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PEAL-WEDNESDAY. DICE MS BE 8, 1875.
Continued from llr pace. Stat s, t-ofe ia scarcely a limit to the wa!ili that may be squired bycotporn-to-jo n Hkus or therwiet if allowed In r. t.Hiu proierty wLhout taxation. Tb. co t iupUtHH of h vat a J -fixity its '"r- al!cd w'tbout taxatbu, way ' I " qwt a'loo without contilu t si authority and through Wood. OKAVLYARIW ONLY KTOEMPT FBI'-lX AT'N. I mt u d taZtftt U.e ttxation of all Tr,r y ita'ty, ufo-ther chLivh or 11 nr p'e of fe dead, a id, pio-dMy V:ti , r .pr wrfiietiotis, church eoitict. OCK Gi.NI KAL lMRlSHIK XELAT10NS. Our r-i .t m with nicst i f the fbie'gn pou-t-raooKiiiue on a eati-fnetory anil friendly footing I creaed iuterc uive, t ?nsfon or commerce and fjecultlva Jon of mutual inititvlM, have improved ourrItkn. u ti n 'age mel nty of Vif p - wets of the w. rid, rendering prae Uco e li& peaceful Mention of qu-stior e which from t tne t tittle n'i-e. leaving few which ceiuaud xtctid.d or particu 18 r n i'ioh T'e tx rref-potnlexiee of the d ptr'nisM of S ate will: our diplomatic re rew!U.t:on abroad, 19 t.ansniitud iie'erith. i ani happy to announce the parage Of au net by the general cartes, of Por tugal, ( n calmed th e fie adjournment of congress, for tbehb'illf on ofrervltuiie In Pottcguei v colonies. JUa to be hotied mat eucil legislation will he ii.olhtr step I irward to (he great osntumtntilion 10 be reached, when no n ai shall he perm.t-ed, legally or iudiieetly, under pusi-e, excuse or f rm of law t 1m Id his fellow-ma 1 lu bondage. 1 sra of the opiu n also, thfct it i the duty of the Unllol to tit-8. u cantubutirg to that end, ant! n qulrt-d by iho spirit of the cods I'utinu under which we live, to prov.d-tiy Fuimt le legislation that no citiz n o the United States shall hold carta as property in any other country, r hi uneres'eu incretp. C ill has mule rep rition in the. case of tie whaWmdp God Jirturu, seized w.tbopt euffie et cau-e upwurd of for ty years ago. Th&Uio she had h'thsrto Ce led her n& ouutabillty, the denial WtH never arquieseed in by this govtro mem, a.-u the juetlceof the claim ha? been t-o c arms. ty ooutcLded for that it in grailfy Ir g thai ete ehould luvo at la?t actuow.eded it. Tie r '.ration in the eve or the Dt:l'((l -itht 8 hteamer Jlonnj-j, for the seizaro ai d demotion o' wliicu the gov ernment o thn Urn e Stt of Coltim hla w.i3 hld araMin able, ha9 decided in favor f the claim. This decision has fietf d a q ie.iou which hn ben imi ing f .r -evoiai yearc, and which, while contuu'il ojieu, might more or les di-tun tifg iod underetaiiding which lb desiroh e to be maintained between the tWl K p .bliCf. A 'pn e ty t-'aty with the kingol the Ilttvtiitiu Isajis was concluded the tuuie month. Ac it contains a etipu laliiutia 11 -bsll ml ake tirtujiil congrf SB ail oaet the proper legiela tl ;u for ihe puip'te, c pies- tftbe iustiu meut are bi-rrwitti tuuni t:td iuonhr tiat if 8"th tin u id be the pleasure of ng1- ci tieiHCe-ary If gialation upon hecU j "t my benioptid. SPAIN. I "la-ch !as an erriugement was ma te tirr.unh Mr. f'ushing, our minis ter id " a'lrnl, with tbi-Spanish govtrn meJ' fo the payn ei-t b, tie Intter to the Uutd Htatt tr.e mm 1 f $80,100 in coin or tite purple of the relief cf tbe lamf'S or 1 e sons cf the s'dp's com pany and tvruiiii pa e 'gers of ho Vir giulu9. Tnii f-Hin ws to have Le-11 paid In thrc iu-tallui-L t. Ht two months caab. ! I due t tb- Sraniob covern- nsent th tl rhonld tue t'.at Mie pay mej'u wo f fully will spteJily a:.'lC. ptted ly mat g vt-rnment, and Vaut the wbd atni'U.t ai pJa wi',jhj but a fewd.y m r Uau twy mouths from the Cue f tb.-ffre'juenr. va,,y of whlsh Is cr wib -lHtiBmi't. Iu pur suarceof i.i te:m90f theai'jiiiiaient, I bava d re- W i the di tribtuion of the mntunt among the parti-a entitled tberj " ,, it.ciudU.g tiie fchip's company aw. u h of t' e pw.mug.-rs a were Am - ri cltizus. Tbe payments are mad accordingly on apphoatiou of the piruwi entitled, im ro. CDBA. Ia the BfiighburioK island of Cnb the earns d t egnd of tbo laws of-civillzed var vrc, and of the jtitt demands of Jiumar t? which have hereto'c re called for:u exj-ie-slme if eorjderana'.ion fr m all tbo iiitionn of Christendom, liave cant . ueJ to b ckea the mi! f-ceue of daio at.on. Ruin a ia pil age 1 re pervad ing tfco lkh ti ldi of o -e or tha must fert li anil pro unlive legions of the eartti. acd the meet diary'o torch, firing plat ta ons and va'tikble factoiies auu balldugii, is the tgeit markiig the alterutitu advance or (e reat tf the con tendlcg psriiB. T e jr lrct-d ron tinumce f tao tt. ft eerioumy affrcta tho intrti-t of all commercial riaiijus, but those of the United Htaloi mr rs thaa tbe others by its le proximity; Its larger baie and luteicmiiHa with Cuba, acd tie fnqueut and intimate personal a' d s cil ulitionswhclihave grown up letwetii il cit zens and thess of tie isiaad; nttd, morr-ove, ths prop erty of our ci'iztjsi in Cubii lirge, and is re::d red lisnue and depreciated in vi'ue acd in t'e capacity of prof'u ti3U by the oooMiaiati .u of tbe stii'e a- d the unnaturtii iuitdef ilsoomiucr. Tha same to true, ditjriu otly In d-g ?p, wth.reepoct to tiie in terest d pe nle c cthr na'iano: anJ thb absence f reaoua'iie as furanca of a near term n-i'lon o.' tae C3- flint must of liecer.-ity soon oini it 1 1 ! 8 at! thus eull'-ring to con sider .tLt tl e mterwta of t ie peojla and their dti y tiward themnlv s may iemmd I btd oIKrd that 8 t in would be eaau:td to ti ve e6ta4idbed peace in hercolory; 'oaff rise u i y to t prop erty Ht:.i th mteresteof our citizeae, r.nJal w a Itgitimata wofe t) trade and 1-xntnero aut tienatutai prrdarj tlocs of tjelsiaotl B cau-ot tills eocp?, anJ fr ioi an extreme lel'i'taiice to 111 tsrftreij tie met reun ti ninnt-rr in tbeeff rs o' auothtr nd f.iendiy t a tliu, e-ipe iaily ijf one wl ote aynipatby an J f itiiiis tp tu ih- it uglitig IcfaDcy of our own extMenc- 'TnuJt ever bo rc meaibertd with graMtuie, I have pa tlen'lyaitl auK ojy waltr l tbe ito grew cf c o tie. Oji own civil coi ll'ct is to rc .it far us to act contiJer tbe tlifll ultlee which mr ouni a givtraajent d i-tmct"d ty a djnwtic xb rai at ho lie at U,e aame time lh:t t hi to coi with a separate icsur recara ia a distant cjlouy; hut what ever cause' may 1 ave produced the situ ation wLich so grievous y airt t our ia tsrrdta, it excitee. with a!l its attendaut evil, optriting d'rectiy uion thisctun t y aLd lib 1 tople. Taus far all tbe re acr:s tf t-paiu have ptov. d aboitl ve, and time h3 martel no imptovenietit in the t tjtion. Tbe arnit-d binds of tho cthrr E'.do now occuj'y nearly the sumo gr u -1 rs In tbe past, with tbe dlfferf nee, from t c:e to 'fme, of more lives eacii-flc-d, projeity destroyed, a-id a wider cxt'Ht f feni'o ami pr.ductivd fields a -d m ro valuable .rnriy couftantly an J wart .'ly ser fleed to tiie incen d'ary'o to h. Io cot. tents 'f this na ttro, re a c uaiderabie bttly of peo ple, V7h bav? atteii'pud to tio tbem utlvej t the rojtroi of the mi ptr g 've'rment, have reached euch a pit iu tbe tccuptinn of the lerni iy in i)wer, md in tie g2:cr I cra'ilztiotj, at to c u-t.tuJe in lac a b t y ,'jii;t:, hvi..g a govtrciBitui la s b a af w.lt as In nara, 1 o-i-SMiirJ r t e eite -In ;f i-tibiiity aiut en j', . d i b the machinery rtheail- a r 'i jd of It infernal policy, anil V. cie .1 i u of i Uws, am picpartd and tbcti aiimmietcr j itice kt nume a '7j a iu its dealiugi witli other pjwt h 't ia within th province of the; ti r powers to recognize tbe ex-ij:c-- - a new aid inttetiw dsnt ua- tio . In si beaB.MOtn-r uati'jue moi- tly d: 1 it 1 ai ctu!ly xtetiog eon- diti :ti thiog?, aud ic -oguize asone cf be l- w r t'-" e li- ,uat body pti 1 v- ih, piaeeing tbe ntces-ary -. 1 . . 1 . . il.tr - - u, " att o c !e a new p.-.r c - - uni, it;e vremiiou ot a ntw bti - s e-rab:ib that condition of Ui.j a I 1 ofcctil to tlx reoogijliion Ir.r t r t thtt tlie inn si be a perpie occjpyig a known territofy, umier some kaown and defined form of ?ov erument, scknowiedRed by those tuo jsotUiereto, iu bich the functions of governsieu:, administered by the usual mthod!, couipfcteut to mete out juetice 10 mi zeiiS anu urar gcrV toatrord reme- die Hirpuwicand private tVrongs, and able to aetumetbe rflitive into national obligations, mil cipable of perform ing the eoite ponding alternation 1 du tlesralting from Its acquisition of the ngh s, lovori iguty and power bbcu'd exist cninidrite in lietraui&ttlon,iedy totaao aud Able to maintain iUil.ce amoi g ihe iiatiot s of tbe earth. Wtiile w"-j,oui mas tiis uit-urrfCiion in uua has sbown a ttrength and enduiance which make it tt least dtubtful wheth er it t e in tha jwwor of S a-u t j tubdee. 11 s.-fins ui.qu s lonsuie that no tuch civil organ ztiou exists which may be rtuogiitzeu as an lnuepenuent govern ment, capable of 1 erformine it obiiira tions aud entitkd t be tieated as one ol tne powers or the etrth. A recognition nnuersucu cirtuiintaucet would be in coneiH'.ent wtt'i fcts, and wtuldcom by' I the wworlhat cave i to sunnor i t:o the gocrumeit to vhicli it - A l tiau really given only claim of exK ence. In my Judgment tbe United 6tsts Bhould ndi cr to tl o imUey and pumtipita wuicn nave nereiotore been iw sure stfe guaid in liae contes's between revel ed colonies and thtir mother country, and acurg only upon tno (Sere"t evidence should avoid any poesibi.ity of suspicion or imputaliun. A recognition of tho independence of onua using, in my opinion, lmpractlca us auu Ince'tu Ible, tbe qu;stion wbieb next presents itself ia tuatof a recognition or belligerent richts in the per;ies 1 1 the contest. In a ft rmtr mcs egeto couerees I had occasion to con skier this question, aud leached the con clusion that the coDllict in Cuba, l;ead- tut ani uevas'a-ing as were its evnlents, Id cot rise to the fearful d'g .lty of war. n-ganling it now, after this lapse of nme, 1 am un&uie to see that any no table suc-ess of any marked or real ad vauo on the part of the insu-genls has esfentl- lly changed tho character of the contest, it has acquired great; r age, but not greater or more formidable t,ro poitionr. It is possible that tiie acts of 1 jn igu powers, and even actsofbpatn herself tf this very nature, might t puinleJ to in defense of uch re coirai- tlou. But, as in its past niatory, the umifu mates suou it careiutiy avoid tbe IsJsb Iighcs which might lead it into the muzss of duubtfui lnw and of question able propriety, nnd adhere rigidly and sternly t-j tbe rule which ha3 I euu its guide, doirg only that which ia right nd honest and of good rjport. Tho qucUion of according or of with holding tho rights of belligerency must be judged iu every cae, in view of the particular attending facts, unless justi fied by necessity. It is alwavs. and justly, regarded as an unfriendly act and a gratuitous demonstration of moral support tj tbe rebellion. It is necessary aud it Is rcquireii, when the interests anil rights of another trivernmpnt nr of its people are so far affected by a pending civil conflict as to require a litficition of its relations to lhe parties thereto. But this conflict mUit bo onp which will ba recoznizod in Hip nn international law as belli2eroncv. too. It is a fact tbat the mereesponseof con tending armed bodies, and their sioual conflicts, do not constitute war in the S2ts referred to. Applying the ex isting condition of affairs in Cuba the tests recogntzsd by public sis aud writers in international law. and whinh iiOM been observed by nations tf dignity, honesty and power, whenfree from pn. "itive, selfish tr unworthy motives, I fail to find in tho insurrection the exist ence of euch a substantial politi cal organization. re'V tminahia nH manifest to tbo world, having tbe foims and ..rmi.lo of tt,o ntnin.m fUUCtionS Of Onvmmenf fntrtirfl itu n.iv people sd 0 other States. With the COUi Ki toe the administration of justice, d with a local habitation possessing -t;cn an organization ot lorce, such ma teril, and sucn occupation of territory as to take the cinirol out of the catego ry of a mere rebtllu us insurrection or occasional skirmishes, and place it on the terrible footing of war, to which a re cognition of belligerency would aim to elevate it. The coLtest, moreover, is solely on land. ,The Itsurrection has not possessed itself of a single, seaport whence it may send forth its fi-g, nor lias it any means of communication with foreign powers except through the militaiy lines of its advenaries. No apprehension of any of those sudden and difficult complications which a war upon the oc an is apt to precipitate uoutbe veisela, both commercial and national, and upon tbe consular officers of other power?, calls for the detioiiion of tatir rel&tionB to the patties to the contest. Considered as a question or exiedleui'y, I regard tho accord ance of belligerent rights still to ba as unwise and prema ture as I regard it to ba at present indefei stole as a measure of right. Such recognition entails upon tne country, accoiding to tho rights which 11 3 w from it, difficult and crm plicated duties, aud requires the action from tbe contending j arties of the strict observance of their rights aud obliga tions. It confeis the right of search upm the higli seas by the vessels of hctb partfe!. It would subject the car rying of arms aud munitions of war, whicn may now bi transported freely and without interruption in the vessels of the TJni'ed Stutes, to detention and P siible M-izure. It would give rise to Cjuutlefs vexatiouj questions, would re lease the parent government from re sponsibility for sets dune by the insur gents, and would invest Spain with the rijiht to exercise tho supervision recog nized by our treaty of 1795 over our com merce 011 the high sens, a very large part of which, iu its traffic between tbe Atlantic and Gulf States and the States ujKn the Pacific, passes through the waters which was-h tho shores of Cuba. The exerche of this supposition could tcarce fail to lead, if not to abuses, cer-ainly to collisions perilous to the peaceful relations cf the two States. There can ba little doubt to what result tuch supervision would bfore long draw this nation. It would be unworthy f the United Stalest) inaugurate the possibilities of such a revolt by measures uf questionable right or expediency, or by any indtsarelion. Apart from any quffcticm of theoretical right, I am satis fied that, while the accordance cf bel ligerent ricbtj to tho iusuigeutfl iu Cuba mlgur give them a hnpe and induce ment ti protract the s.ruggle, it would be bu". a delurivo hepe, and would not rtmjve the evils which this government a ni Its pf-oplo are experiencicg. but would draw toe United States into com plications which it has waited long ami already tufl'ered much to avoid. The recognition of Independence or of bsl 1 gcreucy being thus, in my judgment, equally inadmissible, it remains to con fi'Utr what course shall bs adopted, should tiie conflict not soon be brought to an end by the acts of tbe parties themselves, acd shcu'd tho evils which result therefrom, tiUtctiug nil nations acd particularly the United Stttes, con tinue. Iu such an event I am of opinion ttat the other nations will be compelled to assume tbe responsibility which de volves upon tbem and to seriou-ly con sider the only remaining tnea'iiro pos sible, mediation and intervention. Ow ing., perhaps, to tbe large expanse of water sept rating the bland from the peuii sola, tiie want of harmony, and of iieissu&l sympathy between the iahabi tautsof thecolooy and those sent thither to ruie them, and tbe want of adapta tion of the ancient colouial sy.t'in of Eirope to the pjejent times, at:d the ideas which the twut of tbe past ren tuty have deveioptd, the contending parties appear to Have within themsel ves no dtpoAilory of common confidence t eugc-st wiedom when pasion n-jd ex citemetit have their sway. And to as sume the part of peace-mbker in this view, in ttie early dt.js of the contest, tbe good offices of the United 8ia .es as a mediator were tendered in good faith, without eel fish purpoeebutiu theinteie-t of humanity aud in sincere friendship ftr bith pa-tlee, but were at the time declined by Spain, with tbe declar ation, nevertheless, that at a future time they would be itidlij ejsable. No inti mation lias been receive J that in thu opt r im of Stain that time has beeu ieuched and y-t tbe strite continues witti i'a u.ead honor., and til i,s ii;ju- ritB to tr e interest .l the Ucitjd fettles and of ttner nation. Eton putty seems 1 quite capable to Work greit Injury trnd damnge to the other, as well as to all the I relations and intrrt s . which dspecd od ths exUttnce of p'ace in the is:aad; bu they teem incipab'o of reachlDg au ai Juftnient, aud tuey have thn far failed of achieving any ni cees, whereby one party thall poets) and control tne island t the exe'ution of exc uaon of the other. Thesa circunntacces claim tbe avtencv of others. Either moiiatlon or inter- r vention seems t be the 01 ly alternative waieii uius. sooner or Ihtsr be invoked for the termination o' the strife. At the same time, while so impressed, I do net recommend the adoption of any meas ure of liilerven ion. I shall be readv at all t mcs, and aa the equal friend of both pa.t:tj, to respond to a t-uggetion that tbe ttood cilices of the United States will b.T acceptable in aid in bringing about a peso? honorable to both. It is duo to Spal , so ftr as (his government is con cerned, t at the agency of the third p wer which I hiveadveitid lo, shall be athpted only as a lat exp-dient. Had it been the desire of the United Ktttes to interfere iu the stiilis of C'Ubi, repeated opportunities fjr so domg haVe been pxe-ented within the last few ytarp, but we have remained paisive anu nave enormia our while duty, ano all lutorcationsi obl'gations to Sosla with irteLdiip. fdrnes3 and fi delity, and with asptr t of patieuc-i and forbearance, which negatives evtrv n s- eib e suggestion of de-ire to interfere cr toadd ti too difficulties with which eho hts b.en surrounded. Tho government or Spain has recently snbm tted to our minister, at Madrid, certain proposals which, it is hoped, may be four.d to bs the basis, ifnuttnu actual sihmisaion of termBto meet the nqutrtmetta of the particular gtief or which t;i h govern ment nas leit itseirentited to complain, these pre p ;sals have not yet reached me in their full text. On their anival they will be taken in careful txsoiina tlou, and may, I hope, lend to a satisfac tory adju-tment of the questions to which they refer, and remove the nossi bility of the futme occurrence?, such as nave given ne ti cur lust comualnts It is undetst-jod, also, that renewed efforts are being made to introduce re forms in the internal administration of tho island; persuaded, however, that a proper regard for ths Inerets of the united to ates ana of its citizens entitled to relief from the strain to which it has teen subjected by the difficulties of tbe questions, and tho wrongs and losses which arise horn the contest in Cuba. aud that the Interest of humsnltv it self demand tho cessation of tho strife before the whole inland shall bs laid waste, and larger stcrifices of life be made, I shall fdel it may du'v. should my hones of a sads'actory adjustment. and of the eany restoration of peace, and the removal of future causes of com plaint bo unhappily disappointed, to make a further communication to con gress at some period not far remote, and during the present session recommend what may then seem to mo to be neces sary. THE MEXICAN MABATJDEBS. The free zone, so-called, several years since established by the Mexican gov ernment inceittiu States of that re public adjacent to our frmtier, remains in full operation. It has always ben materially injurious to honest traffic, for it operates as an incentive to traders in Mexico to supply without customs charges tbe wauts of the inhabitants on this side of the line, and prevents the same wants from being supplied by mer- cnants or tne united states, thereby lo a considerable extent defrauding our revenue aud checking honist commer cial enterprise. Depredations by armed bands from Mexico on tbo people of Texas near the frontier continue; though tne mam otj-ict i tuo incursions is rob bery, they frequently result in tho mur der of unarmed and peaceably disposed persons, and in some instances even the United States postofficts and mail com munications nave been attacked. Ko ntwed remonstrances upon this subject have been addressed to the Mex ican government, but without much apparent effect; the niliitiry force of this government dispoiabls fcr service in that quarter is inadequate to effectually guard the line even at those points whcie the iucureions arc u-ually made. Au experiment of au armed veel on the Rio Graude for tbat pur pose is on trial, and it is hoped- that, if O' t thwarted by the shallowness of the river and ether natural olstacles, it may materially contribute to the protection of the herdmen of Texas. Tne pro ceedings of Ihe joint commission under tie convention between the United 8 a'.eeand Mexico of the fourth of July, 18s8, on thesulject of claims will soon bs brought to a close. The le ult r f those proceedings will then be communi cated to congress. TflE VENEZOELIAN AFFAIR I am happy to anuoueo that the gov ernment of Venezuela has, upon fur her consideration, practically abandoned its oljeetion to py to tho United States that share of its roveuue which, some years since, it allotted toward the ex tinguishment of the claims of foreigners generally. In thus reconsidering its de termination, that government hassbown a just sense of serf respect which cannot fail toreflpct credit upon it in the eyes of all disinterested persons olsewhere. It is to be regretted tbat its payment on account of claims of citizens of the United States are still eo meager in araodnt, aud that tbe stipulations of the treaty in regard to tbo sums to be paid and the periods when these payments were to tane place should have been to signally disregarJed. NEW TREATIES. Sluce my last annual message the ex change has been made of the ratifica tion of a Iretty of commerce and navi gation with Belgium, and of conven tions with tho Mexican republic for the extension of the j jiut commision re specting the claimB with tbo Hwaian islands, for commercial reciprocity, and with the Ottoman empire for extradi tion all of which have been duly pro claimed. THE ALABAMA CLAIMS. Tho ccurt of commissioners of tbe Alabama claims has pro.-ecuted its im portant duties V6ry aslduouely and very satisfactorily. It convened aud was or ganized on the twenty-second of July, 1887, and by the terms o"f the act nnder which it was created was to exist for one year from tbat date. The act pro videl, however, that should it be found impracticable to complete the work of the court before the expiration of the year, tbe President might, by proclama lion, extend tbe time of its duration to a period not more than Bix months be yond the expiration of the one year. Having received satfs'actory evidence tbat if it would be impracticable to com plete the work in tbe time originally fixed, I issued a proclama'ion a copy of which is presented herewith extend iLg the tlmo of the duration of the court for a period of oix months, from and after the twonty-eecond day of July last. A report made through the clerk of the court, communicated herewith, shows the condition of thecaiendar on the first of November last, and the large amount ot work which has been accomplished. Thirteen hundred and eighty-two claims have been presented, of which 6S2 had been disposed of at tbe date of the re port. Iam informed that 170caiea wore decided during the month of November. Arguments' are belug inado and de cisions given in the remaining tales with all the dispatch consistent with the propercompiicition of the questions sub mitted. Many of these claims are in bebatf of mariners, or depend on Ihe evidence of marinen whose absence has delayed the Inking of the necessary evi dence. It is presented to mo tl-a, it will bo impracticable for the court to finally disptsu of all ths cas'3 before it within the prescribed li-nita of its dura tion; anl iu justice to tbe parties claim ant, who bavj been at a lare expense In prej n-itig their elalms aad obtaining tbe evidoace in their support, suggest a ehort extension to enable tne court to dispose of all the claims which have, been prwnted. I recommend the leg islation which may be deemed proper to enable the court to complete the work before it. CLAIMS OF ALIENS. I recommend provision oe mado by tbe creation of a special court, or by conferring the ntce-sary jurrs lictlon upin Komt approptiats tribunal, for tho cuns deration and delermio'-tion ot the claims -if alUiiS against tho government cr 1 be United S ritrf which lihvn .irl-i-n within eojie leasoaalle t'mr, crwhlch may heitafter atlse.excludiug all claimB barred by treaty, provisions or othe - ! wisr. It has been found imnoEslble give proper coneiderat'ou to tbe claims by the executive departmet t ot tho coy- ernment. Such a tribunal would tff rJ an nppoituuity to aliens, other than British eutjtcti, tj p'esent their claims on account of acts committed against their persons or propeity uurioc the re- b llion, aa ahoto those subjects of Great iint tin wnoso claims having n'lsen sub sequent to tbo ninth day of April, 1865, c iuld not be presented to the late com mifsion organized pursuant to tho pro visions 01 tne t eity or wasniugton. THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH has brcome an essential and iudispensl ble agent in the ttanemltslon of the business aud sccial messaiies. I's ope ration on land, and within tbe limit of particular Stat;s, Is of nece-sity under the control of the jurisdiction within which It operates. Tbe lines on the high seas, however, arc not suljtict to the pm cuiar control 01 any one govern nient. In 1839. a concession was grant ed by the French government to a com pany which proposed to lay a cble from tne shoioi of f ranca to tho L'.iitd States. At that time there was a tele grathic conuection between the U ui'td Scales and the continent of Eirnpe, tnrougn tne possessions 01 ureat iirttatn, either end of the lins under control or an association which bad, at large out ay of capital, anu at a greU risk demonatn ted thepracticab'lityof maintalnii gsucb means of cunmuuication. The coat of correspondence Ly thi3 agency was grett; potsibly not too larga at the lime fur a proper remuceiation for so coetly an enterprise. It was, however a heavy charge upon th9 means of c immuaication which progrtsi in tho social and commercial intercourse of tbe world was found to be a necessity, and the obtaining of this French con cession showed that other cop! al than that already invested was ready to en ter into competition with the assurance of adiqu te returns for their outlay. Impressed witn the conviction that the mtertsls not only of the people of the UuiteJ States, but of the world at large, demanded or would demand the multi plication of such means of communica tion between tho separated continents, I was desirous that the proposed con nection should be made, but certain provisions or this concession were deemed by me to be objectionable, par ticularly tbe one which gavo lor a long term or years the exclusive right of tele- grapnic communication by submarine cable between the shores or France and the United States. I could not concede that any power should claim the right to land a cable on the shore of tho United SUte, and at the same time deny to the United Htates, or to its citl Izens, the guarantee of an equal right to lay a cable on its shores. The right to control thi conditions for the laying of a cable w thin the jurisdictional waters of the United States, to connect our ehores with those of any foreign State, pertains exclusively to the government or the United States, under such limitations and conditions as conpress may ImpoEe in the absence of legielalion by congress. I was un willing, on the one hand, to yield to a r r len state the right to say that its grantees might land on our shorts while it denied a similar right to our people ti land on its shores; and, on the other hand, I was leluctant to deny to the great interests of the world and of civil ization the facilities of such communi- ction as were proposed. I therefore withheld a resit t nice to the landing or any cable on condiiim that the offensive monopoly feature of the concession be abandoned, and that tbe right of any cablo which may be established by au thority ot this government to laud ou Frencn territory, and to connect with the French laad lines, and crjiytbe necessary facilities or privileges iucident to the use thereof upon as favorable terms as any other company, be con- coded. As a result thereof the company in question renounce! the exclusive privileges, and the representative of France was informed that, understand ing this relinquishment to b construed as granting entire reciprocity and the equal facilities which had been demand ed, the opposi'ion to tbe landing of the cable was withdrawn. The ca ble, under this French concession, was landed in the month of Juiy, I860, and has beerl an efficient and val uable sgent or communica ion between this country aad the other continent It soon passed under the control of those who had the management of tbe cab'e connecting Great Britain with this con tinent, and thus whatever bcelit to the public might have issued from competi tion between two lines, was lost.l aving greater lacilitits or an additional line, and additional security of accident to one or them. But tlio.se increased facil ities, aud this additional racllby, to gether with the combined control of tie capital of the two compmies, gave also a greater power to preveLt the future construction tf other lines, and to limit the coutr d of telegraphiccommunication between the two continents lo those possessing lines already laid. Within a few mouths a cable has teen laid, known as the UNITED STATE3 DIRECT CABLE, connecting the United States directly with Great -Britain. Ai toon as this cable was reported to be in working or. dur, the rates of the exi ting cousol -dated companies were greatly reduced Soon, however, a break was announced in the new cable, and immediatsly the rates of the other lino were again raised This cable being now repaired, tho rates appear not to be leduced by either Hue from tho-e formerly charged by tbe other eotrpaoy. There is reason to bslieve thm. large amounts of capital, both at homo aud abroad, are ready to seek profitable investment iu the ad vancement of the ustful and most civil izing means cf intercourse and corre spondence. They await, however, tbe assurance of the means and conditions on which they may safely be mado trib utary to the general good. As these cab!e telegraph lines connect separate states, there are questions as to their or ganization and control, which probably can be best, if not solely, set tled by a convention between the rtspecuve state 1. In the absence, however, of international conventions on the subject, municipal legislation may secure many points which appear to me important, if not indispensable, for the protection of the public against tho ext rtions which may result from a monopoly of the right of operating le!e graph cables or from a combination be tween several Hues. First No line should be allowed to land on tbe shores of the Unitetl States unde?-& concession from another power which does not admit the rght of any o'ber line or lines formed in the United States to land and freely connect with and operate through the land lines. Second No line should be allowed to laud on the shores of the United States which is not, by treaty stipulation with tbe government from whoso shores it proceeds, or by prohibition in its charter or otherwise to the satisfaction of this government, prohibited from consolidat ing or amalgamating with any other cable telegraph line or combining there with for the purpose of regulating and maintaining the coil of telegraphic com munication. Third All lines should bo bound to give precedence in tbe transmission of the official messages of the governments or the two countries between which it may be laid. Fourth A power should bs reserved to the two governments, citDerconjoint ly or to en?h as regards the met-sages dispatched from its shores, to fix a limit to tho charges to bs maintained for the transmission of messages. I present this subject to the consider:! tton of congress; in tbe meantime, and unless congress otherwise djrect, I shsll not oppose tbe landing of any tele graphic 6able which complies with and ss'ents to the points above enumerated, but will feel it my du y to prevent the landing of any which dees not conform to the first and second points as stated, and which will not stipulate to concede to this government the precedence in the transmission of official messages, and will not enter into satisfactory ar-" rangements as regards its charges. FRAUDULENT NATURALIZATION. Among the pressing aad important subjects to which, in my opinion, tho 't't tiou cf Cingreis shutili be dirett d, aro thoee in rela tinn to fauduhitt ra uial zition a- d fx. ition. The United S.ates, with greuk liberality, offers cit'zeuship to a!l who in good ialth comply with the re- qairements of tbe law. These require mcnts are as simple and upon as favora uio terms to tne emigrant as the nigh privilege to which heis admitted can or suouiu permit. X uo not propose any additions! requirements to these which the law demands, but tho very sim pliciry and want or necessary formality in our law have made fraudulent nat uralizatiim not infrequent, to the dis credit and it jury of all honest citizens. whether native or naturalized. Cases or this character aro continually being nrouguc to tbe notice of the govern ment by our representatives abroad, and also these of persons resident in other countries, aiost frequently those who, if they have remained In this country long enough to entitle tbem to become naturalized, have genenily not much over passed that period, and have returned to the country ot their origin where they reside, avoiding all duties to me united states oy tneir abseuc1. claiming to be exempt from all duties to the coanry of their nationality and of tneir residence, ny reaeon ot their ai leged naturalization. It is due to this government itself.and to the great mass 01 naturalized citizens who sincerely, both in name and (ait, become citizens of tbe United States, that tbe high priv iirgd of cit Zinshin of tbe United States should not be held by fraud, or in dero- g tion of laws at-d or the good name or every honest citizen. On many occa eions it lias been brought to the know! edge ot too government that certificates or naturalization are neid, and protec tion or interference claimed by parties who admit that not only they were not within the UnHed Stases at the time of the pretended naturalization, but that thsy have never resided in the United S .ates. In others the certificate and re cord of tbe court show on their face that the persons claiming to bs naturalized had not resitted the required time in tho United states, lu others it is admitted upon examination that the require ments of tbe law have not been complied with, in eome cases even such certificates have been matters of purchase. These aro not isilated cases, arising at rare intervals, but of common occurrence, and which are re ported from all quarters or the globe Such occurrences cannot and do nut rail t ) reflect upon the government, an&in ure all honest citizens. Such fraud oeiDg discovered, however, there is no ptacticable means within the control of the government by wincn tne record or naturalization can be vacated, and should the certificate be taken up, as it usually is by the diplomatic and consu Ittl lUIICDOUlflUVCa Ul bill; (jUTClUUiDUl) to whom it may have beeu presented, there is nothing to prevent tbe person claiming to have been naturalized fiom n. -nnVAnAn.ni.nm. . . ' tlm ...n ........ n, n . obtaining a new certificate from the court, in place of tbat which has been taken trom him. The evil has become so great, and of such frequent occur rence, that i cannot too strongly recom mend that some efllctual measure be sd jpted to provide a proper remedy for toe vacatirjg or any irauouient records, and of punishing the guilty parties to the transaction. EXPATRIATION. In this connection I refer also to the question of expatriating and the elec tion to the nationality of the United States. In the foremr st,holdiog that the right or expatriation was principally instrumental in overthrowing tne doc trine of parpetual a'legiance. Congress has declared the right or expa'riation to bs a national inherent right of all peo ple, but while many otner nations have laws providing what formalities shall be nccesssry to worn a change of alleglancf , the United States nas enacted no pre visions of law, and has in no respect marited out now and wnen expatriation may be accomplished by its cit'zei s. Instances are brought to tiie atteution of the government where citizens of the United S:atcs were naturalized, or na- tive-brn,have formally become citizecs or subjects or foreign powers, but who nevertheless, in the absence of any pro visions ot legislation on tnesa questions. wheu.involved in difficulties, or when it teems to be for their inter est, claim tor be citizens of tbe United States, -which they have long since abandoned, and to which for years they bad rendered no seivice, nor laid themse.ves in any way amena ble. In otbor cases naturalized citizens, immediately after naturalization, have returned to their native country, have become engaged in business, have ac cepted office or pursuits inconsi-tent with American citizenship, and evince no intent to return to the United States until called upon to discharge some duty to the country where they are leiidmg, whon they at once assert their citizen ship and call upou the representatives of the c verntnent to aid mem in tneir un- iti- p etensions. It is but justice to &ona fide c.tizeLS that no doubt should exist on such questions, aca mat congress should determine by the enactment of a law now expatriation win do accom plished and a change of citizenship bs established. INTERMARRIAGE WITH FOREIGN SUB JECTS. I a'so invite your attention'to the ne-ces-ity of regulating, by law, the status of American women who marry foreign ers, aud of defining more fully tbat of children born in a foreign country of American parents wno may reside abroad, and also of same further pr visions.regulating or giving legal effect to the maniages of American citizens contracted in foreign countries. The corresoondence submitted herewith siiow a few of tbe constantly occurring que-tlous on these points, presented to tha consideration of the government. There are rew subjectB to engage the at tention of congress on which more deli cate relations are depending. THE NEW DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUILDING. Iu the month of July last the building erected for the department of ttits was taken possession of, and occupied by that department. I em happy to say lhat the archives nnd valuable papers of the aovemment in the custody 01 that department are nowsafely deposited and properly cared ior. THE REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY shows the receipts from customs for tbe fiscal year euding June dU, 1874, to have been S163.103.S33 69, and for the fiscal year endtnit June 30, 1875, to havebeen lo7.lo7.7-:s no, a neirease ior tne last fiscl year of $5,936,111 34 ; receipts Irom internal revenue for tne year end ing June 30, 1874, were $103,409 784 90, and for the year ending June 30,1875, wete$il0.007,4a35S; Increase, S769.770 838. Ihe report also shows a complete hiBtory of the woraings ot the depart ment for the last year, and contains re commendations ior rerorms and for leg islation which I concur in, but cannot comment on so fully as I should like to doif space would permit, but win con fine myseir to a rew suggestions, which I look upon as vital to the best interests or the whole people coming within the purview ot me tiossury 1 mean SPECIE RESUMPTION. Tco muSs stress cannot bs laid upou this question, and I hope congress may be induced at the earliest day practica ble ti insure the consummation or the act of the last congress, at its last ses sion, to bring about specie resumption on and after the first of January, 1879, at the furthest. It wcu.d be a great biessiug it this count be consummated even at an earlier dute. Nothing seems to me more certain than that a full, healthy and permanent reaction cannot tike place ia favor ol the industries and financial welfare of the country until we rsturnto a measure of values recognized throughout the civilized world. While we use a currency not equivalent to this standard the worid'o recognized stand ardspecie becomes a commodity, like tbe produce of the soil, the surplus seek ing a n arEei wnerevtr mere is a de mand for it. Under our present system we should want none, nor would we have any were it not that customs dues must be paid in coin, and because of tbe pledge to pay the interest of tbe public metals woul 1 flow out fcr the paicbase of foreign productions, and leave tbe Uniteil Statsa hewers of wood and draw ers of water, because of wiser legislation on the suMect cf finance by tbe nations with whom we hve dealings. I am not prepared to say I can eujigest the best legislation to secure tae end so neartiiy oomioecdel. It will be a source of great (ratification ti me to beratls to approve anymca-ure of congress looklngeffect Iveiy toward securing resumption. Un limited Inflation would probably brirg about speolo payments more fpscdi'y than arjy legislation Iookiug to th- re demption of leeral-tenders in coiu. but it would be at the expense of honor. The legal-tenders would have no valua te- yond settling the preient liabilities or, properly speaking, repudiating tbem. They would buy noting after tho debts were all settled. There area few measures which seem to me important In this connection, and which I commend to yonr consideration: A repeal of eo much of the legal tender cots as make these notes iecelvable for debts contracted after a date to be fixed in tbo act itself, not la'er than the first of January, 1877. We should then have quntattous auen values not llctltiou3 ones, uoul would no longer be at a premium, bu currency at a discount: heaitbv reaction wou'd set in at once, acd with a desire to maae tne currency equal to what it purports to be. the mer chants, manufacturers, and states meu cf every calling could do business on a fair ma-gin of profit. The money so received navicg no unvarying value, the laborers, and ail classed who work f.r stipulated pay or salary, would re ceive more for their income, because extra profit would to longer be charged by capitalists to recompense them for the risk of a downward fluctuating iu the value of the currency. Second That the secretary of the trtaury ba authorized to Tedesui; say not to exceed $2 000 000 a month of legal- tender notes, try issuing in their stead1, long bonds bearing interest at the rate of 3.25 par cent, per annum, rf denominations ranging from $500 to $1000 each. This would, In time, reduce tne loeai-tenuer notes to a volume tha could be kept after, without demand ing redemption in such largo sums, and so suddenly. Third Atiditional power to be given to the secretary of the treasury to accu mulate gold for the final redemption or tne currency, increasing tne revenue. curtailing expenses, or both. It is prefer able to do both, and i recommend a reduction of the expenditures wherever it can bs done without impairing gov ernment obligations, or crippling tiie due execution thereof. One measure for increasing the revenue, and the only one 1 tbin&, is of tbo RESTORAl ION OF THE DUTY ON TEA AND COFFEE. These duties would probably add 518- 0C0.0C0 to the present amount received ror imports, and would in no way In crease the prices paid for those articles by the consumers. Thess articles are the products of countries collecting rev enues from expoits, and as we are tbe largest consumers reduce the duties they proportionally increase them. With this addition to the revenue many du ties now collected and which give but an insicn'ficant leturn for tbe cost of collection, might be remitted, and to tbe direct advantages of consumers alone. "1 would mention those articles which en ter into the manufactures cr all sorts. All duty paid upon such articles go directly to the cost of the niticlo when manufactured here, and must bspaid for by the consumers. The duties not only come from the consumers alone but acts as a protection to foreign manufacturers of the same completed articles in out own and distant markets. CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT. I wiil suggest or mention another sub ject tearing upon tbe problem of how to enable toe secretary or tee treasury to accumulate balances. It is to devise some better metnod or verifying the claims against the government than at present exisis through tbe court of claims, especially those claims growing out of tbe late war. Nothing is more certain than that a large percentage of the amounts passed and paid are in part or wholly rraudulent or are far iu excess of the real lesses sustained. The large amount of losses proven, on g ol testi mony according to existing laws,by affi davits of fictitious or unscrupulous per sons, to have been sustained in small farms and plantations are not only far beyond the possible yield of these p'acea ror any ono year, out as every one snows who has experience in tilling the soil, aud who has visited the scenes of tbe s poila- tions are, in many instances, more than the individual claimants were ever worth, including their personal and real estate. The report of tho attorney-gen eral, which will be submitted to congress at an early day, wii contain a det-ned history of the awards made and of tbe claims pending of the class here rolerred to. THE REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR, accompanying this message, gives a de tailed account ot army operations ror the year just passed, tbe expenses for its maintenance, etc., with recommenda tions for legislation to which 1 respect fully invite your attention. To some of these I invite your special attention. First, tbe necessity of makit g thirty thousand dollars ot the appropriation for the subsistence department available be fore th" beginning or the next fiscal year. Without this the provisions or the troops at points distant trom supply and production must either go without rood, or existing laws muu be violated It is not attended with cost to the treas ury. Second, his recommendatl- n of the enactment of a system of a inuities for tbe families of deceased cUbe-a by voluntary reductions from the monthly pay of officers. This again is not at tended with burden on the tre&sury, and wculd ftr tho ruture ielieve mucn dh tress which every old army officer has witnessed in the past of officers dy ing suddenly cr being ki led, leav ing their families without aoy means of reaching their friencs, if fortunate enough to have friends to aid them. Third, the repeal of the law abolishing mileage, and a return to the old system. Fourth, the trial with tor pedoes, uncfer the corps ot engineers, and au appropriation tor the same; should war ever occur between the United States and any maritime power, torpedoes will be among, if notthe most effective and cheapest auxilliary for the defense of the harbots, and also in ag gressive operations, tbat we can have; hence, it is advisable to learn by experi ment tneir best construction auu app 1- cation, as well as eflect. Fifth, a per manent organization for the civil ser vice cores; this seivice has now become a necessity or pesce, a3 well es war, un der the advancement mado by the pres ent able management. Sixth, a renewal or the appropriation for compiling the official records of the war, etc. The condition of our navy at this time is a subjeot or satisfaction. It does not con tain, it is true, any 01 tne powenui cruising iron-ciads which make so much of tbe maritime strength of some other nations, but neither our continen tal situation nor our foreign policy r.-quires that we should have a large number of ships of this character, while this situation and tbe nature of our ports continue to make those of other nations less dangerous to us under any circumstances. Our navy does con tain, however, a considerable number of Ironclads ot the monitor class, which, though not properly ctuiseis, are power ful and effective for harbor de'ense and for operations near our own shores. Of these all the single-turreted ones, fi'teen In number, have been substantially re built, their rotten wooden beams re placed with iron, their hulls strength ened, and their engines and machinery thoroughly repaired, so tbat they are now in most efficient condition and ready for sea as soon as they can bo manned and put in commission. Ihe five double-turreted ironclads belonging to our navy, by far the most powerful of our ships for fighting purposes, ere also in hands undergoing complete repair?, onrl nflll'fl ha raarlit t . v. !n periods varyiDg from fiur to six months. With theie conooleteJ ac cording to the piesent design, and our two Iron torpedo-boats now ready, our iron-clad fleet will be for the pur poses of de'ense at home, and is equal to any iorce mat can oe readily brought against it. Of our wooden 1 avy, also cruisers of varir us sizes to the number of forty, Including those now in com mission ana in tne Afnutlc, could be made ready for duty as fast as men could be enlisted rorjthose not already in commission. Of these one-thitd are in effect new shipc, and, ulthough some ol the remainder need coutl ierble repairs on their boilers and machinery, ibey til are or can roadily be ma lo effective This conititutca a fl et of more than fifty war shls, of which fi'teennteiron clad, now io nnd ano tb A'laruio coast. The navy has b.iu uuht to this condition by a judicious and prac tical application of whatcould bespared f.oni tho current appropriations of the 1st few years, and from tbat made to meet tbo possible emergency of two years age. It has been definitely s-ettled without proclamation or display, and, although it has cece3sarily straitened thedepartmeu in Its ordinary expendi ture, and as far as the iron-ciads are con cerned, has added nothing to the cruising force or tho navy; yet the result is none the leis satisfactory because it is to be round iu a great in crease of real rather than appsrent force. The expenses iucurred in the mainte nance of au effective naval force in all its branches are necessarily large, but such a fcrca is essential to our positions, relations and charaoter, and affects Ecriously the weight of our principles anil polioy throughout the whole sphere of naval responsibility. The estimates for the rgu ar support of this branch of the serviee f jr the next year amount to a little less in tho aggregato than thoee made ror tho current year, but some ad ditional appropriations area-ked for ob jects not induced in the ordinary main tenance cl tne navy, but believed to n of .pressing irnpirtaut'e at this time. It would, in my opinion, be wieo at once to afford sufficient means for the Imme diate completion of the five double-tur rettetl monitors now undergoing repairs, which must otherwise aivance slowly. aud only as money can be spared from the current expenses supplemented by these. Our navy armed with the de structive weapons of modern warfare, manned by cur seamea, and in charge of our instructed officers, will present a f rca poweiful lor the home purposes of a responsible, though peaceful nation. THE REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER GEN ERAL, herewith transmitted, gives a full his tory of the workings of the department for the year Just past. It will be ob served that tbe deficiency, tobesupplled trom me general treasury, has in- rea'cd over tbe amount required for tbe preceding year. In a coun ry so vast iu area as the United 8 ates, and with large portions of it so sparsely set'.'eJ, it must be expected tbat this important service will be more or less a burden upon tho treasury for many y.ars to come, but there is no branch of tne public service which interests the whole people more tbau that of the cheap and rapid trars miesion of the mai's. Tne commercial advantages to be gained by a direct line of steamers to tbe South American State?, will far outweigh the expense of service. By set of congress, approved March 2, 1875, almost all matter, whether properly mail matter or not, may be sent any distance through the mails, in packages not exceeding four pounds in weight, for the sum of sixteen cents pf r pound. So far as the tians- mission of ieat mall matter goes, this would seem entirely proper, tut I sug gest tbat the law bo so amended, aa to exclude from the mails, merchandise cf all descriptions, aud to limit this trans portation to all articles enumerated, and which may be classed as mall matter proper. THE BLACK HILLS. The discovery of gold in the Black Hills, a portion of the Sioux reservation, has had tbe effect to induce a large emi gration of miners to that point. Thus far the enort to protect the treaty rights of the Indians uf that section has been successful; tut the next year will cer tainly witness a large increase of euch emigration. The negotiations for the te- lnqufshment of the gold fields having failed, it will be necessary for congress to adopt some measures to relieve tbe embarrassment growingout or the causes ni-.med. The secretary of the Interior suggests that tbe supplies now appropri ated tor tco sustenance or mat people, beiug no longer obligatory under the treaty of lS6i, but simply a gra'uity, may te issued or withheld at his discre tion. INDIA.N TERRITORY. The condition of the Indian Territory, to which I have referred in several of tnv former aunual messages, remains practically unchanged. Tne secretary of the interior has; taken measures to ob tain a full repoit of the conditions of tbat Territory, and will make it the subject or a special report at an eany asy. it may men be necessary to make some fuitlier recommendation in regard to l'gislation ror the government or that Territory. THE PATENT OFFICE. The steady growth and increase of the business of tbe patent office indicates in some .measure the progress and the in dustrial activity or the country. The recti pts of the office are in excess of its expenditures, and the office generally Is n a prosperous and satisractory condi tion. THE GENERAL LAND OFFICE. The report of the general land office shows that there were 2,459,401 acres less disposed on curing (his tnan during the last year. More than oce-balf of this decrease was in lands disposelof under tbe homestead and timber cutter Jaws. The causes of this decrease is supposed to be round in the grasshopper scourge and tbe drouths which prevailed so ex tensively in eome or the frontier States and Territories during that time, as to discourage and deter entries by actual e t ers. The cash receipts were less by $69.0322:-3 than during the preceding year. The entire stirvpye d area of tbe public domain is btO,5i5J,094 acrep, of vhich 2b,U77,dl acres were surveyed luring the past year, leavirg 1,154 471,- 762 acres still unenrveyed. The'report of the comm'ssionejr presents many 'in teresting suggestions in regard to the management and disposition of the pub lic domaiu, and the modification of ex istiug laws, and tbe apparent importance of which ehould insurerortbemthecaie ful consideration of congress. THE NUMBER OF PENSIONER3 still continues to decrease, the highest number having been reached during the year ending June 30, 1873. During tbe isat year 11 557 names were added tithe rolls, and l,9i7 wore dropped there f'om, showing a net decrease of 1420. But while the number of pensioners has iecreased, the annual amount due on tbe penGion-roils has increase1 $4,473, 313. This is caused by the great in creased average rata of pensions, which, by the liberal legislation of congress, has increased rrom $9026 in 1872, to 310.391 In 1875. To each invalid pen sioner, an increase in the average rate of fifteen per cent, in three years. JJuricg the year ending June 30, 1875, there was paid on account of pensions, includ ii g the expenses of disburse ment, $29,083,962, being $910,982 lean than was paid the preceding year. This reduction in the amount of expenditures was produced by the decreaee in tho amount of arrearages dua on allowed claims and on pensions, the rata or which was increase! by the egisiattou 01 tne preceding session or congress. At tne ci03e or the last fiscal year there wer on the pension rolls 233,821 persons, or whom 210,861 were army pensioners, 105,478 being invalids and 104 SS5 widows and dependent rela tive; were navy pensioners, or whom 1636 were invalids and 1778 widows and dependent relatives; 21,038 were pensioners of tbe war of 1812, 15, 875 or whom were survivors and 5163 were widows. It is estimated that $29, 535,000 will be required for the payment f the ponstous ror the next fiscal year, anammot $9bo.UJU less than the esti mate f )t tbe r.-seut year. THE GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATIONS have been prosecuted with energy dur ing tbe year, coveting au area of about 40.0C0 square mi'e, in the Territories of Colorado, Utah and New Mexico, de veloping tne agricultural and mineral resources, and furnishing interesting sci entific acd topographical details of that region. OUR INDIAN POLICY. The method lor f e treatment of the It dtans adopted at the beginning of my first term, has been steadily pursued, acd with satisfactory and encouragiog results. It has been productive of evi dent improvement in the condition or tbat race, and will be continued, witn such modifications as further experience may muua'.e to ue necessary. THE CENTENNIAL COMMISSION. The botrd heretofore appointed to take change ft th articles and mate rials pera'rl g t t ie war, t e navy, the treR'i"' , the iUtrorand por office ileaartmi- fs, aa 1 tl:e deptr.ment of ag ilcul'u , the omith-ontan Institution, and the oo-uuilssion of rood and fish, to be contnbJted under the legislation of the last session to ir ternatioi-al ex hibition, to ba heleSItt 1'hilaiWpMa dur ing the Centennial year of JS7B ban been diligent in tho discharge of the rt tlea which have devolved u;on it, and the progress eo far made with tbe means at command, give anrancfH that tk governmental contribution will bemad one of the marked chamc .-isticu of tie exhibition. Tne board ba observed commendable economy In the matt'r tf the erection of building for the govern mental exhibit, tbe expense of which It Is estimated, will not exceed eighty thousand d oil am. This nmunt his been withdrawn under tbe law Ir m ths appropriations of five of the prtix-ipal departments, which leaves some of thorm departments without suffiele it mansti leader their respective practical xhibiisj complete aud sstirf tctory;the exhibition being an inttnatioo 1 ons, sni the government being av.luntaVy eauii btitor, the advantages to ilie tfJfiitrv or a credltib'e dtsplav In an i 'terffafinn al point cf view is f first importai c, while an indifierect or uncrediiaB'e par ticipation by the gi vemment would bs humiliating to t e pa'r otic feeliug- of our people themselves I c immer.d tbe estimates of the boatd fir t ie ntc-ssary additional appropriations to the favora ble consideration of cot gn-s. The powers tf Europe, si nost witlint ex- ceptlon, and many of the South Ameri can S:ktes, and even the more dt-tact astern piowers, have manifesfeil ibelr friendly sentiments toward the Unit ed States, and tbeir interest in our progress by tiki g stpps t jdn with us in celebrating tne ceutenniai of the nation, and I strongly recommend lhat a more nat'nal importance ba given to this exhibition by such 1 -gtsls-tion, and by euch appropriation will insure i's success. Its value in bringing to our shon s innumerah.'e usi ful w rks of art and skill, the commiuglit g of'ihe cit'zsns of foreign countries and our own, and the interchange of Ideas and aianufactures will far evceed any pecu nlaiy outlay we may make. REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AG KICUL1URE. I transmit herewith the report r f the commissioner or agriculture, together with tho reports of tbe commi-siinera of the board or aud t aud too boird o halth of the District of C IumbU, to all or which I invite your atteatiun. The bureau or agriculture his acoui plished much in disseminating H-elul knowledge to the agiicutturahstr and also introducing new and useful produc tions adapted to our soil and cltmttei, and are worthy of tbe coutinutd encour agement of the government. Ihe re port of tbe commtssiocer of education, which accompanies tha report of the secretary of the interior, sbows a grati fying progress in educational matters. ThB TERRITORY OF UTAH. In nearly every annual mes-ag' that I have bad the honor of tr its iii ting to congress I have called atteitioii to the anomalous, net to say scandalous, c -n-ditioa of affairs existing in th6 Territory of Utah, and'have asfeel for rfefinire legislation to conectit. That polygamy should exist in a free, enlightened- and christian country, wittout ihe power to punish so flagrant a crime agairs. de cency and morality, seems preposterous. True, there is no law to sustain this nu catural vice, tut what ia needed is a law " to punish it as a crime, aid tt the same time to fix tbe status of theiunocftut children, the offspring of this system, and of the possiby innoceut plural wives. But as an institution ot polyga my it should be banished rrom tbe land. THE IMPORTATION CF CHINESE WoMfcN. While this is being done, I invite tie attention of congress to anotht r, though perhaps no less, an evil the intona tion or Chinese womeb but few of whom are broogat to our f hores to pro cure honoiable or useful occupation. WYOMING, UTAH AND COLOR i DO. Observations whilp.vieiting theT rri torits or Wyoming, Utah and Colorado, during the past autumn, convinced me tbat existing laws regulating tbe d.'spo sition of public lands, timber, its, aad probably the mining laws thernlies, are very oefictive and sloild be care 'ully amended, acd at an ear'y day. In tbe territory where the cultivation of the soil can only be followed lyirilga tion, which is net practicab'e. tie Uud3 can only be u-ed as pastursg, acd this only where stock can reach me water to quench its thirst, canto: b governed by the same laws as to enttits ub lmde, every acre of which is an estate by itself. Lands must be held in la git quantities to justify the expense or conductirg the water upon it to make Itfruit'ul, or to iustify the utilizing it a- ptstuiage. The timber,in most of tbe T rritorbs, is principally confined to ti e mountain regions, which are hrld for en'ry in eni&ll quantities, or.ly as mine-al in's. Tae timber is the property of ih- Uniti d States, for the disposal uf which, tiere Isnoa'eqca'e law. The eettr must bscome a consumer of this timber, whether bo lives upon tbe plains or en gines in working ths mines; bene, evtry man becomes either a trespa-eer himself, or knowingly apatroaof tres passers. My opportunities fir obrv mg were net sufficient to justify me in recommending legts'a'iou on t iese subjects. But I do r commend tl at a joint committee ofthetwi housis of coogress, suffl.isn-ly large to be di vided into commissions, be organized to visit all the mlnkg State and Territories, during tbe c ming snmmer, and that tbo committee shatl report ti congress at the mxt ten sion such laws, or amendments to laws, as it may deem necessary o secure the bett Interests of the g vernment aid tbe people or these Teirtories who are doing so much' ftr tbeir development I am sure tbat tbe ctzus iccupyitg the Territories described do not wi-h Ur be trespassers, nor will they be if legel ways are provided for them to bfcome owners or these actual necessities cf their positions. RECAPITULATION. As this will ba tbe list annual mes sage which I shall hr.ve the honor of transmitting to congress before my suc cessor is chosen, I will repeat or ie capitulate the questions winch I derm of vital imptr.ance, and which shosul be legislated upou at this tessinn. First That the States shhll be re quired to afford the opprr unity cf a good common school eciucaiiou 10 every child within their limits. Second That no sectarian 'eottssball be ever taught in any scto 1 supported in whole or in part by the State or the nation, or by the. proceeds of any tux levied upon aoy community Make educ&tnn compuieory so far as to de prive all persons who cannot read and write from becoaiicg vu'er- a't-r the year 1890, disfraccaising noue, however, on tbe ground of illiteracy who may te voters at the time this amendment takes eflect. Tnird Declare church aud State for ever separata acd distinU, but each fiee within their proper spherp, and fiat all church propeity shall bear its own pso portion of taxes. Fourth -Drive out licensed immoral ity, such as polygamy, aud the Importa tion of women for illegitimate purposes. To recur again to iheCextsnniat year, it would seem a3 'though now, a we are about to begin the second cen'ury of our national existence, would be a most fitting time fcrthese rtf jrms. Fifth Enactment of such law as will secure a speedy return to a ev.imi currency, such aa will comniauo the re spect of tbe world. Believing that thee views will commend themeives to the great majirity of tho ri"ht-thikiug and patriotic citizens of tne United States v s grant. ExiccTlVEMAVSro, December 7, IS75. DR. J. J. ROSS, Surgoou XJontlst. 263 MAIS STKKKT T'tb Extrrtd Wllhonr I'uip. by tse use ot pure tl. troax OiUu ban. MAHOTS JONJSS, -DEALER IN- WALIi PAPER and WINDOW S HA DIES rpiHE larc&t n'l mml c mptee pworaMBt JL ol Hip a ovh vo di iu i r - . b, 1.1. ii now oC r at VHO..-:-aLE AND KgrA.1L, ai greatly redaeeo tit,ur . Call aud extmlch a xN and prlee at my Old i-lftUd, UOU I S-. onn reel, Ave tOO loath or MhUIsod. MemplikTcon. ds5