thin and more.—And fbrther—We knew the violent antipathy which t.he Pres ident has to any law, Or any court which is not in ac cordance with his own notions or feelings—and his perfect indifference to the sacrifice of any of our Insti tutions which militate against these feelings. We knew also the contemptible sycophancy with which his adu lators of the Globe yield feeling, sonsc, principle, and all else^that may bo valuable, to gratify his passions and subserve his views.—Still knowing all thin, and prepared for any and every thing for which such knowl edge could prepare us, wc have been equally astounded and disgusted at the article to which wo have referred. In thb conrse of our editorial experience, wc have seen nothing more degraded in feeling, more false in asser tion, more dangerous in principle, thin flm subject of these comment.*. We appeal with confidence to political foes who still wear tho guise of honorable men, as cheerfully as to our friends—wo would appeal even to the gentlemen who was, from tho warmth of Ills political zeal, asso ciated with the District Attorney in the argument of the case, and who has been, by some suspected of in diting the article in question, for which; however, wo oannot for a moment admit therer is even a plausible ground of suspicion, whether the article in question is not us false as it Ls base. It is not our purpose or our wish to take up the gaunt let and defend tho personal character of tho learned gentlemen who composq the Circuit Court of this Dis trict.—-The accuracy of their legal talents may best ho 1 appreciated by an examination of the eases which they I have adjudged, and which have been reviewed in the ! .Supreme Court. Wo do conceive that where they are i known—and in this District they are well known in their public characters, as well as in their relations of domestic life and of society—any defence against the vituperative article of the “Globe,” would be an act of supererogation. But we do appeal from this shameful and wanton attack upon our Judiciary, to the honest feelings and honourable principles which yet remain in the community. Is tho Globe ignorant that a jury of the country have passed a similar judgment in the caso of Mr. Fillcbrown ? Is it ignorant that thi3 verdict has again been ratified by another jury, in the case of Mr. McDaniel ? Is it ignorant that these juries have been summoned by a Jackson Marshal, and that Jackson men have set upon them? In the discharge of their duties, upon their offi cial oaths they have found a verdict of not guilty in these eases against the chargo of defalcation, and have stamped falsehood upon the accusation. In regard to tho insinuations against tho personal character of Mr. Nourse, we should disdian to reply, were it not that the article in question bears upon its face, the endorsement of tho palace. Those parts of tho case which arc calculated to operate injuriously, arc carefully culled—all that can have a tendency to coun teract this impression, as industriously concealed. The letters of Mr. Wolcott—of Mr. Crawford—of Mr. Rush, are withheld, because they bear testimony to the validity of tho claim. The fact that Mr. Forsyth in the Senate, and Mr. Archer in the House of Representatives, have given it their sanction and support, is concealed. A private conversation with the President, which General Jackson daro not, under his name, avouch, publicly con tradicted by Mr. Nourse, is given. Wo ask who au thorizes such a statement? Who dare endorse it ? We sincerely trust that the suspicion that Mr. Key is in any manner connected with this unblicatiep, if groundless. Wo hope that he has pot received a fee, which hinds him boyond his professional theatre, to vil ify and abuse a respectable and aged man. We hope that he has not condescended to participate in this slan der upon the Judiciary of the District. But we can assure him, that a feeling and an opinion prevail that he is the author of the article in the Globe. Saturday Evening, Jfnnc 4. [CP \\ o learn that Charles J. Faulkner is a candidate In Berkley for a scat in the next Legislature. Wo also learn that no opposition is anticipated. By the arrival at Baltimore, of the Brig Virginia,' from Rio, news is brought of the safe return of Richard ' Lander, (the companion of Capt. Clapperton,) and his brother, John Lander, from the interior of Africa. It will bo seen, that the Journal of Mungo Bark has been recovered, and the Landers have solved the problem of the course and the mouth of the Niger, os they sailed down that River, to the Bight of Benin, where it dis charges itself by various branches, into the ocean. By far the most interesting news brought by this ar rival, is the account furnished of the African expe dition of Lander, the discovery of the Niger, and tho re covery of tho long sought manuscripts of Mungo Park. Tho English ship Carnarvon, which arrived at Rio Janeiro early in April, from Fernando Po, an island in the mouth of the river Cameroncsin the Gulf of Gui nea, brought as passengers, Richard Lander, the well known companion of Clapperton, and his Brother John Lander. These young men have bcon absent seventeen months, in the employ of the British Government,in pro soeuting tho search after the courso of the Niger. Having reached the point, (mentioned in Clapperton’s book” where Park was murdered, they succeded in recovering' his books, letters, manuscripts, and double barellecT, gun which was his property. Being obliged to abandon their design of proceeding to Timbuctoo, from which they were scarcely fifteen days journey, for want of presents to bestow, without which there is neither found protection nor assistanco from tho authorities of tho country, they in consequence re-embarked at tho place where Mungo Park lost his life, and following the current of the river, which runs 1 at tho’ratc of four miles an hour, they ascertained that tho Niger before it divided itself into various branches is ten miles wide. They then resolved to proceed by one of tho most considerable of tho branches which flowed rapidly to the west. As they approached the coast they were takon prisoners by the negroes who ' inhabit the banks of tho river, and were again obliged to embark to be Conducted to tho presenco of their king, who lived at a great distance. They were plun dered and treated as slaves, and wero threatened to be sold and sent into the interior. They succeeded, how over, after great difficulty, in persuading the chiefs by promises of a great reward, as well for their porsons as for the property they still possessed, to send them to Having .again embarked, they at length arrivod at the Bay of Bonin, whore tho Europeans gave them every assistance they required. These travellers aflirm, that tho river Nonn, which discharges itself into the Bay of Bonin, which is tho most considerable branch of the Niger; ard that the others, like the Calabar, also (lows to the ocean. They also stated, that their guides told them that the city of Timbuctoo is not situated on the Niger, but distant frera it twelve leagues to the north. They admired the . beauty and fertility of the country through which ihoy passed, the extent, of which is calculated to be 1800 milos. The inhabitants of tho interior are Mahome tans, and arc much more tractablo and civilized than the negroes who inhabit ihe coast. They took passage on the Gth April in the British transport Wm. Harris, for Portsmouth, England. The public will expect with great anxiety, the narra tive of these adventurous travellers. They havo sol ved a problem, which has deeply interested flic scientific world, and they cannot fail to meet with an appropriate | recompense for their toils and discoveries. Balt. Rrp. To the EniToos or the Whig Gentlemen:—As you will most probably notice in your paper of to-day, the decision of the Court, of Appeals, in the ease of Burwoll's executors vs. Stith’s executor, decided on Monday last, and as that decision settles a most, important principle, in relation to the . manner of stating the accounts of executors, odminis i trators, guardians ami trustees, generally, the promul gation of which, at an early period, is deemed, by sere ral members of tho Bar, of consequence. 1 bog leave to offer yon the. annexed condensed statement of the principle settled by the court,to l#*; used in such manner j as you may think proper, ftaving been flic original j counsel, who raised the question, in the Chancery Court, and having, with Mr. Johnson, argued the rase against Mr. Stanard, you will, I hope, excuse mo for I I this and other reasons, in troubling you on this subject. I am, yours, most respectfully, ROBERT G. SCOTT. MaySGth, hnrzotirs Executor v$. Stilh's Executor. j j This was an appeal from a decree of the Superior Court of Chancery for tho Richmond district. The i | principal question raised and decided in the ease, invol. ved the manner in which tho accounts of executors, i 'administrator* and other trustees, should he settled I And it became necessary for tlie court to roviow the decision of Cranberry, vs. Uranberry• and the ease of .Sheppard’s rx’or, vs. St.uko and wile. The result of which reviow is conclicl}' this:— That in tho settlement of such account.*, where, in one year, an executor, or administrator, or other trus tee, is found creditor to the estate or trusf-subjcct, arid in a subsequent year i» found the dobtor, tho principal sum duo to the executor, administrator or trustee is to he taken first from the principal sum due, from him, in* any subsequent year; and if the principal sum, so found duo in the subsequent Jrear, exceeds tho principal due to tho executor in tho frcceding year, the cxccas is to be taken from the accrting interest. For example, A, being the executor of is found the creditor of tlm es tate, on tho 31st «f December, 1829, in the sum of §5,000, for tho transactions of that year. On the 31st pf December 1830, lie is found tho debtor of the estate for his transactions in the year 1830, the turn of $4,500*. This principal sum of ft4,500, is to be taken from the principal sum of $5,00#, due for tho preceding year, and leaving dne $500 qf principal money and ^300 of interest. Tho Barac rufo is to be applied wbero the ex ecutor or trustee is debtor on tlie first year’s transactions, and is the creditor for any subsequent year, or in other words, to every case *l>crc the annual balances arc shifting. Whether this decision hs, or is not, in conflict with the past practice of the country,' is a question about which there is considerable difference of opinion among the members of the Bar, In (he Supreme Covrt of Appeals, Friday, Mak 20Ih, 1831. PRESENT—Jadgon Brooke, Cabell, 6j<run v^iCaXTi Esqrs. Poltio’s exov. i applt. i Upon an appeal > from n ^ against ^ from a decree Cosby nppee. ^ ptonoanccd by the Superior Court of Chittcery held in Riclunond. The motion of the appflant to do<;ket this appeal was overruled Uoyd, See. against Voss, exor. pits, i Upon a writ of > supersedeas to a deft, j judgment of the Superior Court of Law of Halifax County. Arguments concluded—H Stanard for PlaintiiTs—C. Johnson and B. \\r Leigh, for defendants. Saturday, JJay 21, 1831. Christian, Sr.c. applts. i Upon an appeal af>a*nst > from a decree C oleman’s admor. ct at Appecs 5 pronounced by t the .Superior Court of Clancery, held in Lynchburg. Judge Carr Delivered the opinion of the Court, rover sing the degree in part, ajid affirming it as to the residue. Taliaferro applt. t Upon an ap against £peal from a de I' ootc appee. jcrco pronoun ced bv the Superior Court of Chancery, held in Frede ricksburg. Partly argued. Taliaferro against Foote Jlonduy, Jlay 13d. npplt. i Upon an appeal > from a decree appee. j pronounced by the Superior (,'onrt of Cha*cety, licldin Fredericksburg. Argument continue*!. Tuesday, M»y 24th, 1831. Taliaferro applt. i Upon an appeal against > from a decree Foote appee. j pronounced by the Superior Court of Chancery hold in Fredericksburg. Arguments concluded—C. Johnson for appellant_R. Stanard and P. Harrison, for appellee. Doswell applt. rllpon an appeal against > from a decree Buchanan’s exors, ) pronounced by the Superior Court of Chancery, held in Richmond. ; Partly argued. Wednesday, JJay 25th, 1831. Doswell applt. 1 tSnn appees. s Buchanan's exors. Arguments continued.— Thursday, Hay 26£h, 1831. DobwcII applt. A See above. against Buchanan’s oxors. appees. •Vxgumcnts concluded—C. Johnson and J. Robinson, for applt—B. W. Leigh for appees. Friday, May 27th, 1831. Henderson's exors. et al applts. i Upon an appeal against > from a decree Andrew’s exors. appees. j pronounced by the Superior Court of Chancery, held in Staunton. Partly argued.— Saturday, May 23th, 1831. Henderson’s exors et al applt. i against. > See above Androw’s oxor. appeo. ) Arguments concluded—R. Stanard for applts.—C. Johnson and B. W. Leigh, for appcc. Monday, May 36th, 1831. Boyd, <fcc. pits, i Upon a writ of __ against > supersedeas to a \ ass, oxor. deft, j judgment of the Superior Court of Law of Halifax County. Judgment affirmed with costs. Taliaferro applt. i Upon an appeal ^ against % from a decree Foote oppee. jpronounced by the Superior Court of Chancery, held in Fredericksburg. Judgo Carr delivered the opinion of the Court, rever sing the decree, and dismissing the bill of the appellee. ‘ Switzer applt. i Upon an appeal against >from a judg Hardy’s adr. __ appoo. l ment of tho Superior Court of Law of Botetourt Count}*. Appeal dismissed—the record not being tiled within the i time required by Law. Taylor, &c. applts. i Upon an appeal against > froru a judgment Lewie appeo. jof.the Superior vuuii ii-iu Afv/inivj vuuiiwy* Appeal dismissed—the record not being filed within the tine required by law. Tuesday, May 31st, 2831. Henderson’s exors. et al applts. lUpon an appeal against / from a docroo Andrew’s exor. nppee. N pronounced by ♦he Superior Court of Chancery, held in Staunton. Docroe affirmed. Adjourned till Monday, the 10th day of October next. HOTTER AND HOTTER! From the Washington Telegraph of May 30lit. At the late Jackson meeting, a proposition was made to rc-consitlcr the vote and resolution approving of the character and conduct of Mr Calhoun. Tlio Globe of I this morning says: “Possibly he (tho Intelligencer) | counts as anti-Jack*on the few shrill cries that tried j to utter a double sound upon the resolution nominating Mr. Calhoun. Tho friends of the President never ' count those on his side who talk with a doable voice." Are we to understand by this, that none who approve the character and conduct of John C. Calhoun, arc to be considered as friends to Gen. Jackson? If they arc to bo denounced, proscribed aud persecuted in the name of the President, it is proper that they should know it. It certainly cannot bo expected of Mr. Calhoun and his friends, that they are to support the re-election of Gen. Jackson, for the good of a party who avowed an intention to use the power and patronage of the Go vernmetft tovillity and prosecute them7 Or, is the ar ticle in the Globe intended, for tho benefit, of those clerks, who dared, in the face of tho great Globe itself, to speak ns freemen? Another "Reformed" Dcjoulter—George MaeI)aa. icl. Esq. who held an important Clerkship in the Treas ury Department, for more than twenty years, was ejec ted front his office on the accession of the present “Re. forming Dynasty,” and his name bruited abdut the country as a dohpiltor. Suit was forthwith instituted against him for the recovery of moneys charged aud re ceived hy him for his services On Monday last the caur-c came up for trial in fhe circuit Cxirf far V/a$h ington County, ami aftor a rigid investigation of the facts, the Jury retired for a lew minutes, and returned a vordict in favor of tlic defendant for the full amount of his claim. ,4lex. Gut. Nr.'.v Oiuj:a.vr, May 19. alrx:ro.—By the Schooner Carrco, from Vera Cruz, no received Mexican papers to the 29th April last.— 1 hey contain tIre act of submission of Colonel Don Jn. jT Alvarez and of all his division, ofiicors and soldiers, ihis important act was signn : at Pexca, oti the loth April. It is with pleasure we learn that tranquility is establishediu the entire South of tho Republic. Let us hope that period is not far-distant, when wiso arid durable institutions will consolidate the cdilice wiucli the Mexican people luive raised to Liberty, by so many and great sacrifices. Argue. T ho weiitlier being extremely warm, it will *» *veli for persons to be cautious in drinking cold \v >'.r. The wnstp and temples or fpreliesd should br •nvoiishly bathed before ilrinkiug. A matt yeftcnlav ! l»st his life l-y Tint using this precaution. Balt. *hner. By the brig \ irginia captain Ilugg, at tills port ves terday, from Rio dc Janeiro, the Editors of tho Anii-ri can have received advices to the 14th April inclusive. Their letters of that date furnish the following" polit ical and'commercial intelligence:— “Rio bk Jankrio, April J i. Since the abdication of tho Emperor, on the 7th, in favour of his son, every thing remains quiet. Tho rev olution has been effected without bloodshed. Tho Ex Emperor, his wife, and the Queen of Portugal, sailed yesterday morning for England, in tho British sloop of war Volugo, and a French frigate. He intends to pro ceed to Munich in Bavaria, to pass the remainder of his days, having taken with him a sufficiency for his sup port. The Regency has been appointed. \\ c have still a largo stock of Flour on hand, all of inferior quality; price about 17|| for tho best, ordinary 1911 a 1G|!, but at these prices, little or nothing can be done in tho way of sales. Debts arc exceedingly diffi cult to be collected, and imminent risk is run by selling the article'promiscuously. * Exchange on England has declined from 21A to 20 a 20i. Silver ISO per ct. premium; Dollars 2SQ0 rs. each; Ounces, 4 i||.—Balt. A/ncr. Buenos Ayres.—rTiie brig Ruth, at Philadelphia, brings accounts from Buenos Ayres tc the 8th April. By this arrival tho editors of the American have receiv ed a file of the Gaccta Meroantil of that city to the 6th April, inclusive. The papers contain long and detailed accounts of the progress and success of the confederated army in the interior. The city of Rio (-uarto liad been taken by Gcnoral Quiroga, after a prolonged action of three days, and 59 officers and 351 soldiers made prisoners. The loss of the confederated army was one officer and six soldiers. Hopes were expressed that this triumph would tend greatly to ! shorten the war. Tho confederated troops had'also been successful in the province of F.ntre Rios. A letter has been received in Buenos Ayres from tho celebrated traveller, M. Bo.nj/la.nd, dated Han Borga, February 22, 1831. Ho states that he has re ceived permission from the Dictator to leave Para guay, and that he intended soon to set out. for Buenos Ayres.-—Balt. A:ncr. F.XTRACTS FROM LONDON PAPERS. BY T11F. FLORIDA. FRANCE. INSURRECTION IN LITHUANIA AND IMPE RIAL UKASE OF THE DESPOT NICHOLAS— , NEWS FROM POLAND. To the Editor of the Morning Chronicle. P.upir, April 27, 1831. Sir—In the north of Europe is a country called Li ’ tliuania, which is nearty as large as that part of the United Kingdom of Great Rritain and Ireland called “ England. It was in olden times a distinct nution, governed by its Grand Dukes, and was 300 miles long, and 250 miles broad. In tho sixteenth century it was united to Poland, and has ever sinco, with a small ox . ccptipn, belonged to it, until, by the iniquitous conduct of the Empress Catharine, in the eighteenth, and by the scandalous treaties of the holy alliance in the nine ; teenth century, both it and Poland liavo bcon by force united to Russia! Before those unjust and dishonest measures, Poland was govorned by an elective Mon | arch, and Lithuania had her share in the nomination. It is bounded on tho south by Volhynia, on the west by Little Poland, Polachia, Prussia, and Samogitia, on the north by Courland and Russia, and on the east by Russia. The country is flat but fcrtilo. It produces corn, honey, wood and wool. Its horses aro celebrated, its forests extonpive, and tliero is no reason why the people should not bo happy, but that they are oppressed. The peasants and tho great mass of the pooplo aro kept in u state of the most abject vassalage, and their ideas, manners, dress, and actions are thoso of beings . who duro not think for fcaj of offending their Govern ors. Their nobility are divided into two classes—*hosc i who aro rich and overboaring, and those who are poor t and discontented. Tho poor nobility act as a sort of I suporior domestics to the wealthy, and aro treated with : contempt and brutality. Tho capital of Lithuania is ■ Wilna, which is by no means an inconsiderable or so cond city in Europe. Although it was oxposed in the last century to two conflagrations—one by fire, and the other by lightning—its palaces are still splendid—its churches still magnifleent; and, although it has not regained its former grandeur, yet, as a city, Wilna is by no incans unworthy of attention. It is to this country and this capital that I am about, for awhile to direct your attention; and I am about asking you to extend your pity, your interest, your sympathy and your good wishes to thoso who dwell on the banks of the Dnieper, the Dwina, anil the Niemcn. a nc pcasanm ami people are ignorant and oppressed. ] They arc oppressed by the small nobility, who require ! gifts und contributions, as a reward for obtaining the l i patronage or protection of the richer proprietors ami ! lords of the soil. They arc oppressed by the wealthy i nobility, who demand largo rents—constant personal service and attention—and all those concessions which were formerly made in England and Franco by the vassals to their “good Lords." They are taught to believe that it is of no use to read, to think, or to con gregate logethor. Rooks are rare; newspapers arc un known;.and the only sort of liberty which i:.-enjoyed is that possessed by*the Jews, who have tho right to cul tivate the soil. Tho nobility are ignorant and savage, lovers of des potism, and averse to improvement. The pfcoplc are refused all their demands, and the Nobles consider that their only security consists in their maintaining the , actual state of things in this country. Tho Russian ! i Government has hitherto been too happy to encourage j such sentiments;and whilst it has ground the people to • powder, and made even the Lithuanians revolt, if has! sought to maintain its influence hy securing at all pri ces, tho allegiance of the wealthy Lords. But of late years tho system has somewhat changed. 'I he demands of the Nobles on tho Government have been refused— additional imposts have been levied—the sons of the Nobility have been taken away to war—and the Aris tocracy ofwealth, wlfich knew no bounds to its greatness, has left, itself humbled and oppressed- The per ror No bility have encouraged this feeling, nicy have advert ed to the former history of Lithuania, when she was go verned by her own grand Pukes, and when even more latterly she assisted ut the elections of Polish Kings.— 'Phis feeling of dissatisfaction has gradually increased. It:: exist on re has Ivon known nt. Pt. Petersburg; but those who were clamorous were strangled or drowned —sent 11) Siberia—or enlisted in the service of the mi litary ('oleines ! which is another word for slow death ! j The wealthy nobility havo, at length felt that, in pro- ; cess oftime, they would become slaves—that the inorc sing demands of tho Russian Government would end in their ruin—and they who were themselves tyrants, havo begun to desire emancipation. The poor nobility, who have every thino -o gatu, and jr.-thin* jo loio by a Revolution, have worked upon the minus .six ms of the peasants and people—anil have even pu' : whether they would assist in obtaining the indepen dence of Lithuoiti, Though dull, heavy, inanimate, ’.be word “Ijiborty” has struck a chord which had novet before been touched, and tboso who never dreamt of any thing better than a superior vassalage now feel thr-t they are men. 1 he Revolution in Poland had arrived at the right, moment. The Polish Jews have aided the Polish Ke. volution; and the Lithtinian Jews are prepared to assij.t that commenced in i\lilna. The sucesscs of the Polt luive inspired them with hope, and fho news from War saw has raised their courage.—At length they have ri p£n* . Tho wealthy nobles dervutided free institutions—■ tho right of governing themselves—of having their own Judges and thoirowu laws—and even not being taxed Without their nqpscnt. The poor Nobility dcl mand equality of rights though not of property aitd they head the peasants in fighting against the Russian or my. 1 ho people are scarcely awake. Yot they fight, bravely sing the songs of Old Poland, and ovcu have heard something of a French Revolution. Tliric.c has \\ ilna been attacked, and thrice have the invaders been rcpclli*l. Wiina remains in the possession of tho insurgents. The strong places in I.ithunia have been, obliged to fly to the territory of Prussia; and there, in violation of every principle of justice and non-interven tion thoy havo been allowed tore-arm themselves and JCfifurn to tho roiifiltt. Rut ni'.hw-K iliey have re turned, they will be again defeated—for all Lithuania is in a state of insurrection. When finrt this intelligence readied Rerlin, it was kept as a great secret? \Vben it reached Paris, poor Pozzo di llorgo landicd outright, and said they will he exterminated!!”—When the news reached St. Pe tershurgh, the Emperor, ut first, treated it with con tempt, as Charles X *1 id at St. Cloud the messenger who announced to him that he people of Paris wero in arras. Cut the next courier which arrived in tho capi tal Russia not ouly confirmed the news, but con firmed also its serious character; and tho Emperor of ail the Russians heard on the same day, ef twelve thousand Russians having been killed and made prison ers by the Poles, and of the faithful province of I.ithu cnia being in revolt. The affair of the Poles was met. by an order to send more troops; and the allair of I.i thunia by an Imperial Ukase, to which 1 now invite your attention. It will demonstrate the advantage of des potic Government, and will show how right .R. .Sebas tian! was, when he called the Emperor a “Great Prince.” The devil would he ashamed of such greatness, and would scorn to be so basely mean. mis imperial ukosc oegms ny admitting Unit “there is something rotten in the state of Russia; but it ends by humanely decreeing that tho sins of the fathers shall bo visited on their children, and that death, confiscation, and banishment shall ho tho incans of restoring order and happiness to Lithuania! It states that the nobility of Wilna, Grodno, and Volhynia, are, generally speak ing devoted, grateful, and doserviug of linperin! confi dence. “But—'and this important word “but” has of late been a sad thorn in the side of poor Nicholas.—. Hut une btnule ifiingrats, indignes dc s'appelcr genii Is hominrx ! ! J” have of late troubled the tranquility of tho faithful Lithuanians in Tclsch, Schawel, and Rossiony, in tho province of Wilna; ranch, of course to the dtg gust of all good citizens, and certainly not less to the disgust of the Emperor himself. IIow amusing is this! The Emperor called the Poles “a hindful of Brigands,” and sent ‘JGO.OUO men and -100 piocos of canon to kill a spider! But the handful of Brigands overthrew the ar my, and we have reason to hope that the independence of Poland is forever assured.—Now the Emperor calls the Lithuanians “aband of ungrateful rebels,” and adds, by way of marking his contempt, “that they are unwor thy to he juallod gentlemen!” There is something al most ludicrous in this. It reminds me of Charles X, who called on all his “dear children, tho French, to listen to the voice of their afilieted and displeased fa thorl” It hi almost a shams of the Emperor to render that which is serious so comic, for it amounts really to tho burlesque. The Lithuanian nobles cry for libertv, and he replies—“Ungrateful rebels, you arc unworthy ty he called gentlemen!” However, this is the least objectionable part dP this most inhuman Ukase. For, not content with establisb ing Militury Tribunals, and with ordering that all tho rebels arc to be seized, tried, and condemned to death without delay—not content with ordering that the pro-* perty of the rubais shall bo soized and confiscated; il directs that all the male children of these rebels shal pctitiori his Majesty formcccy to them, and that in de fault thereof they aro to ho sent to the Military Colo, nies! It also directs that tho male children of all infe rior persons who havo taken an active part in the rev olution shall be seflt to Siberia; but as an inducement to the peasants and lowor urdors to forsake the causo of lib-'.rty and of the Nobles, it promises a free pardon to all the poor who shall present their arms, and lay them at tho feet of a forgiving and merciful, though diseas ed and offended Prince! ^1 hus tho malo children of thoso who havo fought for htoir independence arc to be sent to eternal snows, and to (l certain and untimely death! This is a specimen of absolute Government—this is a proof of the modera tion of the “Great Emperor”—this is the Colossus which all Christendom should unite to overthrow_and this is he who lias threatened to exterminate tho Pole: and leave Poland one heap of ashes!! ! Will France I. low this? Will Great. Britain permit this? Must Po land and Lithuania, Volhynia, and Grodew, all bo c:< terminated to prevent tho progress of liberty an.! the, advancement of civilization? 1 will not answer - o questions; but point totho British Reform Bill ■ !i0 sheet anchor of our hopes, and as that measure \vh :. h must eventually secure the independence of Europe, Have I now excited your sympathy for the Lit Irani ans?—And do you now desire to learn of the success of the Wilna insurrection? Then let me add, that all tho accounts we receive, are satisfactory; that ftin Ukase will produce just the opposite effect to fhat which is expected from it; and that, driven to desperation by such a measure of injustice and tyranny, tho Lithuan ians will demand tho re-union of their province to Po. The intelligence which wo have received from Poland is, on the whole, satisfactory. It is true that Siedlic. has not yet been taken by the Polish army. Hitherto these brave men havo in vain endeavoured to take pee SCSSltm tmyiaaivni IM!W'llllHt WP Cuff* not but regret this circumstance, there in no renson to doubt of eventual success. During the last two days, the lovors ofhigh prices and things as they are, havo d irru to invent, the most atrocious falsehoods, for t.ho pm; o. (, of assisting their pecuniary speculations, uud a mouse];, tary rise in tlie funds. They have stated that aflerthi. two days’battle the Poles had been defeated,and that, on the loth, Warsaw was in the hands of the Russians. I have, however, seen the Warsaw Journals to the 11th, and there is not one word of defeat, much less of dejec fion. rJ lie .spirit of the people is still unanimous, ardent, and patriotic. Every day prisoners arrive, and every day remnils oiler their services, nnd linsfen to the army. Should Prussia send avflpfir.v into Poland, it would in the end he exterminated; and oven should British and l'Veneh diplomatic aid he refused to the bravo Pole:. * they will yet triumph over every obstacle. But why should it be refused.' W hy should not diplomatic agon;. proceed to Warsaw from London a::d Paris, as th’y were sent to Brussels? Why should the Russian army be organized, and Poland be exposed to the horror;* of another invasion? The intentions of the Kmpor-.r ur not dubious. He will not yield to thocricH ofth' pressed, the tears of the orphan and the widow o' r Hie demand of four millions of freemen. Th :• !-* press upon tho Earl Grey, through the columns of 7. Morning ( hroniric, to send without delay, u diidonat.' agent to Warsaw, whose arrival will be hailed - - i r p tore—whose mission shall be that of peace— r senCo shall be respected oven hy the Bar! . ; ; - r rt the Northern Autocrat—and who sh- !! only the indc,--ndence of Poland.bn' , V ' v, u indissoluble alliance between rer1 i . ■* " ' enlightened and reformed England ^w^gtoJyg*Jj?ffir^ro’ur oh»f servant. C BIOER,—I idler & Taylor’s Brer. / • ins 31—LAVr^^Tf.R. DENifY * Co.