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Memphis daily appeal. [volume] (Memphis, Tenn.) 1847-1886, December 08, 1875, Image 3

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PEAL-WEDNESDAY. DICE MS BE 8, 1875.
Continued from llr pace.
Stat s, t-ofe ia scarcely a limit to the
wa!ili that may be squired bycotporn-to-jo
n Hkus or therwiet if allowed
In r. t.Hiu proierty wLhout taxation.
Tb. co t iupUtHH of h vat a J -fixity
its '"r- al!cd w'tbout taxatbu, way
' I " qwt a'loo without contilu
t si authority and through Wood.
OKAVLYARIW ONLY KTOEMPT FBI'-lX
AT'N.
I mt u d taZtftt U.e ttxation of all
Tr,r y ita'ty, ufo-ther chLivh or
11 nr p'e of fe dead, a id, pio-dMy
V:ti , r .pr wrfiietiotis, church eoitict.
OCK Gi.NI KAL lMRlSHIK XELAT10NS.
Our r-i .t m with nicst i f the fbie'gn
pou-t-raooKiiiue on a eati-fnetory anil
friendly footing I creaed iuterc uive,
t ?nsfon or commerce and fjecultlva
Jon of mutual inititvlM, have improved
ourrItkn. u ti n 'age mel nty of
Vif p - wets of the w. rid, rendering prae
Uco e li& peaceful Mention of qu-stior e
which from t tne t tittle n'i-e. leaving
few which ceiuaud xtctid.d or particu
18 r n i'ioh T'e tx rref-potnlexiee of the
d ptr'nisM of S ate will: our diplomatic
re rew!U.t:on abroad, 19 t.ansniitud
iie'erith.
i ani happy to announce the parage
Of au net by the general cartes, of Por
tugal, ( n calmed th e fie adjournment
of congress, for tbehb'illf on ofrervltuiie
In Pottcguei v colonies. JUa to be hotied
mat eucil legislation will he ii.olhtr
step I irward to (he great osntumtntilion
10 be reached, when no n ai shall he
perm.t-ed, legally or iudiieetly, under
pusi-e, excuse or f rm of law t 1m Id his
fellow-ma 1 lu bondage. 1 sra of the
opiu n also, thfct it i the duty of the
Unllol to tit-8. u cantubutirg to that
end, ant! n qulrt-d by iho spirit of the
cods I'utinu under which we live, to
prov.d-tiy Fuimt le legislation that no
citiz n o the United States shall hold
carta as property in any other country,
r hi uneres'eu incretp.
C ill has mule rep rition in the. case
of tie whaWmdp God Jirturu, seized
w.tbopt euffie et cau-e upwurd of for
ty years ago. Th&Uio she had h'thsrto
Ce led her n& ouutabillty, the denial
WtH never arquieseed in by this govtro
mem, a.-u the juetlceof the claim ha?
been t-o c arms. ty ooutcLded for that it
in grailfy Ir g thai ete ehould luvo at la?t
actuow.eded it.
Tie r '.ration in the eve or the
Dt:l'((l -itht 8 hteamer Jlonnj-j, for the
seizaro ai d demotion o' wliicu the gov
ernment o thn Urn e Stt of Coltim
hla w.i3 hld araMin able, ha9 decided
in favor f the claim. This decision has
fietf d a q ie.iou which hn ben imi
ing f .r -evoiai yearc, and which, while
contuu'il ojieu, might more or les
di-tun tifg iod underetaiiding which lb
desiroh e to be maintained between the
tWl K p .bliCf.
A 'pn e ty t-'aty with the kingol
the Ilttvtiitiu Isajis was concluded
the tuuie month. Ac it contains a etipu
laliiutia 11 -bsll ml ake tirtujiil
congrf SB ail oaet the proper legiela
tl ;u for ihe puip'te, c pies- tftbe iustiu
meut are bi-rrwitti tuuni t:td iuonhr
tiat if 8"th tin u id be the pleasure of
ng1- ci tieiHCe-ary If gialation upon
hecU j "t my benioptid.
SPAIN.
I "la-ch !as an erriugement was
ma te tirr.unh Mr. f'ushing, our minis
ter id " a'lrnl, with tbi-Spanish govtrn
meJ' fo the payn ei-t b, tie Intter to
the Uutd Htatt tr.e mm 1 f $80,100 in
coin or tite purple of the relief cf tbe
lamf'S or 1 e sons cf the s'dp's com
pany and tvruiiii pa e 'gers of ho Vir
giulu9. Tnii f-Hin ws to have Le-11 paid
In thrc iu-tallui-L t. Ht two months
caab. ! I due t tb- Sraniob covern-
nsent th tl rhonld tue t'.at Mie pay
mej'u wo f fully will spteJily a:.'lC.
ptted ly mat g vt-rnment, and Vaut the
wbd atni'U.t ai pJa wi',jhj but a
fewd.y m r Uau twy mouths from
the Cue f tb.-ffre'juenr. va,,y of
whlsh Is cr wib -lHtiBmi't. Iu pur
suarceof i.i te:m90f theai'jiiiiaient, I
bava d re- W i the di tribtuion of the
mntunt among the parti-a entitled
tberj " ,, it.ciudU.g tiie fchip's company
aw. u h of t' e pw.mug.-rs a were
Am - ri cltizus. Tbe payments are
mad accordingly on apphoatiou of the
piruwi entitled, im ro.
CDBA.
Ia the BfiighburioK island of Cnb the
earns d t egnd of tbo laws of-civillzed
var vrc, and of the jtitt demands of
Jiumar t? which have hereto'c re called
for:u exj-ie-slme if eorjderana'.ion fr m
all tbo iiitionn of Christendom, liave
cant . ueJ to b ckea the mi! f-ceue of
daio at.on. Ruin a ia pil age 1 re pervad
ing tfco lkh ti ldi of o -e or tha must
fert li anil pro unlive legions of the
eartti. acd the meet diary'o torch, firing
plat ta ons and va'tikble factoiies auu
balldugii, is the tgeit markiig the
alterutitu advance or (e reat tf the con
tendlcg psriiB. T e jr lrct-d ron
tinumce f tao tt. ft eerioumy affrcta
tho intrti-t of all commercial riaiijus,
but those of the United Htaloi mr rs
thaa tbe others by its le proximity;
Its larger baie and luteicmiiHa with
Cuba, acd tie fnqueut and intimate
personal a' d s cil ulitionswhclihave
grown up letwetii il cit zens and thess
of tie isiaad; nttd, morr-ove, ths prop
erty of our ci'iztjsi in Cubii lirge, and
is re::d red lisnue and depreciated
in vi'ue acd in t'e capacity of prof'u
ti3U by the oooMiaiati .u of tbe stii'e
a- d the unnaturtii iuitdef ilsoomiucr.
Tha same to true, ditjriu otly
In d-g ?p, wth.reepoct to tiie in
terest d pe nle c cthr na'iano:
anJ thb absence f reaoua'iie as
furanca of a near term n-i'lon o.'
tae C3- flint must of liecer.-ity soon
oini it 1 1 ! 8 at! thus eull'-ring to con
sider .tLt tl e mterwta of t ie peojla
and their dti y tiward themnlv s may
iemmd I btd oIKrd that 8 t in would
be eaau:td to ti ve e6ta4idbed peace in
hercolory; 'oaff rise u i y to t prop
erty Ht:.i th mteresteof our citizeae,
r.nJal w a Itgitimata wofe t) trade
and 1-xntnero aut tienatutai prrdarj
tlocs of tjelsiaotl B cau-ot tills eocp?,
anJ fr ioi an extreme lel'i'taiice to 111
tsrftreij tie met reun ti ninnt-rr in
tbeeff rs o' auothtr nd f.iendiy t a
tliu, e-ipe iaily ijf one wl ote aynipatby
an J f itiiiis tp tu ih- it uglitig IcfaDcy
of our own extMenc- 'TnuJt ever bo rc
meaibertd with graMtuie, I have pa
tlen'lyaitl auK ojy waltr l tbe ito
grew cf c o tie. Oji own civil coi ll'ct
is to rc .it far us to act contiJer
tbe tlifll ultlee which mr ouni a
givtraajent d i-tmct"d ty a djnwtic
xb rai at ho lie at U,e aame time
lh:t t hi to coi with a separate icsur
recara ia a distant cjlouy; hut what
ever cause' may 1 ave produced the situ
ation wLich so grievous y airt t our ia
tsrrdta, it excitee. with a!l its attendaut
evil, optriting d'rectiy uion thisctun
t y aLd lib 1 tople. Taus far all tbe re
acr:s tf t-paiu have ptov. d aboitl ve, and
time h3 martel no imptovenietit in
the t tjtion. Tbe arnit-d binds of tho
cthrr E'.do now occuj'y nearly the sumo
gr u -1 rs In tbe past, with tbe dlfferf nee,
from t c:e to 'fme, of more lives eacii-flc-d,
projeity destroyed, a-id a wider
cxt'Ht f feni'o ami pr.ductivd fields
a -d m ro valuable .rnriy couftantly
an J wart .'ly ser fleed to tiie incen
d'ary'o to h. Io cot. tents 'f this na
ttro, re a c uaiderabie bttly of peo
ple, V7h bav? atteii'pud to tio tbem
utlvej t the rojtroi of the mi
ptr g 've'rment, have reached euch
a pit iu tbe tccuptinn of
the lerni iy in i)wer, md in tie
g2:cr I cra'ilztiotj, at to c u-t.tuJe in
lac a b t y ,'jii;t:, hvi..g a govtrciBitui
la s b a af w.lt as In nara, 1 o-i-SMiirJ
r t e eite -In ;f i-tibiiity aiut
en j', . d i b the machinery rtheail-
a r 'i jd of It infernal policy, anil
V. cie .1 i u of i Uws, am picpartd
and tbcti aiimmietcr j itice kt nume
a '7j a iu its dealiugi witli other
pjwt h 't ia within th province of
the; ti r powers to recognize tbe ex-ij:c--
- a new aid inttetiw dsnt ua-
tio . In si beaB.MOtn-r uati'jue moi-
tly d: 1 it 1 ai ctu!ly xtetiog eon-
diti :ti thiog?, aud ic -oguize asone
cf be l- w r t'-" e li- ,uat body
pti 1 v- ih, piaeeing tbe ntces-ary
-. 1 . . 1 . .
il.tr - - u, " att o c !e a new
p.-.r c - - uni, it;e vremiiou ot a ntw
bti - s e-rab:ib that condition of
Ui.j a I 1 ofcctil to tlx reoogijliion
Ir.r t r t thtt tlie inn si be a perpie
occjpyig a known territofy, umier
some kaown and defined form of ?ov
erument, scknowiedRed by those tuo
jsotUiereto, iu bich the functions of
governsieu:, administered by the usual
mthod!, couipfcteut to mete out juetice
10 mi zeiiS anu urar gcrV toatrord reme-
die
Hirpuwicand private tVrongs, and
able to aetumetbe rflitive into national
obligations, mil cipable of perform
ing the eoite ponding alternation 1 du
tlesralting from Its acquisition of the
ngh s, lovori iguty and power bbcu'd
exist cninidrite in lietraui&ttlon,iedy
totaao aud Able to maintain iUil.ce
amoi g ihe iiatiot s of tbe earth. Wtiile
w"-j,oui mas tiis uit-urrfCiion in uua
has sbown a ttrength and enduiance
which make it tt least dtubtful wheth
er it t e in tha jwwor of S a-u t j tubdee.
11 s.-fins ui.qu s lonsuie that no tuch
civil organ ztiou exists which may be
rtuogiitzeu as an lnuepenuent govern
ment, capable of 1 erformine it obiiira
tions aud entitkd t be tieated as one ol
tne powers or the etrth. A recognition
nnuersucu cirtuiintaucet would be in
coneiH'.ent wtt'i fcts, and wtuldcom
by'
I the wworlhat cave i to sunnor
i t:o the gocrumeit to vhicli it
- A l
tiau really given only claim of exK
ence. In my Judgment tbe United
6tsts Bhould ndi cr to tl o imUey and
pumtipita wuicn nave nereiotore been
iw sure stfe guaid in liae contes's
between revel ed colonies and thtir
mother country, and acurg only upon
tno (Sere"t evidence should avoid any
poesibi.ity of suspicion or imputaliun.
A recognition of tho independence of
onua using, in my opinion, lmpractlca
us auu Ince'tu Ible, tbe qu;stion
wbieb next presents itself ia tuatof a
recognition or belligerent richts in the
per;ies 1 1 the contest. In a ft rmtr mcs
egeto couerees I had occasion to con
skier this question, aud leached the con
clusion that the coDllict in Cuba, l;ead-
tut ani uevas'a-ing as were its evnlents,
Id cot rise to the fearful d'g .lty of war.
n-ganling it now, after this lapse of
nme, 1 am un&uie to see that any no
table suc-ess of any marked or real ad
vauo on the part of the insu-genls has
esfentl- lly changed tho character of the
contest, it has acquired great; r age,
but not greater or more formidable t,ro
poitionr. It is possible that tiie acts of
1 jn igu powers, and even actsofbpatn
herself tf this very nature, might
t puinleJ to in defense of uch re coirai-
tlou. But, as in its past niatory, the
umifu mates suou it careiutiy avoid tbe
IsJsb Iighcs which might lead it into the
muzss of duubtfui lnw and of question
able propriety, nnd adhere rigidly and
sternly t-j tbe rule which ha3 I euu its
guide, doirg only that which ia right
nd honest and of good rjport. Tho
qucUion of according or of with
holding tho rights of belligerency must
be judged iu every cae, in view of the
particular attending facts, unless justi
fied by necessity. It is alwavs. and
justly, regarded as an unfriendly act and
a gratuitous demonstration of moral
support tj tbe rebellion. It is necessary
aud it Is rcquireii, when the interests
anil rights of another trivernmpnt nr
of its people are so far affected by a
pending civil conflict as to require a
litficition of its relations to lhe parties
thereto. But this conflict mUit bo onp
which will ba recoznizod in Hip nn
international law as belli2eroncv. too.
It is a fact tbat the mereesponseof con
tending armed bodies, and their
sioual conflicts, do not constitute war in
the S2ts referred to. Applying the ex
isting condition of affairs in Cuba the
tests recogntzsd by public sis aud writers
in international law. and whinh iiOM
been observed by nations tf dignity,
honesty and power, whenfree from pn.
"itive, selfish tr unworthy motives, I fail
to find in tho insurrection the exist
ence of euch a substantial politi
cal organization. re'V tminahia nH
manifest to tbo world, having
tbe foims and ..rmi.lo of tt,o ntnin.m
fUUCtionS Of Onvmmenf fntrtirfl itu n.iv
people sd 0 other States. With the
COUi Ki toe the administration of justice,
d with a local habitation possessing
-t;cn an organization ot lorce, such ma
teril, and sucn occupation of territory
as to take the cinirol out of the catego
ry of a mere rebtllu us insurrection or
occasional skirmishes, and place it on
the terrible footing of war, to which a re
cognition of belligerency would aim to
elevate it. The coLtest, moreover, is
solely on land. ,The Itsurrection has
not possessed itself of a single, seaport
whence it may send forth its fi-g, nor
lias it any means of communication
with foreign powers except through the
militaiy lines of its advenaries. No
apprehension of any of those sudden
and difficult complications which a war
upon the oc an is apt to precipitate
uoutbe veisela, both commercial and
national, and upon tbe consular officers
of other power?, calls for the detioiiion
of tatir rel&tionB to the patties to the
contest. Considered as a question or
exiedleui'y, I regard tho accord
ance of belligerent rights still
to ba as unwise and prema
ture as I regard it to ba at
present indefei stole as a measure of
right. Such recognition entails upon
tne country, accoiding to tho rights
which 11 3 w from it, difficult and crm
plicated duties, aud requires the action
from tbe contending j arties of the strict
observance of their rights aud obliga
tions. It confeis the right of search
upm the higli seas by the vessels of
hctb partfe!. It would subject the car
rying of arms aud munitions of war,
whicn may now bi transported freely
and without interruption in the vessels
of the TJni'ed Stutes, to detention and
P siible M-izure. It would give rise to
Cjuutlefs vexatiouj questions, would re
lease the parent government from re
sponsibility for sets dune by the insur
gents, and would invest Spain with the
rijiht to exercise tho supervision recog
nized by our treaty of 1795 over our com
merce 011 the high sens, a very large
part of which, iu its traffic between tbe
Atlantic and Gulf States and the States
ujKn the Pacific, passes through the
waters which was-h tho shores of
Cuba. The exerche of this supposition
could tcarce fail to lead, if not to abuses,
cer-ainly to collisions perilous to the
peaceful relations cf the two States.
There can ba little doubt to what result
tuch supervision would bfore long
draw this nation. It would be unworthy
f the United Stalest) inaugurate the
possibilities of such a revolt by measures
uf questionable right or expediency, or
by any indtsarelion. Apart from any
quffcticm of theoretical right, I am satis
fied that, while the accordance cf bel
ligerent ricbtj to tho iusuigeutfl iu Cuba
mlgur give them a hnpe and induce
ment ti protract the s.ruggle, it would
be bu". a delurivo hepe, and would not
rtmjve the evils which this government
a ni Its pf-oplo are experiencicg. but
would draw toe United States into com
plications which it has waited long ami
already tufl'ered much to avoid. The
recognition of Independence or of bsl
1 gcreucy being thus, in my judgment,
equally inadmissible, it remains to con
fi'Utr what course shall bs adopted,
should tiie conflict not soon be brought
to an end by the acts of tbe parties
themselves, acd shcu'd tho evils which
result therefrom, tiUtctiug nil nations
acd particularly the United Stttes, con
tinue. Iu such an event I am of opinion
ttat the other nations will be compelled
to assume tbe responsibility which de
volves upon tbem and to seriou-ly con
sider the only remaining tnea'iiro pos
sible, mediation and intervention. Ow
ing., perhaps, to tbe large expanse of
water sept rating the bland from the
peuii sola, tiie want of harmony, and of
iieissu&l sympathy between the iahabi
tautsof thecolooy and those sent thither
to ruie them, and tbe want of adapta
tion of the ancient colouial sy.t'in of
Eirope to the pjejent times, at:d the
ideas which the twut of tbe past ren
tuty have deveioptd, the contending
parties appear to Have within themsel
ves no dtpoAilory of common confidence
t eugc-st wiedom when pasion n-jd ex
citemetit have their sway. And to as
sume the part of peace-mbker in this
view, in ttie early dt.js of the contest,
tbe good offices of the United 8ia .es as
a mediator were tendered in good faith,
without eel fish purpoeebutiu theinteie-t
of humanity aud in sincere friendship
ftr bith pa-tlee, but were at the
time declined by Spain, with tbe declar
ation, nevertheless, that at a future time
they would be itidlij ejsable. No inti
mation lias been receive J that in thu
opt r im of Stain that time has beeu
ieuched and y-t tbe strite continues
witti i'a u.ead honor., and til i,s ii;ju-
ritB to tr e interest .l the Ucitjd fettles
and of ttner nation. Eton putty seems 1
quite capable to Work greit Injury trnd
damnge to the other, as well as to all the I
relations and intrrt s . which dspecd od
ths exUttnce of p'ace in the is:aad; bu
they teem incipab'o of reachlDg au ai
Juftnient, aud tuey have thn far failed of
achieving any ni cees, whereby one
party thall poets) and control tne
island t the exe'ution of
exc uaon of the other.
Thesa circunntacces claim tbe avtencv
of others. Either moiiatlon or inter-
r vention seems t be the 01 ly alternative
waieii uius. sooner or Ihtsr be invoked
for the termination o' the strife. At the
same time, while so impressed, I do net
recommend the adoption of any meas
ure of liilerven ion. I shall be readv at
all t mcs, and aa the equal friend of both
pa.t:tj, to respond to a t-uggetion that
tbe ttood cilices of the United States will
b.T acceptable in aid in bringing about a
peso? honorable to both. It is duo to
Spal , so ftr as (his government is con
cerned, t at the agency of the third
p wer which I hiveadveitid lo, shall be
athpted only as a lat exp-dient.
Had it been the desire of the United
Ktttes to interfere iu the stiilis of C'Ubi,
repeated opportunities fjr so domg
haVe been pxe-ented within the last few
ytarp, but we have remained paisive
anu nave enormia our while duty,
ano all lutorcationsi obl'gations to
Sosla with irteLdiip. fdrnes3 and fi
delity, and with asptr t of patieuc-i and
forbearance, which negatives evtrv n s-
eib e suggestion of de-ire to interfere cr
toadd ti too difficulties with which eho
hts b.en surrounded. Tho government
or Spain has recently snbm tted to our
minister, at Madrid, certain proposals
which, it is hoped, may be four.d to bs
the basis, ifnuttnu actual sihmisaion
of termBto meet the nqutrtmetta of the
particular gtief or which t;i h govern
ment nas leit itseirentited to complain,
these pre p ;sals have not yet reached
me in their full text. On their anival
they will be taken in careful txsoiina
tlou, and may, I hope, lend to a satisfac
tory adju-tment of the questions to
which they refer, and remove the nossi
bility of the futme occurrence?, such as
nave given ne ti cur lust comualnts
It is undetst-jod, also, that renewed
efforts are being made to introduce re
forms in the internal administration of
tho island; persuaded, however, that a
proper regard for ths Inerets of the
united to ates ana of its citizens entitled
to relief from the strain to which it has
teen subjected by the difficulties of tbe
questions, and tho wrongs and losses
which arise horn the contest in Cuba.
aud that the Interest of humsnltv it
self demand tho cessation of tho strife
before the whole inland shall bs laid
waste, and larger stcrifices of life be
made, I shall fdel it may du'v. should
my hones of a sads'actory adjustment.
and of the eany restoration of peace,
and the removal of future causes of com
plaint bo unhappily disappointed, to
make a further communication to con
gress at some period not far remote, and
during the present session recommend
what may then seem to mo to be neces
sary.
THE MEXICAN MABATJDEBS.
The free zone, so-called, several years
since established by the Mexican gov
ernment inceittiu States of that re
public adjacent to our frmtier, remains
in full operation. It has always ben
materially injurious to honest traffic, for
it operates as an incentive to traders in
Mexico to supply without customs
charges tbe wauts of the inhabitants on
this side of the line, and prevents the
same wants from being supplied by mer-
cnants or tne united states, thereby lo
a considerable extent defrauding our
revenue aud checking honist commer
cial enterprise. Depredations by armed
bands from Mexico on tbo people of
Texas near the frontier continue; though
tne mam otj-ict i tuo incursions is rob
bery, they frequently result in tho mur
der of unarmed and peaceably disposed
persons, and in some instances even the
United States postofficts and mail com
munications nave been attacked. Ko
ntwed remonstrances upon this subject
have been addressed to the Mex
ican government, but without
much apparent effect; the niliitiry
force of this government dispoiabls fcr
service in that quarter is inadequate to
effectually guard the line even at those
points whcie the iucureions arc u-ually
made. Au experiment of au armed
veel on the Rio Graude for tbat pur
pose is on trial, and it is hoped- that, if
O' t thwarted by the shallowness of the
river and ether natural olstacles, it may
materially contribute to the protection
of the herdmen of Texas. Tne pro
ceedings of Ihe joint commission under
tie convention between the United
8 a'.eeand Mexico of the fourth of July,
18s8, on thesulject of claims will soon
bs brought to a close. The le ult r f
those proceedings will then be communi
cated to congress.
TflE VENEZOELIAN AFFAIR
I am happy to anuoueo that the gov
ernment of Venezuela has, upon fur her
consideration, practically abandoned its
oljeetion to py to tho United States
that share of its roveuue which, some
years since, it allotted toward the ex
tinguishment of the claims of foreigners
generally. In thus reconsidering its de
termination, that government hassbown
a just sense of serf respect which cannot
fail toreflpct credit upon it in the eyes
of all disinterested persons olsewhere.
It is to be regretted tbat its payment
on account of claims of citizens of the
United States are still eo meager in
araodnt, aud that tbe stipulations of the
treaty in regard to tbo sums to be paid
and the periods when these payments
were to tane place should have been to
signally disregarJed.
NEW TREATIES.
Sluce my last annual message the ex
change has been made of the ratifica
tion of a Iretty of commerce and navi
gation with Belgium, and of conven
tions with tho Mexican republic for the
extension of the j jiut commision re
specting the claimB with tbo Hwaian
islands, for commercial reciprocity, and
with the Ottoman empire for extradi
tion all of which have been duly pro
claimed. THE ALABAMA CLAIMS.
Tho ccurt of commissioners of tbe
Alabama claims has pro.-ecuted its im
portant duties V6ry aslduouely and very
satisfactorily. It convened aud was or
ganized on the twenty-second of July,
1887, and by the terms o"f the act nnder
which it was created was to exist for
one year from tbat date. The act pro
videl, however, that should it be found
impracticable to complete the work of
the court before the expiration of the
year, tbe President might, by proclama
lion, extend tbe time of its duration to
a period not more than Bix months be
yond the expiration of the one year.
Having received satfs'actory evidence
tbat if it would be impracticable to com
plete the work in tbe time originally
fixed, I issued a proclama'ion a copy
of which is presented herewith extend
iLg the tlmo of the duration of the court
for a period of oix months, from and
after the twonty-eecond day of July last.
A report made through the clerk of the
court, communicated herewith, shows
the condition of thecaiendar on the first
of November last, and the large amount
ot work which has been accomplished.
Thirteen hundred and eighty-two claims
have been presented, of which 6S2 had
been disposed of at tbe date of the re
port. Iam informed that 170caiea wore
decided during the month of November.
Arguments' are belug inado and de
cisions given in the remaining tales
with all the dispatch consistent with the
propercompiicition of the questions sub
mitted. Many of these claims are in
bebatf of mariners, or depend on Ihe
evidence of marinen whose absence has
delayed the Inking of the necessary evi
dence. It is presented to mo tl-a, it
will bo impracticable for the court to
finally disptsu of all ths cas'3 before it
within the prescribed li-nita of its dura
tion; anl iu justice to tbe parties claim
ant, who bavj been at a lare expense
In prej n-itig their elalms aad obtaining
tbe evidoace in their support, suggest a
ehort extension to enable tne court to
dispose of all the claims which have,
been prwnted. I recommend the leg
islation which may be deemed proper
to enable the court to complete the work
before it.
CLAIMS OF ALIENS.
I recommend provision oe mado by
tbe creation of a special court, or by
conferring the ntce-sary jurrs lictlon
upin Komt approptiats tribunal, for tho
cuns deration and delermio'-tion ot the
claims -if alUiiS against tho government
cr 1 be United S
ritrf which lihvn .irl-i-n
within eojie leasoaalle t'mr, crwhlch
may heitafter atlse.excludiug all claimB
barred by treaty, provisions or othe -
! wisr. It has been found imnoEslble
give proper coneiderat'ou to tbe claims
by the executive departmet t ot tho coy-
ernment. Such a tribunal would tff rJ
an nppoituuity to aliens, other than
British eutjtcti, tj p'esent their claims
on account of acts committed against
their persons or propeity uurioc the re-
b llion, aa ahoto those subjects of Great
iint tin wnoso claims having n'lsen sub
sequent to tbo ninth day of April, 1865,
c iuld not be presented to the late com
mifsion organized pursuant to tho pro
visions 01 tne t eity or wasniugton.
THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH
has brcome an essential and iudispensl
ble agent in the ttanemltslon of the
business aud sccial messaiies. I's ope
ration on land, and within tbe limit of
particular Stat;s, Is of nece-sity under
the control of the jurisdiction within
which It operates. Tbe lines on the
high seas, however, arc not suljtict to the
pm cuiar control 01 any one govern
nient. In 1839. a concession was grant
ed by the French government to a com
pany which proposed to lay a cble from
tne shoioi of f ranca to tho L'.iitd
States. At that time there was a tele
grathic conuection between the U ui'td
Scales and the continent of Eirnpe,
tnrougn tne possessions 01 ureat iirttatn,
either end of the lins under control or
an association which bad, at large out ay
of capital, anu at a greU risk demonatn
ted thepracticab'lityof maintalnii gsucb
means of cunmuuication. The coat of
correspondence Ly thi3 agency was
grett; potsibly not too larga at the lime
fur a proper remuceiation for so coetly
an enterprise. It was, however
a heavy charge upon th9 means of
c immuaication which progrtsi in
tho social and commercial intercourse
of tbe world was found to be a necessity,
and the obtaining of this French con
cession showed that other cop! al than
that already invested was ready to en
ter into competition with the assurance
of adiqu te returns for their outlay.
Impressed witn the conviction that the
mtertsls not only of the people of the
UuiteJ States, but of the world at large,
demanded or would demand the multi
plication of such means of communica
tion between tho separated continents,
I was desirous that the proposed con
nection should be made, but certain
provisions or this concession were
deemed by me to be objectionable, par
ticularly tbe one which gavo lor a long
term or years the exclusive right of tele-
grapnic communication by submarine
cable between the shores or France and
the United States. I could not concede
that any power should claim the right
to land a cable on the shore of tho
United SUte, and at the same time
deny to the United Htates, or to its citl
Izens, the guarantee of an equal right to
lay a cable on its shores. The right to
control thi conditions for the laying of
a cable w thin the jurisdictional waters
of the United States, to connect our
ehores with those of any foreign State,
pertains exclusively to the government
or the United States, under
such limitations and conditions
as conpress may ImpoEe in the absence
of legielalion by congress. I was un
willing, on the one hand, to yield to a
r r len state the right to say that its
grantees might land on our shorts while
it denied a similar right to our people ti
land on its shores; and, on the other
hand, I was leluctant to deny to the
great interests of the world and of civil
ization the facilities of such communi-
ction as were proposed. I therefore
withheld a resit t nice to the landing or
any cable on condiiim that the offensive
monopoly feature of the concession be
abandoned, and that tbe right of any
cablo which may be established by au
thority ot this government to laud ou
Frencn territory, and to connect with
the French laad lines, and crjiytbe
necessary facilities or privileges iucident
to the use thereof upon as favorable
terms as any other company, be con-
coded. As a result thereof the company
in question renounce! the exclusive
privileges, and the representative of
France was informed that, understand
ing this relinquishment to b construed
as granting entire reciprocity and the
equal facilities which had been demand
ed, the opposi'ion to tbe landing of
the cable was withdrawn. The ca
ble, under this French concession,
was landed in the month of Juiy,
I860, and has beerl an efficient and val
uable sgent or communica ion between
this country aad the other continent
It soon passed under the control of those
who had the management of tbe cab'e
connecting Great Britain with this con
tinent, and thus whatever bcelit to the
public might have issued from competi
tion between two lines, was lost.l aving
greater lacilitits or an additional line,
and additional security of accident to
one or them. But tlio.se increased facil
ities, aud this additional racllby, to
gether with the combined control of tie
capital of the two compmies, gave also
a greater power to preveLt the future
construction tf other lines, and to limit
the coutr d of telegraphiccommunication
between the two continents lo those
possessing lines already laid. Within
a few mouths a cable has teen laid,
known as the
UNITED STATE3 DIRECT CABLE,
connecting the United States directly
with Great -Britain. Ai toon as this
cable was reported to be in working or.
dur, the rates of the exi ting cousol -dated
companies were greatly reduced
Soon, however, a break was announced
in the new cable, and immediatsly the
rates of the other lino were again raised
This cable being now repaired, tho rates
appear not to be leduced by either Hue
from tho-e formerly charged by tbe
other eotrpaoy. There is reason to
bslieve thm. large amounts of capital,
both at homo aud abroad, are ready to
seek profitable investment iu the ad
vancement of the ustful and most civil
izing means cf intercourse and corre
spondence. They await, however, tbe
assurance of the means and conditions
on which they may safely be mado trib
utary to the general good. As these
cab!e telegraph lines connect separate
states, there are questions as to their or
ganization and control, which probably
can be best, if not solely, set
tled by a convention between the
rtspecuve state 1. In the absence,
however, of international conventions
on the subject, municipal legislation
may secure many points which appear
to me important, if not indispensable,
for the protection of the public against
tho ext rtions which may result from a
monopoly of the right of operating le!e
graph cables or from a combination be
tween several Hues.
First No line should be allowed to
land on tbe shores of the Unitetl States
unde?-& concession from another power
which does not admit the rght of any
o'ber line or lines formed in the United
States to land and freely connect with
and operate through the land lines.
Second No line should be allowed to
laud on the shores of the United States
which is not, by treaty stipulation with
tbe government from whoso shores it
proceeds, or by prohibition in its charter
or otherwise to the satisfaction of this
government, prohibited from consolidat
ing or amalgamating with any other
cable telegraph line or combining there
with for the purpose of regulating and
maintaining the coil of telegraphic com
munication. Third All lines should bo bound to
give precedence in tbe transmission of
the official messages of the governments
or the two countries between which it
may be laid.
Fourth A power should bs reserved
to the two governments, citDerconjoint
ly or to en?h as regards the met-sages
dispatched from its shores, to fix a limit
to tho charges to bs maintained for the
transmission of messages.
I present this subject to the consider:!
tton of congress; in tbe meantime, and
unless congress otherwise djrect, I shsll
not oppose tbe landing of any tele
graphic 6able which complies with and
ss'ents to the points above enumerated,
but will feel it my du y to prevent the
landing of any which dees not conform
to the first and second points as stated,
and which will not stipulate to concede
to this government the precedence in
the transmission of official messages,
and will not enter into satisfactory ar-"
rangements as regards its charges.
FRAUDULENT NATURALIZATION.
Among the pressing aad important
subjects to which, in my opinion,
tho 't't tiou cf Cingreis shutili
be dirett d, aro thoee in rela
tinn to fauduhitt ra uial zition a- d
fx. ition. The United S.ates, with
greuk liberality, offers cit'zeuship to a!l
who in good ialth comply with the re-
qairements of tbe law. These require
mcnts are as simple and upon as favora
uio terms to tne emigrant as the nigh
privilege to which heis admitted can or
suouiu permit. X uo not propose any
additions! requirements to these which
the law demands, but tho very sim
pliciry and want or necessary formality
in our law have made fraudulent nat
uralizatiim not infrequent, to the dis
credit and it jury of all honest citizens.
whether native or naturalized. Cases or
this character aro continually being
nrouguc to tbe notice of the govern
ment by our representatives abroad, and
also these of persons resident in other
countries, aiost frequently those who,
if they have remained In this country
long enough to entitle tbem to become
naturalized, have genenily not much
over passed that period, and have
returned to the country ot their origin
where they reside, avoiding all duties to
me united states oy tneir abseuc1.
claiming to be exempt from all duties to
the coanry of their nationality and of
tneir residence, ny reaeon ot their ai
leged naturalization. It is due to this
government itself.and to the great mass
01 naturalized citizens who sincerely,
both in name and (ait, become citizens
of tbe United States, that tbe high priv
iirgd of cit Zinshin of tbe United States
should not be held by fraud, or in dero-
g tion of laws at-d or the good name or
every honest citizen. On many occa
eions it lias been brought to the know!
edge ot too government that certificates
or naturalization are neid, and protec
tion or interference claimed by parties
who admit that not only they were not
within the UnHed Stases at the time of
the pretended naturalization, but that
thsy have never resided in the United
S .ates. In others the certificate and re
cord of tbe court show on their face that
the persons claiming to bs naturalized
had not resitted the required time in tho
United states, lu others it is admitted
upon examination that the require
ments of tbe law have not
been complied with, in eome cases
even such certificates have been matters
of purchase. These aro not isilated
cases, arising at rare intervals, but of
common occurrence, and which are re
ported from all quarters or the globe
Such occurrences cannot and do nut rail
t ) reflect upon the government, an&in
ure all honest citizens. Such fraud
oeiDg discovered, however, there is no
ptacticable means within the control of
the government by wincn tne record or
naturalization can be vacated, and
should the certificate be taken up, as it
usually is by the diplomatic and consu
Ittl lUIICDOUlflUVCa Ul bill; (jUTClUUiDUl)
to whom it may have beeu presented,
there is nothing to prevent tbe person
claiming to have been naturalized fiom
n. -nnVAnAn.ni.nm. . . ' tlm ...n ........ n, n .
obtaining a new certificate from the
court, in place of tbat which has been
taken trom him. The evil has become
so great, and of such frequent occur
rence, that i cannot too strongly recom
mend that some efllctual measure be
sd jpted to provide a proper remedy for
toe vacatirjg or any irauouient records,
and of punishing the guilty parties to
the transaction.
EXPATRIATION.
In this connection I refer also to the
question of expatriating and the elec
tion to the nationality of the United
States. In the foremr st,holdiog that the
right or expatriation was principally
instrumental in overthrowing tne doc
trine of parpetual a'legiance. Congress
has declared the right or expa'riation to
bs a national inherent right of all peo
ple, but while many otner nations have
laws providing what formalities shall be
nccesssry to worn a change of alleglancf ,
the United States nas enacted no pre
visions of law, and has in no respect
marited out now and wnen expatriation
may be accomplished by its cit'zei s.
Instances are brought to tiie atteution of
the government where citizens of the
United S:atcs were naturalized, or na-
tive-brn,have formally become citizecs
or subjects or foreign powers, but who
nevertheless, in the absence of any pro
visions ot legislation on tnesa questions.
wheu.involved in difficulties, or when it
teems to be for their inter
est, claim tor be citizens of tbe
United States, -which they have
long since abandoned, and to which for
years they bad rendered no seivice, nor
laid themse.ves in any way amena
ble. In otbor cases naturalized citizens,
immediately after naturalization, have
returned to their native country, have
become engaged in business, have ac
cepted office or pursuits inconsi-tent
with American citizenship, and evince
no intent to return to the United States
until called upon to discharge some duty
to the country where they are leiidmg,
whon they at once assert their citizen
ship and call upou the representatives of
the c verntnent to aid mem in tneir un-
iti- p etensions. It is but justice to &ona
fide c.tizeLS that no doubt should exist
on such questions, aca mat congress
should determine by the enactment of
a law now expatriation win do accom
plished and a change of citizenship bs
established.
INTERMARRIAGE WITH FOREIGN SUB
JECTS.
I a'so invite your attention'to the ne-ces-ity
of regulating, by law, the status
of American women who marry foreign
ers, aud of defining more fully tbat of
children born in a foreign country of
American parents wno may reside
abroad, and also of same further pr
visions.regulating or giving legal effect
to the maniages of American citizens
contracted in foreign countries. The
corresoondence submitted herewith
siiow a few of tbe constantly occurring
que-tlous on these points, presented to
tha consideration of the government.
There are rew subjectB to engage the at
tention of congress on which more deli
cate relations are depending.
THE NEW DEPARTMENT OF STATE
BUILDING.
Iu the month of July last the building
erected for the department of ttits was
taken possession of, and occupied by
that department. I em happy to say
lhat the archives nnd valuable papers of
the aovemment in the custody 01 that
department are nowsafely deposited and
properly cared ior.
THE REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF
THE TREASURY
shows the receipts from customs for tbe
fiscal year euding June dU, 1874, to have
been S163.103.S33 69, and for the fiscal
year endtnit June 30, 1875, to havebeen
lo7.lo7.7-:s no, a neirease ior tne last
fiscl year of $5,936,111 34 ; receipts
Irom internal revenue for tne year end
ing June 30, 1874, were $103,409 784 90,
and for the year ending June 30,1875,
wete$il0.007,4a35S; Increase, S769.770
838. Ihe report also shows a complete
hiBtory of the woraings ot the depart
ment for the last year, and contains re
commendations ior rerorms and for leg
islation which I concur in, but cannot
comment on so fully as I should like to
doif space would permit, but win con
fine myseir to a rew suggestions, which
I look upon as vital to the best interests
or the whole people coming within
the purview ot me tiossury 1 mean
SPECIE RESUMPTION.
Tco muSs stress cannot bs laid upou
this question, and I hope congress may
be induced at the earliest day practica
ble ti insure the consummation or the
act of the last congress, at its last ses
sion, to bring about specie resumption
on and after the first of January, 1879,
at the furthest. It wcu.d be a great
biessiug it this count be consummated
even at an earlier dute. Nothing seems
to me more certain than that a full,
healthy and permanent reaction cannot
tike place ia favor ol the industries and
financial welfare of the country until we
rsturnto a measure of values recognized
throughout the civilized world. While
we use a currency not equivalent to this
standard the worid'o recognized stand
ardspecie becomes a commodity, like
tbe produce of the soil, the surplus seek
ing a n arEei wnerevtr mere is a de
mand for it. Under our present system
we should want none, nor would we
have any were it not that customs dues
must be paid in coin, and because of tbe
pledge to pay the interest of tbe public
metals woul 1 flow out fcr the paicbase
of foreign productions, and leave tbe
Uniteil Statsa hewers of wood and draw
ers of water, because of wiser legislation
on the suMect cf finance by tbe nations
with whom we hve dealings. I am not
prepared to say I can eujigest the best
legislation to secure tae end so neartiiy
oomioecdel. It will be a source of great
(ratification ti me to beratls to approve
anymca-ure of congress looklngeffect
Iveiy toward securing resumption. Un
limited Inflation would probably brirg
about speolo payments more fpscdi'y
than arjy legislation Iookiug to th- re
demption of leeral-tenders in coiu. but
it would be at the expense of honor. The
legal-tenders would have no valua te-
yond settling the preient liabilities or,
properly speaking, repudiating tbem.
They would buy noting after tho debts
were all settled. There area few measures
which seem to me important In this
connection, and which I commend to
yonr consideration: A repeal of eo much
of the legal tender cots as make these
notes iecelvable for debts contracted
after a date to be fixed in tbo act itself,
not la'er than the first of January,
1877. We should then have quntattous
auen values not llctltiou3 ones, uoul
would no longer be at a premium, bu
currency at a discount: heaitbv reaction
wou'd set in at once, acd with a desire
to maae tne currency equal to
what it purports to be. the mer
chants, manufacturers, and states
meu cf every calling could do business
on a fair ma-gin of profit. The money so
received navicg no unvarying value,
the laborers, and ail classed who work
f.r stipulated pay or salary, would re
ceive more for their income, because
extra profit would to longer be charged
by capitalists to recompense them for
the risk of a downward fluctuating iu
the value of the currency.
Second That the secretary of the
trtaury ba authorized to Tedesui; say
not to exceed $2 000 000 a month of legal-
tender notes, try issuing in their stead1,
long bonds bearing interest at the rate
of 3.25 par cent, per annum, rf
denominations ranging from $500 to
$1000 each. This would, In time, reduce
tne loeai-tenuer notes to a volume tha
could be kept after, without demand
ing redemption in such largo sums, and
so suddenly.
Third Atiditional power to be given
to the secretary of the treasury to accu
mulate gold for the final redemption or
tne currency, increasing tne revenue.
curtailing expenses, or both. It is prefer
able to do both, and i recommend a
reduction of the expenditures wherever
it can bs done without impairing gov
ernment obligations, or crippling tiie
due execution thereof. One measure for
increasing the revenue, and the only one
1 tbin&, is of tbo
RESTORAl ION OF THE DUTY ON TEA
AND COFFEE.
These duties would probably add 518-
0C0.0C0 to the present amount received
ror imports, and would in no way In
crease the prices paid for those articles
by the consumers. Thess articles are
the products of countries collecting rev
enues from expoits, and as we are tbe
largest consumers reduce the duties they
proportionally increase them. With
this addition to the revenue many du
ties now collected and which give but
an insicn'ficant leturn for tbe cost of
collection, might be remitted, and to tbe
direct advantages of consumers alone. "1
would mention those articles which en
ter into the manufactures cr all sorts.
All duty paid upon such articles go
directly to the cost of the niticlo when
manufactured here, and must bspaid for
by the consumers. The duties not only
come from the consumers alone but acts
as a protection to foreign manufacturers
of the same completed articles in out
own and distant markets.
CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT.
I wiil suggest or mention another sub
ject tearing upon tbe problem of how to
enable toe secretary or tee treasury to
accumulate balances. It is to devise
some better metnod or verifying the
claims against the government than at
present exisis through tbe court of
claims, especially those claims growing
out of tbe late war. Nothing is more
certain than that a large percentage of
the amounts passed and paid are in part
or wholly rraudulent or are far iu excess
of the real lesses sustained. The large
amount of losses proven, on g ol testi
mony according to existing laws,by affi
davits of fictitious or unscrupulous per
sons, to have been sustained in small
farms and plantations are not only far
beyond the possible yield of these p'acea
ror any ono year, out as every one snows
who has experience in tilling the soil, aud
who has visited the scenes of tbe s poila-
tions are, in many instances, more than
the individual claimants were ever
worth, including their personal and real
estate. The report of tho attorney-gen
eral, which will be submitted to congress
at an early day, wii contain a det-ned
history of the awards made and of tbe
claims pending of the class here rolerred
to.
THE REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF
WAR,
accompanying this message, gives a de
tailed account ot army operations ror
the year just passed, tbe expenses for its
maintenance, etc., with recommenda
tions for legislation to which 1 respect
fully invite your attention. To some of
these I invite your special attention.
First, tbe necessity of makit g thirty
thousand dollars ot the appropriation for
the subsistence department available be
fore th" beginning or the next fiscal
year. Without this the provisions or
the troops at points distant trom supply
and production must either go without
rood, or existing laws muu be violated
It is not attended with cost to the treas
ury. Second, his recommendatl- n of
the enactment of a system of a inuities
for tbe families of deceased cUbe-a by
voluntary reductions from the monthly
pay of officers. This again is not at
tended with burden on the tre&sury,
and wculd ftr tho ruture ielieve mucn
dh tress which every old army officer
has witnessed in the past of officers dy
ing suddenly cr being ki led, leav
ing their families without aoy
means of reaching their friencs, if
fortunate enough to have friends to aid
them. Third, the repeal of the law
abolishing mileage, and a return to the
old system. Fourth, the trial with tor
pedoes, uncfer the corps ot engineers,
and au appropriation tor the same;
should war ever occur between the
United States and any maritime power,
torpedoes will be among, if notthe most
effective and cheapest auxilliary for the
defense of the harbots, and also in ag
gressive operations, tbat we can have;
hence, it is advisable to learn by experi
ment tneir best construction auu app 1-
cation, as well as eflect. Fifth, a per
manent organization for the civil ser
vice cores; this seivice has now become
a necessity or pesce, a3 well es war, un
der the advancement mado by the pres
ent able management. Sixth, a renewal
or the appropriation for compiling the
official records of the war, etc. The
condition of our navy at this time is a
subjeot or satisfaction. It does not con
tain, it is true, any 01 tne powenui
cruising iron-ciads which make so much
of tbe maritime strength of some other
nations, but neither our continen
tal situation nor our foreign policy
r.-quires that we should have a large
number of ships of this character,
while this situation and tbe nature of
our ports continue to make those of
other nations less dangerous to us under
any circumstances. Our navy does con
tain, however, a considerable number of
Ironclads ot the monitor class, which,
though not properly ctuiseis, are power
ful and effective for harbor de'ense and
for operations near our own shores. Of
these all the single-turreted ones, fi'teen
In number, have been substantially re
built, their rotten wooden beams re
placed with iron, their hulls strength
ened, and their engines and machinery
thoroughly repaired, so tbat they are
now in most efficient condition and
ready for sea as soon as they can bo
manned and put in commission. Ihe
five double-turreted ironclads belonging
to our navy, by far the most powerful of
our ships for fighting purposes, ere also
in hands undergoing complete repair?,
onrl nflll'fl ha raarlit t . v. !n
periods varyiDg from fiur to six
months. With theie conooleteJ ac
cording to the piesent design, and
our two Iron torpedo-boats now ready,
our iron-clad fleet will be for the pur
poses of de'ense at home, and is equal
to any iorce mat can oe readily brought
against it. Of our wooden 1 avy, also
cruisers of varir us sizes to the number
of forty, Including those now in com
mission ana in tne Afnutlc, could be
made ready for duty as fast as men
could be enlisted rorjthose not already in
commission. Of these one-thitd are in
effect new shipc, and, ulthough some ol
the remainder need coutl ierble repairs
on their boilers and machinery, ibey
til are or can roadily be ma lo effective
This conititutca a fl et of more than
fifty war shls, of which fi'teennteiron
clad, now io nnd ano tb A'laruio
coast. The navy has b.iu uuht to
this condition by a judicious and prac
tical application of whatcould bespared
f.oni tho current appropriations of the
1st few years, and from tbat made to
meet tbo possible emergency of two
years age. It has been definitely s-ettled
without proclamation or display, and,
although it has cece3sarily straitened
thedepartmeu in Its ordinary expendi
ture, and as far as the iron-ciads are con
cerned, has added nothing to the
cruising force or tho navy; yet the
result is none the leis satisfactory
because it is to be round iu a great in
crease of real rather than appsrent force.
The expenses iucurred in the mainte
nance of au effective naval force in all
its branches are necessarily large, but
such a fcrca is essential to our positions,
relations and charaoter, and affects
Ecriously the weight of our principles
anil polioy throughout the whole sphere
of naval responsibility. The estimates
for the rgu ar support of this branch of
the serviee f jr the next year amount to
a little less in tho aggregato than thoee
made ror tho current year, but some ad
ditional appropriations area-ked for ob
jects not induced in the ordinary main
tenance cl tne navy, but believed to n
of .pressing irnpirtaut'e at this time. It
would, in my opinion, be wieo at once
to afford sufficient means for the Imme
diate completion of the five double-tur
rettetl monitors now undergoing repairs,
which must otherwise aivance slowly.
aud only as money can be spared from
the current expenses supplemented by
these. Our navy armed with the de
structive weapons of modern warfare,
manned by cur seamea, and in charge
of our instructed officers, will present a
f rca poweiful lor the home purposes of
a responsible, though peaceful nation.
THE REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER GEN
ERAL,
herewith transmitted, gives a full his
tory of the workings of the department
for the year Just past. It will be ob
served that tbe deficiency, tobesupplled
trom me general treasury, has in-
rea'cd over tbe amount required for tbe
preceding year. In a coun ry so vast iu
area as the United 8 ates, and with large
portions of it so sparsely set'.'eJ, it must
be expected tbat this important service
will be more or less a burden upon tho
treasury for many y.ars to come, but
there is no branch of tne public service
which interests the whole people more
tbau that of the cheap and rapid trars
miesion of the mai's. Tne commercial
advantages to be gained by a direct line
of steamers to tbe South American
State?, will far outweigh the expense of
service. By set of congress, approved
March 2, 1875, almost all matter,
whether properly mail matter or not,
may be sent any distance through the
mails, in packages not exceeding four
pounds in weight, for the sum of sixteen
cents pf r pound. So far as the tians-
mission of ieat mall matter goes, this
would seem entirely proper, tut I sug
gest tbat the law bo so amended, aa to
exclude from the mails, merchandise cf
all descriptions, aud to limit this trans
portation to all articles enumerated, and
which may be classed as mall matter
proper.
THE BLACK HILLS.
The discovery of gold in the Black
Hills, a portion of the Sioux reservation,
has had tbe effect to induce a large emi
gration of miners to that point. Thus
far the enort to protect the treaty rights
of the Indians uf that section has been
successful; tut the next year will cer
tainly witness a large increase of euch
emigration. The negotiations for the te-
lnqufshment of the gold fields having
failed, it will be necessary for congress
to adopt some measures to relieve tbe
embarrassment growingout or the causes
ni-.med. The secretary of the Interior
suggests that tbe supplies now appropri
ated tor tco sustenance or mat people,
beiug no longer obligatory under the
treaty of lS6i, but simply a gra'uity,
may te issued or withheld at his discre
tion. INDIA.N TERRITORY.
The condition of the Indian Territory,
to which I have referred in several of
tnv former aunual messages, remains
practically unchanged. Tne secretary
of the interior has; taken measures to ob
tain a full repoit of the conditions of tbat
Territory, and will make it the subject
or a special report at an eany asy. it
may men be necessary to make some
fuitlier recommendation in regard to
l'gislation ror the government or that
Territory.
THE PATENT OFFICE.
The steady growth and increase of the
business of tbe patent office indicates in
some .measure the progress and the in
dustrial activity or the country. The
recti pts of the office are in excess of its
expenditures, and the office generally Is
n a prosperous and satisractory condi
tion.
THE GENERAL LAND OFFICE.
The report of the general land office
shows that there were 2,459,401 acres less
disposed on curing (his tnan during the
last year. More than oce-balf of this
decrease was in lands disposelof under
tbe homestead and timber cutter Jaws.
The causes of this decrease is supposed
to be round in the grasshopper scourge
and tbe drouths which prevailed so ex
tensively in eome or the frontier States
and Territories during that time, as to
discourage and deter entries by actual
e t ers. The cash receipts were less by
$69.0322:-3 than during the preceding
year. The entire stirvpye d area of tbe
public domain is btO,5i5J,094 acrep, of
vhich 2b,U77,dl acres were surveyed
luring the past year, leavirg 1,154 471,-
762 acres still unenrveyed. The'report
of the comm'ssionejr presents many 'in
teresting suggestions in regard to the
management and disposition of the pub
lic domaiu, and the modification of ex
istiug laws, and tbe apparent importance
of which ehould insurerortbemthecaie
ful consideration of congress.
THE NUMBER OF PENSIONER3
still continues to decrease, the highest
number having been reached during the
year ending June 30, 1873. During tbe
isat year 11 557 names were added tithe
rolls, and l,9i7 wore dropped there
f'om, showing a net decrease of 1420.
But while the number of pensioners has
iecreased, the annual amount due on
tbe penGion-roils has increase1 $4,473,
313. This is caused by the great in
creased average rata of pensions, which,
by the liberal legislation of congress,
has increased rrom $9026 in 1872, to
310.391 In 1875. To each invalid pen
sioner, an increase in the average rate of
fifteen per cent, in three years. JJuricg
the year ending June 30, 1875, there
was paid on account of pensions, includ
ii g the expenses of disburse
ment, $29,083,962, being $910,982
lean than was paid the preceding
year. This reduction in the amount
of expenditures was produced by the
decreaee in tho amount of arrearages
dua on allowed claims and on pensions,
the rata or which was increase! by the
egisiattou 01 tne preceding session or
congress. At tne ci03e or the last fiscal
year there wer on the pension rolls
233,821 persons, or whom 210,861 were
army pensioners, 105,478 being invalids
and 104 SS5 widows and dependent rela
tive; were navy pensioners, or
whom 1636 were invalids and 1778
widows and dependent relatives; 21,038
were pensioners of tbe war of 1812, 15,
875 or whom were survivors and 5163
were widows. It is estimated that $29,
535,000 will be required for the payment
f the ponstous ror the next fiscal year,
anammot $9bo.UJU less than the esti
mate f )t tbe r.-seut year.
THE GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATIONS
have been prosecuted with energy dur
ing tbe year, coveting au area of about
40.0C0 square mi'e, in the Territories of
Colorado, Utah and New Mexico, de
veloping tne agricultural and mineral
resources, and furnishing interesting sci
entific acd topographical details of that
region.
OUR INDIAN POLICY.
The method lor f e treatment of the
It dtans adopted at the beginning of my
first term, has been steadily pursued,
acd with satisfactory and encouragiog
results. It has been productive of evi
dent improvement in the condition or
tbat race, and will be continued, witn
such modifications as further experience
may muua'.e to ue necessary.
THE CENTENNIAL COMMISSION.
The botrd heretofore appointed to
take change ft th articles and mate
rials pera'rl g t t ie war, t e navy,
the treR'i"' , the iUtrorand por office
ileaartmi- fs, aa 1 tl:e deptr.ment of ag
ilcul'u , the omith-ontan Institution,
and the oo-uuilssion of rood and fish, to
be contnbJted under the legislation of
the last session to ir ternatioi-al ex
hibition, to ba heleSItt 1'hilaiWpMa dur
ing the Centennial year of JS7B ban
been diligent in tho discharge of the rt
tlea which have devolved u;on it, and
the progress eo far made with tbe means
at command, give anrancfH that tk
governmental contribution will bemad
one of the marked chamc .-isticu of tie
exhibition. Tne board ba observed
commendable economy In the matt'r tf
the erection of building for the govern
mental exhibit, tbe expense of which It
Is estimated, will not exceed eighty
thousand d oil am. This nmunt his
been withdrawn under tbe law Ir m ths
appropriations of five of the prtix-ipal
departments, which leaves some of thorm
departments without suffiele it mansti
leader their respective practical xhibiisj
complete aud sstirf tctory;the exhibition
being an inttnatioo 1 ons, sni the
government being av.luntaVy eauii
btitor, the advantages to ilie tfJfiitrv
or a credltib'e dtsplav In an i 'terffafinn
al point cf view is f first importai c,
while an indifierect or uncrediiaB'e par
ticipation by the gi vemment would bs
humiliating to t e pa'r otic feeliug- of
our people themselves I c immer.d tbe
estimates of the boatd fir t ie ntc-ssary
additional appropriations to the favora
ble consideration of cot gn-s. The
powers tf Europe, si nost witlint ex-
ceptlon, and many of the South Ameri
can S:ktes, and even the more dt-tact
astern piowers, have manifesfeil ibelr
friendly sentiments toward the Unit
ed States, and tbeir interest in
our progress by tiki g stpps t jdn
with us in celebrating tne ceutenniai of
the nation, and I strongly recommend
lhat a more nat'nal importance ba
given to this exhibition by such 1 -gtsls-tion,
and by euch appropriation will
insure i's success. Its value in bringing
to our shon s innumerah.'e usi ful w rks
of art and skill, the commiuglit g of'ihe
cit'zsns of foreign countries and our
own, and the interchange of Ideas and
aianufactures will far evceed any pecu
nlaiy outlay we may make.
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AG
KICUL1URE.
I transmit herewith the report r f the
commissioner or agriculture, together
with tho reports of tbe commi-siinera of
the board or aud t aud too boird o
halth of the District of C IumbU, to
all or which I invite your atteatiun.
The bureau or agriculture his acoui
plished much in disseminating H-elul
knowledge to the agiicutturahstr and
also introducing new and useful produc
tions adapted to our soil and cltmttei,
and are worthy of tbe coutinutd encour
agement of the government. Ihe re
port of tbe commtssiocer of education,
which accompanies tha report of the
secretary of the interior, sbows a grati
fying progress in educational matters.
ThB TERRITORY OF UTAH.
In nearly every annual mes-ag' that
I have bad the honor of tr its iii ting to
congress I have called atteitioii to the
anomalous, net to say scandalous, c -n-ditioa
of affairs existing in th6 Territory
of Utah, and'have asfeel for rfefinire
legislation to conectit. That polygamy
should exist in a free, enlightened- and
christian country, wittout ihe power to
punish so flagrant a crime agairs. de
cency and morality, seems preposterous.
True, there is no law to sustain this nu
catural vice, tut what ia needed is a law "
to punish it as a crime, aid tt the same
time to fix tbe status of theiunocftut
children, the offspring of this system,
and of the possiby innoceut plural
wives. But as an institution ot polyga
my it should be banished rrom tbe land.
THE IMPORTATION CF CHINESE WoMfcN.
While this is being done, I invite tie
attention of congress to anotht r, though
perhaps no less, an evil the intona
tion or Chinese womeb but few of
whom are broogat to our f hores to pro
cure honoiable or useful occupation.
WYOMING, UTAH AND COLOR i DO.
Observations whilp.vieiting theT rri
torits or Wyoming, Utah and Colorado,
during the past autumn, convinced me
tbat existing laws regulating tbe d.'spo
sition of public lands, timber, its, aad
probably the mining laws thernlies,
are very oefictive and sloild be care
'ully amended, acd at an ear'y day. In
tbe territory where the cultivation of
the soil can only be followed lyirilga
tion, which is net practicab'e. tie Uud3
can only be u-ed as pastursg, acd this
only where stock can reach me water to
quench its thirst, canto: b governed
by the same laws as to enttits ub lmde,
every acre of which is an estate by itself.
Lands must be held in la git quantities
to justify the expense or conductirg the
water upon it to make Itfruit'ul, or to
iustify the utilizing it a- ptstuiage.
The timber,in most of tbe T rritorbs, is
principally confined to ti e mountain
regions, which are hrld for en'ry in
eni&ll quantities, or.ly as mine-al in's.
Tae timber is the property of ih- Uniti d
States, for the disposal uf which, tiere
Isnoa'eqca'e law. The eettr must
bscome a consumer of this timber,
whether bo lives upon tbe plains or en
gines in working ths mines; bene,
evtry man becomes either a trespa-eer
himself, or knowingly apatroaof tres
passers. My opportunities fir obrv
mg were net sufficient to justify me in
recommending legts'a'iou on t iese
subjects. But I do r commend tl at
a joint committee ofthetwi housis of
coogress, suffl.isn-ly large to be di
vided into commissions, be organized to
visit all the mlnkg State and
Territories, during tbe c ming
snmmer, and that tbo committee
shatl report ti congress at the mxt ten
sion such laws, or amendments to laws,
as it may deem necessary o secure the
bett Interests of the g vernment aid
tbe people or these Teirtories who are
doing so much' ftr tbeir development
I am sure tbat tbe ctzus iccupyitg
the Territories described do not wi-h Ur
be trespassers, nor will they be if legel
ways are provided for them to bfcome
owners or these actual necessities cf
their positions.
RECAPITULATION.
As this will ba tbe list annual mes
sage which I shall hr.ve the honor of
transmitting to congress before my suc
cessor is chosen, I will repeat or ie
capitulate the questions winch I derm
of vital imptr.ance, and which shosul
be legislated upou at this tessinn.
First That the States shhll be re
quired to afford the opprr unity cf a
good common school eciucaiiou 10 every
child within their limits.
Second That no sectarian 'eottssball
be ever taught in any scto 1 supported
in whole or in part by the State or the
nation, or by the. proceeds of any tux
levied upon aoy community Make
educ&tnn compuieory so far as to de
prive all persons who cannot read and
write from becoaiicg vu'er- a't-r the
year 1890, disfraccaising noue, however,
on tbe ground of illiteracy who may te
voters at the time this amendment
takes eflect.
Tnird Declare church aud State for
ever separata acd distinU, but each fiee
within their proper spherp, and fiat all
church propeity shall bear its own pso
portion of taxes.
Fourth -Drive out licensed immoral
ity, such as polygamy, aud the Importa
tion of women for illegitimate purposes.
To recur again to iheCextsnniat year, it
would seem a3 'though now, a we are
about to begin the second cen'ury of our
national existence, would be a most
fitting time fcrthese rtf jrms.
Fifth Enactment of such law as
will secure a speedy return to a ev.imi
currency, such aa will comniauo the re
spect of tbe world. Believing that thee
views will commend themeives to the
great majirity of tho ri"ht-thikiug
and patriotic citizens of tne United
States v s grant.
ExiccTlVEMAVSro, December 7, IS75.
DR. J. J. ROSS,
Surgoou XJontlst.
263 MAIS STKKKT
T'tb Extrrtd Wllhonr
I'uip. by tse use ot pure tl.
troax OiUu ban.
MAHOTS JONJSS,
-DEALER IN-
WALIi PAPER and
WINDOW S HA DIES
rpiHE larc&t n'l mml c mptee pworaMBt
JL ol Hip a ovh vo di iu i r - . b, 1.1. ii
now oC r at VHO..-:-aLE AND KgrA.1L,
ai greatly redaeeo tit,ur .
Call aud extmlch a xN and prlee at my
Old i-lftUd, UOU I S-. onn reel, Ave tOO
loath or MhUIsod. MemplikTcon. ds5

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