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TBLiG MEMPHIS DAILY APPMAL - -STJiSHD A V . JVIAY 3 2, l8?8.
MEMPHIS APPEAL WALUWAY A KK1TL; r'r"-"f aooerlptlon. Oally A Weeal- DAILY : n - 2T' or rw, bj mail Hon t' month. b mall 4 ti iI22Sw "e n,", by mall 5 op, one nvt, in city j 7 O m - WEEKLY i uMeopr.or rear M a-i V opr. six months i .i Bate or Advertising. Insertion. rr ag.ur mi Oil 3Mluanl Inarrttona. pr kiuire &4 t 01 h""-' solid Don4trrll makes ooo guar, and Unna maka on Inch. antnl Kotli-na are twrtit, ernts par line Brat lnser (Ion, C ft eo or ii u per line it wrt Wanta. etc, are tm efiita per line Dnrt lnarrtlon, an J Ive oral per line u-u wibMeuuenl Insertion. Duh and Uarnium mniora, kuneral notice and Ot'lluanea, are chanted at n-cular num. IU not aowpt any adverUtement to follow read rig iDAUer. Contributor and Correspondents. Ve solicit lette and communications opoa subject. of iceneral interna, but such muat always be ae- ecro panted by a resiunslble nam. We will not return rejected communication, d pert men coptea arat tree of chance. another. the name of both poaUXSces ahould be t)ur mall books are kept by poatoffloM, and Dot by individual name, all lctera, communication, or anythlna: elae for the GALi.WAT ft EEITING. V.r. fULLAWAT, I 2h2 Second street, n. KuTmtf. ' Memphis. Term. ME3IPHIS APPEAL SUNDAY, SAY 12, 18;. THEJOIIXHTOX lOMrKOHISE BILL Tha a aoathern railroad from the Missis sippi river to the Pacific ocean u a necessary measure one required by the needs of trade and by sound public policy has become more and more evident during the discussion ex cited by the various bills that have been be fore congress during its present session. TLe result of that discussion has been that the country at large, where not influenced hy sectional Views or biased by special interest, concedes the point that a southern transcon tinental road ought to be constructed, and with that concession comes a positive convic tion that such a road certainly will be built. These circumstances existing, how comes it that congress has not, before this time, adopt ed a measure such aa will meet existing re quirements? The answer is, that the meas ures most urgently pushed in congress, and most actively brought before the country, have not met the requirements. Most of the bills offered in contrress have had the interest of their promoters mainly in view; those cf the country professedly intended to be bene fited have been made secondary and subservi ent. To accomplish their objects, subtle frauds and deceitful provisions, intended to cheat and delude, have been introduced among the provisions, often with such adroitness as to appear most fair and honet-t when actually most fraudulent and corrupt. The committee proposition of House's bill is an instance. These bills have been unworthy of adoption by congress, and therefore legis lation for a southern transcontinental railroad has been delayed. Matters being in this un satisfactory condition. Senator John ston, of Virginia, has introduced a compromise measure for removing diffi culties, unitinir national and local inter ests, baffling fraud, and disappointing jobbery. It is constructed, not from the point of view as to what will be most profitable to certain corporations who show great capacity to absorb publio plunder but what will best accomplish the objects the country at large desires to have effected, by aiding to build up the commerce of the southern States, and co revive its languishing prosperity, and at the same U'ne make a highway to the Pacific, where a mild climate and few obstructions will secure advantages in which the whole nation will participate. Such being the ob jects of the compromise bill, and issuing as it does from the representative or instrument of no clique or ring, there is a natural desire a. i il. c :t .3 ,i :i i iu - to anuw vue uaiuio ui no ucuui uiu wo manner in which it provides for securing the important objects for which it was drawn up. Evidently no one is better able to explain these particulars than the respected and able gentleman who introduced the compromise bill before congress. According ly our Washington correspondent, with that vigilance he never fails to display when th interests ana weitare ot mis city, ana ot tne section at tho eastern end of the proposed railroad, are involved, waited upon the sena tor and obtained from him a frank, lucid and very interesting statement upon the moment ous subjects included in his bill. In another place we give me uiu men ana senator Johnston's explanation of the main provisions Every resident of Memphis is concerned in the details of the compromise bill, for it does away at once with the infamous fraud upon Memphis contemplated by House's bill, and makes full provision for Memphis being the extreme terminus, while Vicksburg and New Orleans will be also termini, so abolishing ail local controversy and jealousy. This bill may become a very important matter for the pros perity of Memphis, whose citizens have a powerful interest in me legislation it pro poses; all our citizens should therefore make themselves thoroughly acquainted with the whole matter by attentively and reflectingly perusing the letter we publish this mornin g from our indefatigable Washington cor respondent. OLD JIAlIOX IN LIM. The Democracy of Madison county have set an example which should be imitated by every county in West Tennesee. It will be seen from the article which, we publish else where, from the Tribune and Sun, that at the primary elections held a few days since, a good ticket was selected, and that everything passed off harmoniously. Notwithstanding the busy season of the year, the farmers turned out and largely voted at the primary election. The vote polled was twenty-three hundred, which is about the usual Demo cratic vote cast in the county. The large vote polled, the general interest manifested by the people, and the harmony that prevailed, is most gratifying to the Democrats of West Tennessee. It is to be hoped the same inter Oit, the same harmony, and the same large vote will be exhibited at the primary election in Shelby county on the eighth of Jane. Thus far everything indicates such a result. Democrats in every part of the county seem to be impressed with the importance of the August elections. They will determine whether the united tax-paying peo ple will bury the ' remains of . Rad icalism in our mid.t, or whether by dividing into factions they will restore to power the men who voted to disfranchise the whites while robbing and plundering them. Disap pointed oilke-seeking Democrats are indus triously endeavoring to form a combination by which they hope to secure power, but the honest masses of Shelby county cannot be used for such selfish purposes. Every man in Shelby county who has heretofore opposed Radicalism should reflect before he consents to desert the Democratic party, which has de feated Radicalism in every southern State. In all the southern States the Democrats are preparing to present a united front to the Radical enemy, whether he fights under the old or a new banner. The Alabama Demo crats are organizing, and the Montgomery Advertiser, the central organ of the State, in an able article, shows that no man who loves his country and is willing to labor for its welfare can afford, at a period so critical t to forsake the ranks of the only party that can save the country ; from the utter disgrace and utter ruin of Grantism. Outside of the Democratic party there is not only danger to free institutions but there is death to the republic itself. TLe "Greenback party," the "National party," tae "Labor Union party" all may profess to point the path that will lead the country out of its embarasbnienU and distress, but all their professions and all their efforts, secret or open, must not only prove powerless for good, but must help to keep in power the party which tramples upon constitutions, de fies the will of the people and revels in the MnlrliMDiiMi ef itu lalnu AnI viernrr. n1 mini trillions. There can be so safety no hop now outside of the great Democratic party. Once l"t the people abandon it and the ountry drills inevitably into ruin, wretcheJncss and death. We cannot close our tye to the frightful fact that (jiantiiu, alias I: licalisin, is a giant in the land. It still h.i-: ,i J.- perate grasp upon the throat of the republic, and it requires the united strength of patriots of all complexions and all sections t) unloose that death grip and to utterly destroy the monster that h is already deluged the land in blood and tent death and dismay into thousands of once happy homes. If the great Democratic patty be abandoned, tbc last bulwark of good gov ernment of constitutional freedom will be broken down. The country, from the Atlan tic to the Pacific, must stand by that paity, or else give up all hope of the republic. THE COHMCXE AMD FOReittKEKt. It i true that many of the worthless vaga bonds who propose to recover by violence the living which they think the world owes them, and out of which some bloated property owner has wrongfully deprived them, are foreigners. Kearney, the leader of the com munists in San Francisco, is a foreigner who has just been naturalized. Many of the law less gang in other cities are men of foreign birth. This fact has had a tendency to re vive the old feeling of kcow-nothingiara. Already the leading papers ot the cities are predicting ruin to the country on account of the lewhntr doctrines wnicii bava been brought here by foreigners. Ojt natural ized citizens should not be hld responsible for the insane utterances of a few crack brained adventurers. Aa a class, our foreign born citizens are law-abiding, and look with horror upon the alrrcious sentiments of. such men as Kearney. The Appeal has ever held that it is most fortunate for the United States that carcu'jistances have, from time to time, coMpelle! Europeans to leave their na tive Wad and settle in this country. To this ntost fortuitous migration we owe the won derful progress of the Union in arts, arms, scieneo, industry, population, wealth and po litia renown. Such misfortunes as we have encountered were of our own devisement, and cannot be truthfully laid at the doois of those who sailed across the sea for repose and not for turbulence. They have, greatly contributed to the prosperity and to the glory of the land of their adoption. The commu nistic doctrine now propagated in various parts of the country is confined to no particular race or nationality. Because a few foreigners are prominent in these incendiary meetings, that is no reason for making war upon all for eigners. It is no doubt true, that the old world has cast upon our shores a few rest less adventurers and turbulent spirits who would overthrow law an! orler. They and their doctrines found the institutions of Eu rope too well established to make any very great headway. Under the freedom which our laws offered they appear to have flour ished and increased until to-day it is taid they are bold enough to publicly proclaim their purpose of compelling a division of property. It seems hardly possible, that any conbiderable number of men cou!ti he found in this country, whether native sw -adopted, who understand so poorly the tss American spirit, as to think such doctrines would be tolerated for a day on American soil. Under our laws every avenuo Is open to Xionest in dustry. The poor mra of to-day may be the retired merchant prince of to-morrow. The man of to-day who counts his wealth by the millions may be reduced to the sternest necessity within a few short years. In Abra ham Lincoln the country has the example of the poor man's son reaching the most exalted position which the votes of forty million people can bestow The vast majority of the people of this country are laborers constantly rising and fatting, as the waves of the sea, alternating in positions of wealth and pov erty. Thw condition of society in this coun try is such, and must be for years to come at least, that such doctrines as the communists are said to teauh can find no sympathy. Un doubtedly the condition of the country for the past few years fcas been such as to create disquiet, and farniih that kind of food upon which resUesa adventurers live. The spirit of restletsaess is not confined to any class, and tb assaults of newspapers on foreigners on aeount of Kearney and a few such fa BAtics, is unjust to foreigners, who, aa a class,, are punctili ius in the observance of kw Mid all the prerequisite's of good citizens. COLOSEL MONKS WHITB. Sever 1 of the leading papers of Tennes see tpof .k in the highest terms of this dis tinguirhed East Tennessean. The Browns ville Statet saya : "The Memphis Appeal brings forward the name of this worthy and talerated gentleman as a candidate for govern or. Colonel White is a native of Knoxville, and ia on of the foremost ineu of the State in all that pertains to those noble qualities which are necessary to fit a man for leader ship in hours of peril and need. He is splen didly eo ocated, possesses a wide range of in formal m, is liberal in his views and is em phatically a people's man in the highest sense.' U CAST'S MILITARY CHARACTER. The 1 all a ana "Principle of Attrition" by which he Achieved hla Baeeeaw. " A recent article by General D. H. Maury, in the Southern Historical Society't Papers, on "Grant as a Soldier and Civilian," says: "In estimating Grant's claims as a general, we must admit that one principle by which he achieved his success is a new one. It is known in this country as the 'principle of at trition;' and, being a newly-announced prin ciple ot war, may be appropriately discussed in a paper like this. Whatever the military student may find in Grant's career to admire, he should not unadvisedly adept this 'princi ple of attrition.' Humanity revolts at it, and history will arraign Grant for the recklessness with which he dashed his men to death. In Virginia he either could not or would not maneuver, but knowing that for every thou sand men who were slain by the rifles of the army of Virginia he would, within ten days, receive an equal number of recruits, he perse vered in a criminal manner in this new princi ple of war. It is quite remarkable that the tac tics of the latcommander of the army of the United States and his successor, General Sher man, were so at variance, and yet carried both men to such substantial personal re wards. Grant announced and acted on the principle, 'I never maneuver.' Sherman Hirer fought when he could avoid it, except at Chickataw Blutf, but is the greatest of liv ing maneuverere. Without doubt Grant must be held responsible for the stoppage of the exchange of prisoners, which was i'ne most cruel act of his plan of attrition. No parallel can be found for this double crime against humanity. Alter Grant came to the army of the Potomac it never left the field. It was punished more severely under him than it had ever been under any of his pre- 1 decessors. Some acoouots show that it lost one hundred thousand men! one hundred thousand men from the first movement in May, 1864, till the battle ot Cold Harbor closed, in June, 1864! Yet Grant never suf fered it to get beyond his control. After his repulse at Cold Harbor he could not get it to fight any more there, but he held it near the victorious army, and marched it in order by flank to his new base on the James, where he kept it till the end. This was what no other commander of that army had ever done, and stamps him as an able general. He has been severely criticised for fighting all those battles and losing so many men to gain a position which he might have reached without any loss at all. But, in justice, we can say he was not chargeable with want of military capacity for adopting that plan of campaign, lr was a moral, and not a strat egical error on his part. From unquestiona ble authority we Know that when Stanton first told Grant that he was to be placed in command of the armies of Virginia, he was well pleased, and said: 'I shall at once change the plan of campaign, and make my base of operations upon the James river south of Richmond.' Stanton said: 'No, you must operate from the other direction.' 'BuV said Grant, 'if I do it will coat us oue htndred thousand men bufore we can r et to where we can take Richmond.' 'Well,' said Stanton, 'you shall have the hundred thou sand men to lose rather than this adminis tration, by abandoning its plan and route of operations in which we have so kmar persist ed, shall be convicted before the country of - - q r.. i.i,v, mum ..v.. ... V. w u . . 44 you furnish me the men to do it I will exe cute your plan. ' So that, while he had mili tary capacity to appreciate the surroundings of the secretary's campaign, and to foresee the tremendous slaughter of his men which it would involve, be consented to be the in strument of its execution!" KATE SOUTHERN. Her Murder of a Supposed Rival in a Hall-Room She Becomes a Fugi tive, is Captured, Tried and Convicted. The Death Sentence Pronounced and the Governor Inexorable A Terrible 8 lory of Jealousy, Disgrace and Irrecoverable Rain. Says an Atlanta, Georgia, correspondent of the New York Herald, writing under date of May 4th: By a long and tedious ride of three daya through the woods, your correspondent has returned to this city from Pickens coun ty, where he witnessed the trial and convic tion of -Mr'. Kate Southern, who was charged with the murder of Narcissa Cowart in Feb ruary ' The readers of the Herald are famili i ' ' h tl story of the crime, aa I for wards' '. tails shortly after the princi pals were r . -ed in North Carolina. The case is now lain before the courts; the swift coils of the law are now being tightened around the wretched woman, and that the public may understand the points of this re markable tragedy as the successive action of the courts are reported upon, the story is herewith briefly retold. BOB SOUTHERK's SWEETHEARTS. There is in Pickens county, which is a back woods county, a numerous family named Southern. 'The men are stalwart, handsome, and a trifle wild. Among them was a youngr fellow named Bob, who was the best-looking of the lot, and was quite a mountain beau. He was ruddy, tall aud litue, witn just enougn reckles9nei about him to make him popular with the countrv belles. It appears that he di vided his affections rather evenly for a long time between two voucg ladies who were noted nmonc all the lasses as belles. Mi-s Kate Ham brick was a dark, slender girl, with lustrous hair and eves, and, it is said, a trace of Indian blood in her veins. Miss Narcissa Cowart was plump, pretty and good-natured. "Bob" Southern was very attentive to both of these young ladies, and for a long time it was doubtful as to where his affection would be finally laid. At last, however, it was an nounced that he was to marry Miss Ham brick, and the day was set for the wedding. The rivalry between the young ladies was very bitter, at least on the part of Miss Ham brick, who seems to have loved with the pas sion and fury of a tigresB. The wedding took place about one year and a half ago. For some months the young wife was happy in her husband's love, and all went smoothly. A little one was promised to their mutual happiness, and the skies seemed bright. Sud denly, however, the calm was broken, and Kate Southern's life became turbulent and desperate. She learned that her rival still had some power over her husband; that they had been seen walking together in the woods two or three times since the wedding. She, of course, became very much enraged, and went to her husband about it. He promised to behave himself in the future. the tragedy. A short time after this a party was given at Mr. Hambrick's house. In accordance with the hearty hospitality of the country Miss Cowart was invited to be present. Mrs. Southern, knowing this, warned her husband that he must not dance with her or speak to her during the night. He laughed at her jealous fears and promised that he would re spect her wishes- He did so until late in the night. He then, through carelessness or in a freak for it appear that he did love his wife devotedly look Miss Cowart on the floor for a dance. His wife at once went up to the couple, determined to prevent their dancing together. She claimed that her hus band was engaged for that Bet to her. Miss Cowart denied this and said that "she had a right to dance with him if he wanted to dance with her." Southern himself took sides with Miss Cowart and the dance went on, Mrs. Southern giving way. After the dance was over, Mrs. Southern stuht her husband, and taking him to one side of the room, sat down by his side. What they said to each other may never be known. While they were talking, however, Miss Cowart, evidently very much exhilerated, danced in front of them two or three times. This seemed to exasperate Mrs. Southern very much, and at length she rose very suddenly and sought her father, who, with her moth er, was in an adjoining room. Going up to him she asked tor his knife, telling him she wanted to pare her nails. He handed the weapon to her and she left the room. Re entering the dancing-room she discovered her rival still dancing in an elated sort, of a way across the room. She rushed upon her with the rapidi'y of lightning, and, seising her by the throat, said : "You have danced enough!" With this she plunged the knife into her left shoulder, striking her just above the heart. Her victim never uttered a word, but fell at once. In falling, Mrs. Southern stabbed her again, cutting each time a gash several inches long. As she touched the floor Mrs. Southern threw herself upon her and plunged the knite into her body again, this time cutting through the clothes and belt and opening the abdomen. Miss Cow art died instantly and before the crowd could understand what was going on. The confu sion was terrible. Some one called out: "Where is the man that did this?" "I did it!" screamed Mrs. Southern, rais ing herself from her prostrate rival s body. "Close the door and let no one leave the room!" shouted the same voice. TDK HUSBAND TO THE RESCUE At this juncture "Bob" Southern, who cer tainly knew nothing of the fearful tragedy about to be enacted when his wife left his side, seemed to have recovered his manhood and sense of honor. Springing, at once to the side of the woman whose love for him had driven her to the terrible deed, he drew his pistol and took her arm in his. Speak ing in a calm voice he said: "I am going to leave this room, and I am going to take my wife with me. And we are going, if 1 have to shoot my way through." With these words he started for the door, carrying his wife with him. They were lost in the darkness of the night, and were seen no more in months. THE ESCAPE AND PUR8UIT. It appears that they obtained a wgon and horses, and with an escort of certain mem bers of Southern's family, pushed their way through upper Georgia and into western North Carolina, whera they discovered a safe retreat, and halted. They rented a farm and at once proceeded to go to work and make a crop. Southern's father and two brothers were with the runaway couple. The desperate and devoted family lived in comparative peuce and quiet here tor some time, and at length started to move further west. They had already started and were well on their way when a company of pursuers from Georgia Btruck their trail. The Southerns had somo fuss with a tollgate keeper just beyond acon, and he sent into the city to get a 5oxee with which to arrest them. He diovered the Georgia crowd there asking far information as to the runa ways. He, continued with them, and the Georgia and a local posse started out to gether to make the arrests. They found upon a reeOBBoisance that the fugitives had gone into camp a short distance outside of the town. They had a guard mounted, and were evidently ready for a fight. The reconnoiter ing party went back to get the main force, intending to surround the camp and take it. They found, however, although it was rain ing and in the dead of night, that the wretched fugitives had put out their camp fires and ranewed their flight. The pursuers pressed on vigorously and soon heard the wheels of the lumbering wagon in front of them. THE CAPTURE. Dashing into the woods, they made a de tour, and were soon posted in heavy ambus cade on the side of the road aw aiting the coming of their victims. Aa the wagon reached them they arose at a signal, and presenting a .dozen rifles at e front of the wagon demanded a surrend er There was a !ilei S?5fafion in8ide Lthe T 'agon cover, when Bob Southern put his ' jead out and said he would surrender. He, naJ no idea that he was giving his wife u' to trial, but thought his captors wore mf reiy tne friends of the toll-keepor. who wsy jted to force a settlement. Inside the wag'jrj tent was Mrs. Southern, the game for w ni.ch they were looking. When she was take , jj6 had a baby in her arm .Jit having; been b- 3rn while she and her husband were, m No.th Carolina. She and "Bob" bouthem we-e tied, the others were dis armed, an-d the procession was turned to wa V" -rgia. After the Southerns, armed with pis? ol8 and clubs, had made a desperate attempt at rescue and were repulsed with a wound or two, the party reached Pickens countT, where Mr. and Mrs. Southern and their bby were locked up in the county jail. Tb?'r arrival of cotirse created great excite m'nt, and their conning trial has been lor n'lonths the sole topic almost of con versation in tha rural districts. The family of the murdered woman, having paid out about five hand red dollars in the way of rewards for the cf.pt.ure of Mrs. Southern, showed their deter ruination of pushing the prosecution to th e bitter end. They em ployed Messrs. Dat nell and Allen, two able lawyers, to assist Si Jici tor-General Greer, and devoted themselva i to quietly (retting up tes timony. Tha Sout herns and Hambricks were quite as determine! 1 in their attempts to save the life of the p risoner. They employed Ura lawyers, oompr mng the very best talent of the up-country, and headed by Congress man II P. Bell. THE TRIAL. The trial was called last Friday, Judge Lester preiding. A jury was impaneled without nnicti tiouble, and the case was opened. The courthouse was, of course, crowded to buffocation. Mrs. Southern, the prisoner, sat in a large chair, dressed plainly but neatly, holding her baby (seven months old) in her arms. She was thinner than she was when she was captured, but her form is tili shapely and rounded. She was bent (lightly forward, and had a uot ungraceful sl.P in the shoulders. Her face was exceed ingly white, and her cheeks glowed with a hec tic color. She coughed slightly, but frequent ly during the trial, and created the impres sion that her lungs had been affected by her imprisonment. She was not at all nervous, but, on the contrary, quite composed. She spoke to her triends casually, and seemed very much interested in the course of the trial. At certain parts of the testimony she would i.iise her head, her eyes would flash as if the old passion of jealousy was ttill tuggiog at her heart-string9. She offered no suggestions to her lawyers, but devoted her time to her baby and to listening to the tes timony. Tbe members of her f amily sat op posite to her, and consulted constantly with the lawyers. The relatives father and broth ers of the murdered woman attended the trial every day, but visibly softened as the case went on. Ihe sight ot tae paie woman fondling her child and listening with a pain ful wistt'ulness to the testimony on which her life was hanging, had its effect on every one present. THE PROSECUTION AND DKFENSE. She pleaded "not guilty" in a firm and steadv voice, and the witnesses were Drougut The only point shown by the testimony not already recited above was that the killing was tne result ot long chensnea una aeuo erafe, hatred. It was shown that Mrs. South ern's love for her husband, even before their marriage, amounted almost to insanity, and that her hatred of Miss Cowart was f urious. In Julv it was proved that she had said she "would kill Narciasa Cowart if she didn't let Bob Southern alone." It was proved that she had frequently said she would cut her heart out it she eve,r tried to come oetween her and her hasband. It was further proved that after the killing she had said to her mother, "I m glad she is dead. I intended to kill her long ago, and I'm glad I've done it at last." Upon the production of this and similar testimony, the defense begged for per mission to withdraw their plea of not guilty and enter a plea of guilty to voluntary man slaughter. This was denied them, and th'. debate of the cae was opened. CONVICTED. There were seven speeches made, and the excitement was wrought up to fever heat. The trial lasted five days, and at last the jury was sent out. Alter hours of painful sus pense they returned and announced that they had their verdict. The foreman rose, and in a scarcely audible voice said : "We pronounce thedefendantguilty." PROSTRATION OF THE PRISONER. At this Mrs. Southern broka down for the first time since the trial had opened. She fell forward over the child in her lap and gave way to terrible sobs. The scene was fearful. From the judge on the bench to the bailiff there was scarcely a dry eye in the room. The father and brothers of Miss Cowart gave way to their feelings, and, hid ing their faces, cried like children. Every moment or so Mrs. Southern would strain her baby to her breast and rise as if she was going out and then fall back in her chair, bend forward and sob again. It was noticed that the baby was unusually bright and cheerful, its unconscious prattle touching the hearts of the spectators. Judge Lester, in a solemn speech, pronounced the death sen tence, naming the twenty-first of June as the date of execution. The prisoner was then taken back to jail and to her husband for the first time since the murder, broken down in mind and body. MOTION FOR A NEW TRIAL. The counsel for defense at once made mo tion for a new trial. The iudsre will hear their motion on the thirteenth instant. It is hardly possible that he will grant a new trial, as he said in rendering his sentence that the prisoner had been given a fair trial. If he refuses a new trial, the case will be brought to the supreme couit on a bill of exceptions. If the judgment of the court below is af firmed, as it doubtless will be, the trial hav ing been correct, the judge of the supreme court will have to resentence the prisoner. The case will go before the supreme court in August. It will go back to the, September term of, the superior court for resentence. The law requires that the sentence shall be executed between thirty and sixty days from the session of the court. Mrs. Southern will, ; therefore, be finally sentenced to hang be- 1 tween the fifteenth of October and Novem ber, unless there is some interference now not deemed possible. A TERRIBLE FACT. This calculation derives a terrible interest from the fact that the wretched woman, who has been living with her husband in the jail, is eneein'te, and may be expected to give birth to a child late in November. There is no possible way to arrest the execution at the time mentioned, except by the interference of the governor. An intense feeling has been aroused as to the verdict, and the most stren uous efforts will be made to prevent tile hang--ing of the woman. Governor Colquitt is ex ceedingly firm, and is opposed on principle to interfering with the action of the judiciary except in the most extraordinary cases. He has never yet saved anyone from the irallows. The case of Bob Southern, the b uaband, has been continued until tho next term of the court. The lawyers eay it will be hard to convict him, but it ia generally acknowl edged that nothing but executive clemency can save Mrs. Southern from the gallows. I heard a distinguished man say to-day that if no other alternative offered he vrould organ ize a lobby of men and women, rxnd go before the November seaiou of the legislature with the case. It is safe to say thp.t an unprece dented excitement will be cheated over the case before it is finally disp osed of. One of the prosecuting counsel told me that the feel ings of the court fairly hati undergone great change since the trial, anri that they would now be willing to see 3rg. Southern's life saved. "A more aifeetinf; trial," he said, "the walls of no courthouse on this earth ever witnessed." For the Sunday Appeal. OF THE BBOOIL JOHN T. RUTLEDGE. Ltsuen to the little brook, through all the whole day long, As It ripples on its way with Its silvery song, Never stopping here or there, with Its merry laugh. Bright the world would be, Indeed, were It as happy half. O'ethung by tree and shrub, flowers on every side, Sovig-blrds singing to the chant of Its silvery tide, Perfumed blossoms kiss Its bosom, falling from the trees. Zephyrs waft from bank to bank on the summer breeze. What a lesson does the little brooklet teach us all. Gilding on through summer sun, and chilling win ter's thrall. Making every hour count that through the tear re main. For chances thai have come and gone "may ne'er return again. Thus we should clasp the chances when they before u lie, For sure tne day that brought thenx with the fading sun will die. Thus do not let the golden hours so idly pass away. For sure to-morrow never comes, but all lies In to day. Be kind to every fellow-man that you may meet In life. Help a tolling brother up the "rugged hill ot strife,-" For you yourself some day may need the kindness of a friend. And then you'll feel the worth of one on whom you can depend. Ah, take the lesson of the brook and keep It In thy heart, Nor let Its humble set ltlment again from It depart; Be ever up and doing in the hours that yet remain. For the moments th t are passing now will ne'er re turn again. Then scatter seeds r f kindness as the brooklet does ltd song; Help those you meet In kindness to the Joys that round you thr oug; For golden youth If j passing and the harvest-time Is near, - So gather in life's thistles with the good you might do here. Tor life must hav e Its thistles 'mid Its perfumes and lis imwera- - Between the (toy s of sunshine come cold and dreary showers. Then listen to the little brook, and let the spell be cast, And work va It to-day was yours, and It to be your last. The Antirew Johnson Monument. The monument is twenty-six feet in hight. Its base of erranite, with a plinth die, is nine feet six inchos square at the ground. Granite piers re6t on each of the graves that of Mrs. Johnaon and the ex-President lying side by side over which is sprung a granite arci1. and upon this the monument rests, leaving an open space under the arch, in which the graves are vu ible. 1 he arch and base are four feet six inches high to the bottom of the marble plinth. The plinth is four feet six inches square and three feet six inches high, and at either side stand pilasters supporting urns, each three feet three inches high. The die is three feet six inches square at the base and three feet two inches high, and upon the front is carved a scroll representing the con stitution of the United States, and an open book, with a hand resting upon it, represent ing the taking of the oath of office. The shaft is thirteen feet high and two feet ten inches equare at the base, tapering to the apex, over which hangs an American flag in graceful folds, and surmounting the whole is an American eagle with outstretched -wings. The inscription is simple, containing, with the addition of the name and age anil death of Mrs. Johnson, the following: ' Andrew Johnson, seventeenth President of the United States of America. Born December 2 1808. Died July 31, 1875. His faith ia the people never wavered.' M. Jonrdan has constructed a new battery, the electrodes of which are sine and graph ite, and the liquid is an aqueous soli ttion of the mixture called glass-gall, , . Kor the Sunday AppeaLl l'.CLK A HE NlUSt TUB PLKDUK. 1XKK MANTLE. Come here. ?lndy, and take a oral, ef you alnt got much tu do; I want tu git your advice 'bout what concerns both tne and you. Well, I'll start at de beglnnln', so you can better un derstand De question for your 'slderatlon an' de groun' on what I Stan'. Well, we cloned de 'clely soon last night, for we hadn't much tu do. An' dj night wm so mighty warm an' de 'tendance was ao few. So, comln' on home, I stopped In de temp'rance meetln'. De people dar was singln and de speaker was ln treatln' Everybody to come up and sign and fureber be free From dat monster strong drink dat held 'em down In slavery. He spoke 'bout de good of keepln' sober, and de bad of drlnkln'. And de 'zample we old folks should set. Now, dat sot me tu thlnkln'. Says I. it'll do no good formetu fign, an old man like me. Fur It has been nigh forty years since I went on a spree. And then, ef I did drink, and tu stop after waltln' so late. Would be like tryln' tu make an old crooked tree grow straight. But, says I, I've got grown up sons dat I should set de 'zaiaple tu. And ef I was tu sign da pledge, may be they would, too. Well, purty soon a man came around and wanted me tu sign. But I told him I dlun't know a letter from an old grapevine; Then lie said he would put my mark, and dat would be de same As ef 1 bad writ, wld my own hand, my full name. But, I told htm I had to see you, aad If jou said 'twas right Dat I would come the first thing and sign tu-mor-row nieht, And I'm (twine tu do It ef you only advise me tu. And I will stick tu It, ef de good Lord will help me through. What do you say, Slndy? Da case now Is In your hands; lam ready and willin' tu do whatever you co m- mands; Tes.I'm ready for the verdlc' whether It be yes or no. And I will obey you, as I have for forty years or mo'. What! gwlne tu kiss me, SlncTy; Is dat de answer you gwlne to give? I knowed you would approve ot It as sure as I do live; But I never lt have took any very Important step Unless I first got your advice and then your aid and help. Now, Slndy, as I've got your sanction, I'll sign this very night. And I am gwlne tu aid de cause wld all my main and might; Then may be we can get Tom and Bill and little Abe tu sign. And then I'll feel like a load has been lifted off my mind. Although they never drink, they may be tempted tu any day; Then this pledge, you see, will tend tu drive de tempter away. I'd rather lay 'era 'neath the ground, wld no stone to mark de place. Than tu have 'em grow up drunkards, and me and you disgrace. So come here, Slndy, let us kneel down here side by side. And offer up a pra'r tu de Lord tu bless dls cause, and guide Us tu dat blessed land of happiness and love, and whar We all will be free from care and find no drunken ness thar. RlJVlA. The Trial and Acqnittal of thellrl who jshot General Trepoff. Correspondence London TImes.J St. Petersburg, April 16. All the world here is at present talking about the trial of Vera Zassulitcb, the young person who, about two months ago made an attempt on the life of Genei-al Trepoff, the prefect of the city. The trial was held on Friday, and since that time the political complications and the east ern queirtion have twen quite thrown into the background. The incident which gave rise to "the affair Zissulitch" happened on the twenty-fifth of July of last year. At that j time a considerable number of young people of both sexes, acensed of revolutionary pro aganda, were confined in one of the St. Pe- tereburg prisons. Some of them were already condenmfsd, and others were await ing their trial. On the morning of July 25th General Treroff visited the prison and found some ot the prisoners walking about and talking -with each other in the inner court. This seemed to him an infraction of the prison rules, and he asked explanations. One of tUe prisoners, Bogoluboff. repled that he was already condemned, and that he was not infringing any rule in talking to one who was not implicated in the same affair as himself. The answer appeared to the general impertinent, and accordingly Bogolaboff was ordered to the cell for disciplinary punish ment. On. his way thither he again met the prefect, avid this time did not take off his cap. Irritated by this want of respect, the general raised his hand, appapentlv with tlie inten tion of striking. Whether he real tj struck or no', is uncertain, but Bogoluboff's cap fell to tbf.-jfround, and suddenly loud expressions of inciigration issued from the open windows of tha diirrounding cells. General Trepoff resolved to make an example ot BofeWiioorr, r.nd accordingly or dered him to be flogged witn Dircn twigs, me oraer was cxeouteu in one of the corridors, and gave rise to a tew dipiurbarfce similar in kind to the preceding one. From the prison the excitement and in dignation soon spread to the friends of tiie prisoners, and from them to the public gen erally. Among the many who were indig nant at the so-called Bashi-Bazoukism ot the president was Vera Zassulitcb, daughter of an officer of the line. Though otly about twenty-six years of age, she had already con siderable experience of police discipline in its milder forms. At the age of seventeen she? had been arrested on suspicion of being im plicated in revolutionary designs, and, after two years imprisonment, had been liberat ed without Laving been brought to trial. A few days Sifter her liberation she was again arrested, -and was dispatched to Krestsi. She was told she must live there under police su pervision until further orders. This was in April, 1371. In June she was allowed to live in Tyer -?ith a brother-in-law, who was kept there na der police supervision. Next year the brotk ier-in-law was suspected of having given pi ohibited books to the Seminarists, and wa i accordingly transferred to a small town farther eastward. Vera was brought to St. Pe tens burg to be questioned about the ErohibiU d books, and was then dispatched to er brotl ler-in-law's new domicile. Toward the end. of 1873 she was transferred to Khar koff, ai id remained there till September, 1875, when she was at last liberated. How she formed the resolution of shooting General Trepoff" may be best described in her own words i "Having arrived in St. Petersburg, I heard about the incident in the prison from various: people. About Bogoluboff I heard that L.o had been flogged till . tae stopped shrieking. As I had myself experienced long solitary confinement I could imagine what a frightful impression the whole affair must have produced on all the po litical prisoners, not to speak of those who had been subjected to maltreatment. I know by experience the morbidly excited, nervous condition produced by solitary im prisonment and the majority of prisoners in question had been already confined more than three years. Some of them had gone mad, and others bad committed suicide. What cruelty it wad to make them hear all that, simply becavise one of them had not taken off his cap when he met an official the second time. Such, a thing ought not to pass un noticed. I waited to see whether some one would take tha matter in hand, but all were silent, and nothing prevented Trepoff or any other influential official from repeating such arbitrary acts. I determined, at the price of my own ruin, to prove that a human being may not be insulte d in that way with impu nity. It is a terrible thing to raise one's hand against a fellow-crrature, but I could find no other means. It was all the same to me whether I killed or wounded the pre fect; and when 1 fired at him I did not aim at any particular place." The case was tried by a jury in the ordinary way, and full pub licity was secured by sending tickets of ad mission to the leading representatives of the press. On the bench behind the judges sat some of the highest dignitaries of the realm, among others the1 imperial chancel lor, Prince Gortschakoff. At eleven o'clock the three judges young men in dark blue uniforms adorned with gold lace took their places on the bench, with the public prose cutor on the right hand and the clerk of the court on the left, in uniforms not easily dis tinguished from those of the judges. The jury was duly impaneled and th e witnesses examined. The prosecutor showf d good and sufficient reasons why the prisone r should be condemned, while the counsel for the defense showed good and sufficient reason why she should be acquitted. Then the judge summed up, and the jury retired to consider their ver dict. The accused admitted th at she had dangerously wounded General Trepoff, and was quite indifferent as to whether she wounded or killed him; the jury returned a veirdict of "Not guilty," and the public, on hea.ing this decision, expressed their ap provU in wild, vociferous applause. The case ?as in many respects a peculiar one. In the first place there was a strong feeling of indignation at the way in which the prison ers had been treated, and especially at the way in wbieh General Trepoff had acted to ward Bcgoluboff. In no country in the world, perhaps, is there such a strong feeling agamsfe corporeal pneish nient of all kinds as in liussia. I a the country where, thirty years ago, the knout and the rod played a very prominent part in the judicial and administrative institutions, a schoolboy would now consider himself dis graced for life if he were subjected to a little patriarchal castigation with the birch. There are instances on record of boys having com mitted suicide because their human dignity had received an indelible stain in this way. When the counsel for the defense described "the groans ot humiliated, insulted hnman dignity," his words colled forth from the au dience a burst of. applause. In the second place, the appearance and . bearing' of the . - . .; -. -' ; . ' . prisoner, and some of the biographical de details which transpired, won for her the sympathy of the audience. Modest and un pretentious iu manner and attire, and with out any straining after theatrical effect, she replied frankly and respectfully to all the questions which were put to her. Wilhout ever having been condemned by a court of law, she had spent the best years of her life in prison or under police supervision, and had resolved to sacrifice the remainder of it to an idea, for she had never seen the man she determined to avenge. In vain the public prosecutor pointed out to the jury that these considera tions should have little or no weight with them; that they were not called upon to judge General Trepoff or the prison authori ties; that the prisoner had been herself guilty of the arbitrary, illegal conduct which she condemned in others. Exhortations of this kind had very little influence on the jury or the public. For both the question at issue was whether glaring administrative abuses should be excused or condemned, and the verdict was universally regarded as a public reprimand to a high-placed official who had arbitrarily overstepped the limits of his au thority. a letter from vera. Et Petersburg HessagerduNord. Sir Some journa a have announced that 1 have concealeid myself f rom the search of the police. This statement must cause anxiety to my relations and friends, and I wish to ex plain to you my motives. I therefore request you to publish this letter. When, after quit ting the court, the gendarmes stopped the ve hicle I had entered and endeavored to trans fer me to another carriage, I understood, and the people who surrounded me also understood, that it was intended that I should be arrested, despite the acquittal pro nounced by the tribunal. The public, whether it had the intention of preventing my arrest, or whether it acted upon instinct, gathered around my carriage on all sides, while the gendarmes drove back the crowd and dragged away the people, who were clinging to the coach doore. Subsequently I heard pistol shots, and the tumult became terrible, my carriage eventually succeeding in getting away. In the presence of the gen darmes the name of the friend to whom I wished to go was called out. Accordingly, at two o'clock in the morning a police officer, accompanied by the house porter and three unknown individuals, visited this lady. They searched every corner of her apartments, and attentively scrutinized every woman they found there. All this caused me to believe the reports that I had heard, affirming that an order had been issued to punish me by an order of the executive. I was prepared to suffer the judgment of the court without a murmur, but I could not resolve upon endur ing the endless persecutions of the adminis tration. I am therefore obliged to hide my self until the day when there will be no fur ther risk of my being again arrested. VERA ZASSULITCH. St. Petersburg, April 3 (15), 1878. Victory! Victory!! Jackson (Tenn.) Tribune and Sun: The Democratic primaries in Madison were a success. The total vote polled on Saturday was about twenty-three hundred. It was an extraordinary uprising of the Democracy. It proclaims the doctrine of organization. It was the death-knell of disorganization. It astounded and demoralized the independents. There was no fraud, no undue influences, no pulling and hauling, but a quiet, determined, irresistible uprising of the Democratic masses. The election was exceedingly quiet. It was conducted just like a regular election. In some towns of the county the saloons were closed. There was such quietness in the very air that it seemed like Sunday. But in every face there was determination, an expression of earnestness, and an evident consciousness of responsibility. Tne people meant busi ness. They had made up their minds to crush unholy alliances, to pulverize the sor did, selfish, sneaking spirit of disorganiza tion, and to thwart the cunning schemes of Radical leaders to destroy the Daniocratic party through the insidious poison of primary disorganization. They felt that it was time to put the Democratic foot down firm ly, and they did it. It shook and scattered things amazingly, but through the dust created by the broken, frightened and flying squadrons of the enemy, the advancing hosts of the Democracy are seen marching with music and banners to certain and glorious victory. The ticket nominated is a strong one. A stronger one could hardly have been made. It flies at our masthead and challenges criti cism. It is the ticket ef the people. It is the ticket of organization. It means the tri umph of intelligence over massed ignorance, manipulated by reckless office-seekers and Radicals. We nail it to the masthead, un furl the good old Democratic banner and call upon all true Democrats; all who desire the future success of the party; all who would trample into the earth the entire brood, of Radicals; all who would crush that spirit of discord which aims at individual success on the ruins of the Democratic party; all who hope to see the rule of white men, the rule of intelligence, the rule of tax-payers perma neritly established in Madison county, we call upon all such to rally to the "old flag" that saved us from Browulow and Grant Radical ism, and support as one man the Democratic, people' ticket, which flies from our mast head to-day For the Sunday Appeal. Jasper's Theolosle Herniation of Sci ence. "What am dis foolishness I hear? De sun don't go round about dis yer yerth! de yeith goes round de sun! It mos' knock de breff out of me to hear such wickedness. Am de white fokes mad wid dere scienty dat dey 'spute de holy scripter in dis debbil's fash ion? Yes, dey gone clear away from de bi ble teaching into dere hell-gabble of scienty ! And what am dis scienty dat's leading de wi'iite fokes into dis debbil's dance ot sin 'gainst light and knowledge ? I will 'spress myself about it, and 'splain it to you dat you may run away from de ole sarpint dat's sot a trap to catch the white trash, and ebery nig ger, too, wat's wiled into bitin' at it. Brud ders, de ebil day is come, and de debbil's raring and taring on de yerth ! How I know it? 'Case of de foolishness of de teaching of dis scienty. Look at it! Dem dat's cotched already say de sun stand still! What dat you say, nigger? Joshua told de sun to stand still? 'Course he did; de bible say so; but didn't he tell it to go on again when de battle was done? and it did go on, and has never stopped going on. But what for ar' de white fokes turnin' 'gainst scripter when de scripter contain all de troof in de world, and nuffin' but de troof? What for? To 'scape from de effect of dere sin when dey held you, bruddero and sis ters, in de bondage of work. I hear some of you say dat you lived better den dan now. Dat don't mogrify de case; you was dere slaves. What dat you say? More slaves now dan den? Well, dat's your fault you bad master. But be done wid your fooling; you fool enough, but not bo big fool as scienty white fokes ar. Dey want to 'bolish hell to 'acape from de fire dat's to burn de debbil and bis angels forebber and ebber. How dey going to 'bolish it? You foil nigger, dat's temp ing me; why you ask sush question ? Ar you license minister to know how de deobil work? No! Well, I is. Den shut your monf and I will direct you what to know. De white fokes done gone and 'stablish to demselves dat de bible's wrong 'bout de sun, bout de world creation, and about some odder things. Den dey logic dis way, and it's real old sarpint's logic, too, it is if scripter wrong in one place 'taint all true; if 'taint all true who know where 'tis true; scienty prove de earth go round de sun, dat true; scienty say don't see place in de univarse for hell, so de white fokes say hell nowhere. Bat duz enny of you niggers bleve dat dis yerth goes whooping 'round de sun instead of de sun going 'round de yerth eb ery day, as ebery body sees? Duz de igno rantea one among you, as he sees de facts wid his own eyes, blind hisself wid de wild notion dat dis steady, firm yerth goes galoot ing 'round de light da shines over de yerth by day, and get tother side of the yertb at night, switching along seven hundred thou sand miles or no ebery twenty-four hours? You know better! You know you'd go scootin through the air to kingdom come in no time! Well, aint it plain to your 'prehension that scienty's a lie, dat scripter is troof? Hi, den! we've got de holy scripter logic 'gainst ole sarpint scienty logic, fo' de scripter say sun go round, dat true; dat de world all bilt of nothing in six days, dat true, case de book say to; an' so of ali it say, it prove itself. Well, don't it say der is a hell of fire an' brimstone, an' de debble's chained in it, an' by the same proof ain't dat true too? But you don't see how if de debbil is chained dere he's loose here. Dat's de pint l'se coming to. Don't de book say de old dragon shall be loosed again ? Ah, ha, dat's 60, an' de fool scienties have let him loose, thinking to 'scape hell theirselves, and now right here amongst dem is hell's master an' dere master, come right now a cotchin' dem. Thank de Lord for his mercies, de debbil has cotched 'em, and dey '11 find dat hell is red hot an' a blazin for dem, as de blessid scrip ter tells of. An now, brudders an' sisters, l'se told yon what to know, pray hard, shout for glory, sing praises to the troof of scripter l'se 'splained to you, or dat ole debbil will cotch you too, an' put you in de fiery furnace ob God's wrath dat awaits all dem dat don't bleeye ebery word in de book; for he that bleeveth shall be saved, and them that don't are damned already. In conclusion, my hearers, de spirit of troof inspires de troofful proclamation dat scienty s foolishness of wis dom is dis day confounded by de wisdom of foolishness dat's in me; dat its 'bolishment of fire and brimstone hell won't Etand, but dat hell stands firm as de rock of ages, burn ing, aad smoking and blazing ten thousand times - darker than piica pine - tmose, k thousand times hotter than turpentine bla?" Thank de Lord for his goodness. Let usSf pray and rejoice. For the Sunday Appeal. THR JA9PKKIA.V THEOLOUV, PETROWSEI. liev. John Jaser, a colored preacher, of Richmond, Virginia, is creating quite a sensation there aud in other eastern cities, battling again bt science because it conflicts in certain material matters with biblical state ments. The task looks rather Herculean, but he having faith of the kind that beUeves it can move mountains, attacks with Uiixotic vigor. He is in downright earnest. Having a fctrong musical voice, and as magnetic in his oratory as Beecher. he attracts large crowds of gaping hearers, black and white. and lias made converts, even among the edu cated, by his mesmeric manner of quoting and applying scripter. Will wonders nevar cease? Are souls to have no peace ? No! not In science or theology. Cannot truth ever here be demonstrated? Man never know how he's to liod related. Either by bible or by oiogy? It seems not. regarding late appearances Of men being muddled, 'gainst the clearances Of errors that In time of yore did blind them. And which, 'twas fancied, never more could bind them. But, lo! there conieth now the Itev'rend Jasper! A hot, decided, theologlc rasper. And self-esteem'd Judicially canonical. Yet he's but talking. And blindly walking, Ia a way theoluglc-astronomlcal. That o'er and o"er In lime of yore. The church tied to as past all doubting; Deeming It InQdellc flouting, A scientific He or long bow. When profound and learned Galllleo Said be could, by ample proof, show That eartn around the sun was traveling; Thus showing means for the unravelling A tangle science was Involved In, But which, by him, 'twas resolved In. " The church held theft, as Jasper now does. Truth could not be truth did It oppose Whate'er church deemed was bible teaching Or taught In Its dogmatic preaching; Huriffig Its ante-huem maranatha. Its brritum fiUrnen force of anathema. Damning, as basest and most unholy lying. Any adverse truth that science was espying. Bur, r.ow! why wonder we or sneer at Parson Jasper, When evolution Is, by far, a greater raspei ? It has rasp'd from Christ as unsupemal Dogmas not full fraught with truth eternal; Doctrines, sophistical and unknowing, n surmise based and naught but surmise showing. Has shown that In this short and nether world of time The church's teaching, And all christian preaching. Should be, alone, the moral. Infinite, sublime! Religion ought not. and truly cannot be deOned to Mean that its teachers may as sometimes they're Inclined to Do see'larly wrong because they have a mind to; But, soaring far aoove the eaitbly and material. Reach beav nward, higher than the high aerial. And humbly lead men to the Infinite Imperial. As the church did bo, perhaps may Jasper And the crowd lhat silly g-tpe and gasp for Knowledge where hut Ign'rance aboundeth. Light where dark blackness all Mirroundeth Evolve Into that higher moral life Which lives In faith and cures not for the strife Of dlspu ing matters not In lellglon's scope And not pertinent. If taught, by Jasper or by Pope. STKEKT CLKAMXti. Some IotcreHtlns Flanres from Kng lih and American Cities. At the monthly meeting of the New "York municipal reform association, a report on street cleaning in that city, prepared by a committee consisting of Messrs. Thatch well, Adams and Jackson S. Schultz was read. It opens with a description of a tour of the streets in different parts of the city and of the condition in which they were found. It sets forth that the police authorities confess that the work of street cleaning is done without any regular system, and continues: The whole city should be thoroughly cleaned and purified at least once in each week. Is sucn a demand unreasonable? In London, with 1410 miles of pavement, every principal street is swept once in twenty four hours, secondary streets three times a week, all others at least twice. In Liverpool, with 255 miles of pavement, like regulations are enforced. In Manchester, with 500 miles of pavement, the principal Btreets, roads and thorough fares, together with the markets, are cleansed every day, secondary streets thrice a week, all others twice. In Boston, with 70 miles of pavement and 200 miles of macadam, the principal streets are swept every morning before eighto'clock. all others twice a week, the macadam once a week, and all gutters flushed and cleansed weekly. In Philadelphia, with 600 miles of pave ment, the principal thoroughfares are cleansed six times a week, secondary streets three times a week, ana tne wnoie city is tnorougn ly cleansed once a week. In New York, with 250 miles of pavement, the authorities claim to sweep her principal streets three times a week, and her other streets once a week. If the claim were well founded she takes rank below every other important city above mentioned. How is it, then, when every cituen knows that theclaim is baseless and without shadow of right? Is the default owing to inadequate means? Let us continue our comparison. London ia divided into thirty-nine parishes, each of which conducts its own scavenging and street-cleaning. It would be impossible to give returns from them all. Taking the parish of St. George, Hanover square, one of the most central and important, as an exam ple, we find that it comprises forty-two miles of streets. The average cost of cleaning and carting away the refuse a ride from three to five miles being necessary for the years 1S70 and 1875, was '9089 per annum, or $45,500 gold. Taking the same average of the whole city, which is certainly fair, as some of the parishes are smaller and the carting distance less, the annual cost would be $1,744,500, or, in round numbers, $1258 per mile. Liverpool, with her 255 miles of pavement, paid for street-cleaning . in 1876, including the emptying and cleansing of a'l the privies of the city, numbering 31,720 a work the expense of which is, in New York, distinct from and additional to the cost of street cleaninu the sum of 65,864 0s. 6d., or $329,320 in gold, equivalent to $1291 per mile. Manchester, with 500 miles of pavement, paid in 1876 for street-cleaning 28,412, or $142,060, or $285 per mile. Boston, in 1876, with 270 miles of streets, paid for street-cleaning, including the re moval of ashes and garbage, $263,000, cur rency, or $974 per mile. This is net, after deducting $46,000 received from sales of garbage. Philadelphia, with 600 miles of streets, spent in the first ten months of 1877 for street-cleaning, including removal of ashes and garbage, $275,000, a total for the year, at the same ratio, of $330,000, or $550 per mile. New York, with 250 miles of pavement, spent in 1877 for street-cleaning, exclusive of removing dead animals or cleansing privies, $725,000, or $2900 per mile, and asks for the year 1878 for $1,077,340, or $4310 per mile. These figures need no commentary. Tramps and their Ways. Harper's Weekly : Every summer the tramp question comes up with renewed inter est. The moment warm weather sets in, and the road becomes fit for travel, the country swarms with idle, desperate men, who wan der from village to village, infest the fields, beg, steal, and even commit murder to get food and money and the scanty clothes they require. They will do anything but honest work. They are always ready to join in a strike or riot, to pluuder a lonely farm-house, set fires to barns or hay stacks in short, they have declared their independence of law and order, and carry violence and terror wherever they go. How to deal with these wretches and desperadoes has become a very serious question. Tueir number increases every year. They are banded into societ es, with secret signs and pass-words, and their nefa rious organization grows stronger year by ytar. To prutcit itself society must make war upon these outlaws. Every tramp should b3 arrested and sentenced to some form of hard labor, and thus made to earn the bread by which he lives. A Uellglaus Organ's Views of Com nnnlam. St. Louis Central Baptist: There are, it seems, in certain of our great cities, if not in all of them, serious apprehensions that the communistic element of the population is or ganizing for renewed-demonstrations against capital and capitalists. The occasions for such serious apprehensions seem to be more real than imaginary. That there is a state of restlessness, dissatisfaction, and a spirit of reckless revolution with certain elements of the laboring classes, cannot be gainsaid. It may prove to be the extreme of folly for the law and order portions of society to close rheir eyes against the manifestations that again threaten the peace of society and the prosperity of business, and it will be equally unwise for governments, national or muni cipal, to depend solely on physical force to cure this evil that has grown up m the coun try. Demonstrations of violence may be quelled by counter violence, but this sup pression can only be temporary, while the spirit of lawlessness is fed by a mortifying realization of defeated plans. The experi ences of last year, with the threatening indi cations of the present, are only too strong proof's that a permanent social tranquillity and regularity of outness cannet be eilected by impulsive and temporary disphyi ot armed forces. And it is high time that the attention of those to whom society muit look for its protection was called to the very root of the evil and to the means for its eradication. In in quiring for the source of the communistic spirit in this country we must scrutinize those institutions which are supposed to mould aad j direct social morality. These are the insti tutions of government and religion.- May it j not be found possible to find ia both of these oarcea of pooular sentiment some-efils l bat need to be corrected? May it not U safely asserted that the government of thr , great - - ' - "' - ir-u nation has been so unwisely managed in its executive and legislative departments as to give ut least plausible ground of complaint by that portion of the population which is de-pi'ndr-nt for bread upon daily watres? Leg islation bus been too entirely in the interest of monopolies and heart f.-xs corporations; legislators have devoted more lime and at tention to partisan political measures than to efforts to develop the great iesour-.es of the land in the interests ot the whole people; the strengthening of party stakes and lengthen ing ot party cord" are the chief ends for which the people's money goes to pay the ex penses of legislation; legislator, too, are more concerned about keeping themselves in power than in seeking and striving for the general interests ot their constituents. feltniJllXti THK SKtEl. Iarlu rren Ontdne by a Connecti cut Uralua-Haw he Proposes tn "Astsnlah the Station and all Creation.' Philadelphia Rerord: The reopening of the permanent exhibition on the tenth in stant will be signalized by the public exhibi tion of a flying-machine. In America, dur ing the past twn years, over two hundred flying-machines have been invented, and all have failed. In London a joint stock com pany has just given np the ghost, after hav ing expended some twenty-five thousand dol lars in experimenting with a "patent flyer," which, the inventor still insists, lacks but one essential to become the acme of perfection. Considerable attention has also been given to the subject in Fiance.and at various periods the government has been induced to grant heavy appropriations to self-styled inventors for the purpose of constructing machines which have r i i . . i i3.i-i.-n turneu out, utterly woruiiess. jnucuci a ma chine differs in almost every detail from all previous inventions. Roughly described, it consists of a black silk cylinder some twelve feet in diameter and twenty-lour in length. The cylinder will hold nearly three thousand feet of gas. Suspended from this by means of cords and rods is a car composed of slender brass rods, which extend the whole length of the cylin der, tapering to a point at either end. The platform upon which the operator sits is at tached to the center of the car. Two cranks, attached to a wheel, front the seat. The wheel connects with an upnght shaft, and to this at the lower end is attached a fan, close ly resembling the screw of a propeller. The tan, which ib constructed of thin brass plates, is level with the bottom of the platform. Another brass fan is affixed to the front end of the car, and this is so constructed that it can be turned in any direction by the occu pant simply moving his feet, while at the same time he can comfortably work the cen ter fan with his hands. When the operator prepares for his trip the silk cylinder is filled with hydrogen gas. This will sustain, he says, all but a fraction of the weight to be carried, and the rest, Ritchel claims, will be lifted by the central fan, which presses upon the air with a movement similar to that of a propeller wheel in the water. A man of or dinary strength can, he says, revolve the handles at the rate of about one hundred a minute, which will give the fan about three thousand five hundred revolutions. Mr Ritchel, the inventor, chatted pleasantly with the Record yesterday, saying : "All 1 contend is that it is possible for a human being to move in the air like a bird, and that my machine will accomplish this. I don't pretend that it will rival tha balloon, going through the storm or above the clouds, but I do assert that it will keep you moving in the air until you want to come down, and that is more than has ever been accomplished yet. We have had several satisfactory exper iments - beforeUexperts, and I have myself sailed about in the air for four hours at a time without descending to terra firma." Ritch el's machine has already been patented in America, Canada, England and i ranee. Two are in course of construction for exhibition at Niagara Falls, where they will be operated from the water's edge to high np in the air. Another is shortly to be sent to Paris for ex hibition at the exposition. The fame of his invention has already reached the continent, and only a few days since Mr. Ritchel was surprised, at his Connecticut residence, by three Italian engineers, who had been dele gated by the Italian government to report upon the merits of the contrivance, in view, it is thought, of adapting it to military pur poses. For the Sunday AppeaLl Tree Trade The Liberty of TLaber In Its Grandest Proportions. SECOND PAPER. In the first paper endeavored to Bhow that the tendency of governments was to "over-legislation;" that in undertaking a multitude of duties outside of their natural functions, governments failed in what they attempted; that excessive legislation proved a hindrance to a proper distribution of jus tice and protection to the individual mem bers of the community. When a body of law-makers undertake to amend a natural law, there is often not only a miscarriage, but direct injury. For example: The British parliament, in 1828, passed a law to regulate the corn trade by the "siiding-scale." The main object was to impose such a duty on grains, when cheap, that importation was virtually prohibited, and, when famine prices prevailed, to reduce the duties to nothing. Various acts some as far back as 1360 for the benefit of the grain trade had been in force, but this one was considered perfect. What resulted? Gamblers and brokers, tak ing advantage of the fluctuating prices, were able to control breadstuff's, and made im mense fortunes by speculation. After twen ty years trial the corn law was abolished. With it disappeared that hitherto governing principle of English policy heavy duties on imports. This was in 1846. The British were five hundred years in learning the folly of obstructing the natural flow of grains into their kingdom. Surrounded by water, with means of easy approach and egress, Great Britain seemed intended by nature to be made the home of millions where food and the nectaries of life could readily be brought to their doors. To negative this good fortune of nature, parliament put a tar iff upon commodities which increased their price, lost as coral reefs would had they sur rounded the island, and caused delay and the trouble of transports to deliver the cargo upon land. By the tedious method of experiences are the American people learning the absurdity of their tariff laws. Instead of profiting by the" mistakes of other nations, nothing will suffice but that we must give the plan a personal trial. The original idea. of these laws ot imposts was that they would act in such a way as to repel the manufac tured commodities of other nations until our infant manufactories could begin competi tion. A secondary intantion was to make people patronize home productions. The in tention of the advocators of these laws was no doubt good, but their principles were wrong. In reality there is no " protection." To protect the hat-maker congress imposes a duty of more than one-third the price of the hats upon all that are imported. This shows two things : first, that at the time the duty was laid, American hats cost more to be made than foreign ones ; secondly, that the duty either increased the cost of the home industry, or equalized the value of the two. The farmer, to buy a hat has to send, say, a cord of wood to market to pay for it. It he could get the hat at foreign prices, or what he paid minus the impost, he would have left one-third of a cord of wood to purchase a shirt, or pair of brogana. Congress, in thus encouraging the hatter, discourages the shirt or shoemaker. But at last protection be comes only temporary, serving to raise the values of commodities to an abnormal degree. In the above case, the farmer not having his wood protected soon finds that it is a losing business, and he raises the price of his pro ducts to countervail the duty on hats. The railroad strikes of 1877, so disastrous to the Pennsylvania Central and Baltimore and Ohio railroads, were in a measure caused by the tariff laws. The heavy duty upon steel rails and other articles of railway consumption greatly increasing the cost of maintenance and operation c impelled a reduct'oa in the wages ot the workman. Food and the necessaries being higher through a want of free ports and universal competition, the laborers could not live upon reduced wages. With starva tion! and misery staring them in the face, they, in their desperation, burnt the depots and tote up the tracks. In their ignorance they now parade the streets of Pittsburg, fif teen thousand strong (being incited thereto by their employers, the rich iron merchants) and clamor for increased duties on iron and steel. It may be said that our iron works can now make rails as cheaply as the foreign mills; the impost is to compel the use of home productions. In disproof of this 1 cite the fact from Wells's creed of free trade, that the Michigan Central railroad relaid its track in 1872, at Detroit, with steel rails costing ninety-seven dollars in gold per ton, while at a distance of half a mile (across the Detroit river) the Canada Southern railroad laid the same kind of rail at a cost of seventy dollars. It the duties were to protect infant manufac tories when this country separated itself from England, why have not these duties been re pealed ? We are now over a hundred Years old, and our mpnu factories have in some cases competed with the English. We are strong. Kepeal the duties since no longer w? are m faiil. The truth is that protection is not what is sought, but the privilege of monopoly. AVEBT MERIWETHER. Mother, Mothers, Mothers. Don't fail to procure Mra.WinRlow'a arWVi. ing syrup for all diseases of teething in chil dren. It relieves the child from pain, cures wind colic, regulates the bowels, and, by giv ing relief and health to the child, gives rest to the mother. The celebrated triuXe tDrimo and tckltm ehnitle Brewster spring buggies, justreeeivet'. at woodrun & i.'t. . vh uia see tneip. AH Kit I CAN WOMEN. Tbr Onlnlen that Mrs. C. 31. Clark, Bet- " m.Bwn as -tnaiK ivei," Kn trrtatna on the tu.Jeet-A By. opals or n Lerlare Impe rially Intereatlnc to ihe fair sex. Chicago Times: The hcture-room of the First Baptist church was filled last evening to listen to a very intf resting, and, moreover, a vety sensible lecture on the woman ques tion, under the disguised title of "The Vo mrn of Aniarica Compared with the Women of Europ-," delivered b Mi. C. M. Clark, b'tter known to readers us "Chalk Level.' The lwturer ignored any connection with women's lights wnrcen, aud took ths broader of ,f question as to what women should be, liu the view that women should be the natuial antagonists of men. Of wom en, as a whole, in England, she said (that there were there over a million of English women that could not possibly marry, be cause the women of the country outnum bered the male population by that number. But these million of women, because they could not marry, had not become useless drones on society. Some had tound for themselves noble lives and noble ways of life. They had made themselves acquainted with science in a way that we could not un derstand in this country. Engtith girls did not talk fashion all their livei. If they spoke of love, it was supposed to be an accomplish ed thing, and the congra'i-.i'iopa on the coming union immediately I i -i 1. fhey talked mther of the u'iiis t.: v iju. jlife, and how best those duties could be performed. Of the French women, the lecturer said that all they endeavored to do was to be sweet; their only idea in life to get married. In this country the question of history could not be considered in speaking of women, this country was only a hundred ya;s old. The character of American women was Jeep, but they bad taken no part in politics, in all the hundred years of American history, there had not been one woman who had been a leader in political movements, as they had been in France, in the upper ranks, or as Miss Burdett-Coutts had been in England. In a former lecture in Phila delphia she commenced by saying that the American woman was a failure. But the indignant buzz that followed this declaration had prevented her from adding, "s an in fluencer in politics." She did not believe, as some believe, that the acquirement by women of political equality with men would be a panacea for all the evils of women. If women, however, went into politics, there would be a moral status given to politics. As it was, American women were purposeless and objectless. It was only a fight with them for a little social position. It was with the fathers and mothers only a question as to bow their daughters should marry. Girls should be given some definite pursuit in life some self-sustaining industry. How were they left now when a father's and mother's support was gone perhaps their fortunes gone too, as was so often the case during the present hard times. If reverses came, such women were left helpless. She had heard personally how such a woman had been treated by society. Society had said of her that she was a gcod woman, "but she writes down town all day, you know," society said. "She is a working woman." Such a state of feeling thculi net exist in a republic, where a taon r and a rail splitter had finally been seab'd in the Presidential chair. To day we bad no woman in any great position in America. No such women as George Eliot in England and George Sand in France, oc cupying severally the first rank in their dif ferent nations, could be found in America; no such women as Lady Baker and Lady Franklin. All that a prominent foreigner had said, when asked his opinion of American women, was that they were distinguished for their beauty, their grace and their magnifi cent toilets. SCIENTIFIC GOSSIP. Colonel Mason, an officer in the service of the Khedive of Egypt, has sailed around Lake Albert N'yanza in a steam launch, and he corroborates the statement of previous ex plorers that the lake is comparatively small and land-locked. Typhoid fever, DeBonchard holds, is a specific, miasmatic disease. "In its produc tion it so happens that the morbific matter coming we know not whence, but not neces sarily trom aa infected organism ii capable of developing itself in animal matters, which bec.nue then a focus of contagion." The contagion is always medial, and the morbific nialt-r may contaminate the air, the soil, and the water. In a paper on the use of lacs of cosine and fluorescein for preparation of decorative painting without poison, Mr. Turpin gives the following recipe: A potassic or sodiu so lution of cosine treated with an acid gives a precipitate of cosic acid insoluble in water; this, washed untd the water begins to take a rose color, is insoluble in the hydrate of oxide of zinc, and so forms a very rich lac, the red -l a- i l : j- . cuior woiui variets aucuruin? to ine quan tity of cosic acid which had been employed. There is a com oion impession that green wall papers only are poisonous. Mr. Seebold, of Manchester, En g' and, has analyzed not less than sixty or seventy kinds of paper for covering walls, and he found th.it ten only were harmless, although the colors were not green, but pink, blue, ted, brown, etc. The cause of the illness of children and delicate persons, which, in mauy cases, perplexes skilled physicians, may be the poisonous min eral contained in the innocent-looking wall paper of bedrooms. On the tenth of December last, a Danhh vessel nearly stranded cn an island about one hundred and forty miles from the Straits of Magellan. No land was indicated on the chart. Soon it was noticed that the island was slowly sinking. An attempt was made to land on it, but this was found impossible, as the rocky mass of which it was composed was bO hot that the water touching it hissed. The island continued to sink, and eight hours atter it was first observed the vesel sailed over the place where it had appeared above the surface of the ocean. A method of engraving on glass with elec tricity has been described by M. Plante. A concentrated solution of nitrate of potash is poured upon the surface of a plate of glass or crystal until the surface is covered with it. A horizontal platinum wire connected with one of the poles of a secondary battery of fifty or sixty elements is placed in the liquid along the edges ; then holding in the hand the other electrode (insulated except at the edges), figures or characters of any kind which may be described with that end on the glass wdl be found to be clearly engraved. In an article on the action of antithetic. Bins says that sleep-producingagents possess the power of causing a kind of congestion of the cerebral cortez, while other agents nearly allied to them in composition do not possets this power. Morphia, choral ether and chlo roform have a strong affinity for the sub stance of the cortex of the brain in man, and when they enter into combination with the cerebral substance they act in opposing or impeding the disintegration of the living matter, and thus rendering it unfit to dis charge the functions required of it. Ranke, after a protracted study of the same subject, comes, substantially to the same conclusion. The rnde representations cat on tho rocks near the Lacs des Merveilles, in Switzerland, have long been a puzzle to archajologist. Some have believed that they were the work of the soldiers of Hannibal. (What busy people those soldiers must have been from first to last.) The most satisfactory explana tion of the origin of these figures has just been given by M. Chiquet. He says that at certain seasons of the year shepherds could find near the rocks some herbage for their sheep and goats. To while away the weary hours, the shepherds amused themselves in cutting the figures which have cost days of owlish study to savans, who are more inclined to look for mysterious and remote authors of such things than to accept an obvious and common-sense view. At a recent meeting of tho Rcyal astro nomical society, London, a large photograph of the sun, twelve inches in diameter, was shown as a specimen of the photographs now regularly obtained by M. Janssen at the ob servatory at Mendon. M. De la Rue de clared it to be the finest example of celestial pnotograpny ne bad ever seen, and he ex pressed especial gratification that it was taken with an instrument constructed like the Kew heliograph, having a 5.5-inch object glass. On the picture of the disk of the sun were markings which De la Rue, Abney and Chris tie said represented tornadoes. It was sug gested that there ought to be a physical ob servatory to register the changes which take place on an enormous scale every hour on the sun changes compared with which the phe nomena of sun-spots are relatively unim portant. Mr. H. Valpy, the new president of the civil and mechanical engineers' society, Lon don, in his opening address, touched upon the value ef electric lighting. He commend ed the use of electric light for lighthouses, for the heads of coal and other mines, for the loading and unloading of steam vessels at night, and in large factories where motive power was at band. But he asserted that now, as a quarter of a century back when this liht was used at the works of the West minster bridge, its subdivision and distribu tion, a 8 in the case of gaj, is utterly im practicable. There must he motive power where electricity is used for illuminating pur poses, and that was so much a matter of great expense and annual outlay that for places requiring an electric light of one thou sand candles the cott would be from three to five times that of gas, and for those needinsf at V T 1. 4. 1 1 .1 at i . ieas siren gin we cost would De proportion Ball more. B. B. B, ijes'p Foernong champagne at W. N. ti tz r a - ' - f :- -V.-'- -A