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EVENING LEDGEBfrHILAftflLPHIA, FBJIDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, AO'ldE.
m MHJ.-H.-U! n,r-fMdil ll". i JOS u It! rf Evening tgfflAi ledger PUBLIC LEDGER COMPANY ctrus Hi k. curtis, fmid?t. Geo. W. Ochs, Secretary! John C Martin, Trurers Clmrlen H. I.udlnitton, Philip 8, Collins, John B. Wll llama, Directors. EDITORIAL BOARD ! CtMJS II, K. CcrtTts, Chairman. P. IT. WltALEY..,., ......... Executive Editor JOHN C. MAnTlN general Rustness Manager Published dally, except 8undy, t Trntto I.rwiM nulldlnR, Independence Square, Philadelphia. Ltcora CiiHT-ut... ,.;,,..., Dread nnd Cheatnut Streetn Atlantic Cut.. ...,...,. rrewtnfon rtulldln Ntw roan ........170-A, Metropolitan Tower CntcAoo.. 817 Homo Insurance Bulldlnr Lonrxm .....8 Waterloo riace, Tall Mall. S. Wi NEWS BUREAUS ! Hiaataaniio nr-.ru. ............ .Th-i ralrfot rtulld n WaentNOTOW Bcrpao The rest Bullalnt New Yoa-t Dcxeau. .. The Time Building Bf.aLIn Bcxcao. 60 Frledrlchstraete London Hchf.ac............ ..S Pall Mall East, S. w. Pami Beano........... 32 Rue Louie 1 Grand jtmscntPTio.v terms Br mrrler. Ditt.T Onlt, alx cent. By mall, po'tpld eatnlde of Philadelphia, except where forlRn polnrt la required, Dait-T Only, on month, twenty-flve cents! Daily Only, one year, three dollars. All mall subscrip tions parable In adiance. BEIX, 3000 WALNUT KI7YSTONF. MAIN MOO E7" Address nil communication to Evening Ledger, lnd'pend'nce Square. Phllad'tphln. ENTERED AT TUB ntlLADELrillA rORtOPrlCB AS SECOVD- class mail vurrrn. PIlILAELrillA, FntDAY, SKPIE.MI1EH 23, 1911 The Mayor Docs His Duty THE Mayor hns signed tho loan Mil In splto of the $400,000 which It entries for tho first of a series of Municipal Court palaces. Thero was nothing else for him to do. Other Items In the bill were of such overwhelming Importance nnd the necessity for hnsto was so great that wise considera tion of the peoplo's Interest required Mr. Blankenburg to acquiesce In one Indefensible Item rather than Imperil tho success of the bill as a whole. But tho Municipal Court grab Is not yet accomplished. Tho gentlemen who are paid with sinecures for their votes In Council are on the way to daylight. The public Is watch ing them. It Is suspicious of anything thoy support. It Is watchfully waiting. It has Its eyes fixed on men who call themselves representatives of tho people, but take their hire from the Organization. There will be no business administration of this municipality until dual office-holding is In fact abolished. It Is even now consid ered by observing citizens as presumptive evidence of guilt in betrayal of the city's interests. goal. The march of social evolution has pro ceeded along well-defined laws of progress, it Is wrong to say that wo are groping In the dark. Wo nrc moving ever onward with ad Increasing impetus nnd momentum. Every now and then n gigantic cataclysm like tho French Itevolutlon or the war In Europe shakes tho elements underneath the sub strata of society. These arc but Incidents In the great drama of progress. Wc need not fret. Let us note them and pass them by. For out of the travail nnd struggle of the ages Is sure to como a civilization whore war and bloodshed, poverty and shame, crime and degradation shall bo no more; whoro every man nnd every raco shall live nnd work In nil the power of their manhood; where line nbllltlrs shall go hand In hand with still finer sensibilities; where every child shall have full opportunity in develop the best that is In It, and where they that are greatest among us shall be our servants "When the Singe Is n School fTUt State of Arkansas has done well In jl passing its comprenensive cnnu lauor inw. It has erred only In classing the child actor with children In "hazardous employments," and debarring him from work when under sixteen. The stage at its worst may bo hazardous Indeed, but under proper condi tions It Is a valuable school for tho child of exceptional dramatic talents. What Is needed is not prohibition but reg ulation. Massachusetts and Illinois have had an experience with prohibitive law. Tho vrdlct of the casual observer, as well as the expert. Is that It fails to work where it Is most needed. Realizing the lack of public opinion behind the law, tho manager of tho undesirable theatre brazenly evades It, whllo his reputnble brother fears to allow children In houses where they would bo nctlng under tho best of conditions In tho best of plays. Colorado nnd Louisiana have done better. They have placed the licensing of chlb' actors In the hands of the Juvenile courts, requiring the manager to sign a bond to comply with certnln desirable conditions ns to education, salary and guardianship. Tho child and the public have both benefited. Arkansas, In this respect, is not helping the child. It Is only hindering dramatic art. PASSED BY THE CENSOR Apply the Dynamics of Reality WHATEVER tho United States Commis sion on Industrial Relations Intends to recommend to tho Government as a remedy for social unrest. It would be a distinct service to society If It would address at least ono of Its recommenda tions to the country at large. It Is a rec ommendation which cannot be put Into law books or legislative records. There Is but one place where Its realization can abide, in the mind and the heart of every man who feels that he Is a component part of a greav social whole, and that If society can eve. arrive at what some early philosophers termed "the best possible system of social legislation" It will have to seek Inspiration In what some people coll a social religion that is, Christianity applied to the problems of the day and made virile with the dynamics of Teallty. The Dumdum Dementia O.VE of the outstanding evils of the Euro pean conflict Is the irrational, vicious at titude that th great States of France, Eng- j land and Germany have assumed In their I wordy wars over so-called atrocities. They have turned what should be carefully rea soned, temperate pleas for humanity into mere partisanship. Accusations of cruelty the official use of the dumdum bullet have been made by both sides with no other ap parent motive than the discrediting of the enemy. Serious, conscientious consideration would have shown the utter futility of it all. No reputable evidence has yet been shown of the use of the dumdum bullet by any nation now at war. There have been wounds, grievous wounds, unusual wounds. But lag gard investigation, on top of fierce accusa tions, has shown that not only will the new "spitz" bullet, of conical shape, make such wounds, but that the thin, steel-jacketed missile, hitherto thought almost painless, will produce a terrible abrasion at short range. That, and nothing else, accounts for the dumdum dementia. Meanwhile truth is forgotten and nations- further embittered. Conservation of Living Resources SAFETY first, last and all the time is the slogan that civilization In America has adopted after a series of accidents and trage dies which attracted public attention to the value of prevention. Medical practice for many years has concerned Itself less with the cure than with avoiding the necessity of a cure. In government the voters are be ginning to realize that radical experimenta tion must stand the test of safety before It Is Indorsed. The complexity of our Indus trial life, tho multitudinous endeavors of humanity In this modern nge, the daily In troduction of new machinery, of new modes of conveyance, etc., render It imperative that extraordinary care be exercised in the conservation of the greatest of our resources, namely, the population. In "safety first" there Is social uplift and social progress. As a mere matter of economics the campaign Justifies Itself. "Marl Anthony." ANTHONY COMSTOCK has made another A blunder. SntfTing round Broadway. In stead of keeping to his excellent and useful work as a curb on deliberate, printed "smut" of various kinds, he has come a cropper over "The Beautiful Adventure" and Mr. Charles Frohman. As to the play. It is enough to know that District Attorney Whitman has turned down Comstock's charges with the remark, among others, that "the lines re ferred to portray a phase of romantic lovo of a nature so delicate and Intimate as to preclude either expression or portrayal of vulgarity. The play Is neither Indecent. Immoral nor Improper." All of which Broad way audiences had learned for themselves long ago. j It Is significant and surely a most wel come promise for the abatement of the Corn stock evil, that Mr. Frohman wrathy at an accusation never before leveled at him or his plays has sued St Anthony for slander. The effect should be salutary and lasting CHtEF rOSTAti INSPECTOR CORTEL YOU, of the Philadelphia district, who 1 a brother of George B. Cottelyou, onco a nowspaperman but now descended to a mere financier, Is a busy man. Cranks, black mnllers nnd black banders are his special forte. He hns saved hundreds of people from the clutches of defrnuders, and, inci dentally, has helped solve a few mysteries of which the newspapers know nothing even to this dny. Not so long ago members ot the Cabinet, Senators, Congressmen, Governors, Mayors nnd others In public office were deluged with letters, evidently emanating from nn unbal anced brain. The writer must have spent nil his waking moments Inditing the mis sives, for there were busy days when Indi vidual office holders received ns many as six and seven each. Cortclyou was put on the case nnd tho hunt began. Suspicion soon narrowed down to George Washington Katz rnmuller, a PennBylvanlnn. Cortclyou nnd nn nldc called on the man. His room was weirdly decorated with newspaper clippings, playing cards, picture postals nnd odds nnd ends. Katzcnmuller ndmltted his Identity, but Insisted on being called "George Wnshlngton Katzenmuller" every time, addressed. Ho confessed sending tho letters, but argued that ns they contained no thicnts nnd were sim ply advisory tho postal authorities had no right to Interfere. Knowing him to be In the right. Cortclyou tried moral suasion. "I know that you have the right to advise tho settling of differences between capital nnd labor by making both eat Indigestible pic, ns you wrote, thus killing off both sides," said Cortelyou, "but don't you see men In of fice seldom get letters from strangers, their mall being Intercepted by secretaries. So why not send the letters to mc and I will forwnrd them." For n yenr, until Kntzenmuller was sent to nn asylum, Cortelyou was swamped dally by his letters. ernment. They were known as the Fifth Monarchists. Tho phrase "gossamer days" was orig inated in the legend that ono Saturdny even ing a maiden was spinning fine thread In the moonlight. The moonlight drew her up Into the" sky and now she" may be seen spinning In the moon. Whfln "gossamer daya" set In, in tho early autumn, tho white threads she spins may be seen floating nbout In the air. Jack Ketch, the English hangman, was first mentioned In 1678. It was ho who be headed Lord William Russell and later the Duke of Monmouth. His successors have been popularly known by his nnme. The quotation "Ho that runs may read" Ib not from Habakkuk, who says, "That he may run who readcth It," but from William Cowper, who wrote: "But truth on which depends our main concern. That 'tis our shamo and mlsory to learn, Shines side by side of every path we tread With such a lustre, ho that runs may read." DONE IN PHILADELPHIA IN A SPIRIT OF HUMOR WHEN Alfred G. Vanderbllt was a stu dent at Yale he had In Vanderbllt dor mitory a suite of rooms the furnishings of which cost $15,000. A few doors away roomed a student who was working his way through the university and who was as poor as tho proverbial church mouse. The latter was no respecter of mere wealth, and had a habit of borrowing anything ho needed, from a razor to a dress suit. "Hey, Vanderbllt," ho shouted one evening while dressing, "lend me the scissors with which you trim your cuffs, will you, old man?" TO STIMULATE recruiting for the British Army In Franco, certain girls In Brigh ton, the well-known English watering place, resorted to a clever device. Early one fore noon they went to the boardwalk and pre sented a white feather to every man to place In his hat. Naturally, the men gladly ac cepted the attention of the pretty misses. But at noon a change came o'er the spirit of their dreams, for a town crier promenaded up and down the boardwalk, crying in sten torian tones: "The Order of the White Feather has been established this day and Is worn by all those who are afraid to come to the aid of their country. Oyez! Oyez!" White feathers were NOT in evidence that afternoon, and the recruiting offices did a land-office business. Two-For-a-Quarter Lives. UNDER an administration of the Southern Democracy the country is ready to go farther than "buying a bale" to preserve the cotton planter from financial decrepitude. Secretary Daniels has come out for cotton clothing. Perhaps he has his eye on a winter vacation in Florida. Maybe he is only an ticipating an extension of recent "fall weather." However that may be, he has cast in his lot with the Cotton Clothing Club and rushed to the support moral, of course of Miss Genevieve Clark's anti-silk stockings. The first thing we know the carpet bag will come back Into fashion and we shall all ba leading comfortable, humble, two-for-a-quar. ter lives. Poland Should Be Free OF ALL the claims made by tho subject peoples of Europe In the present conflict, that of the land of Chnpin. SienkiewU-z and Fschibishevsky deserves particular attention. Poland, torn apart by the stress and tur. moil of Europe, occup s the most tragic position in the struggle. Her eons are scat tered under the banners ef three armies. Russia's treatment of the Poles is com parable in cruelty and despotism only to that of Germany, Austria alone deserves credit and admiration for her merciful attitude. A people cultured, talented and occupying a place of honor in the field of art, science ami literature, the Poles have borne both the yoko of Russifleauon and the despotism of Ger manlzation. The char's promise of autonomy to the Poles, like his promise to the Jews, is but a delusion and a snare, yet tho people of Poland. 20,000.000 souls in all. should bo reunited. The republic of Poland should grace the map of Europe. Poland should be. free. The Sure Struggle Upward THE history of all society Is the history of strife and struggle. Out of the conflicts of the ages has risen the modern structure of civilization Ail-along the path of history, through gavagery. barbarism, feudalism and our modern industrial state humanity has made its way toward the realization uf an Ideal, which In its sum total can be charac terized as social happiness The attdinment of this IdeaJ may be far off as et. but as iure as the earth revolves around the sun does humanity march forward toward Us r New Duties and Old Troubles. DOCTOR CHALMERS' sermon topic. "The Expulsive Power of a New Affection," finds illustration in more than one instance. Where Is the trouble in Ireland? It has been expelled by a new passion for tho British Empire. A new duty compels us to forget an old grievance. The greater determines the lesser Miss Christobel Pankhurst attracted I attention a few days since as a "fury " Today j she Is training raw recruits for the firing line. i The suffragettes have lost their political I madness for the time, and are rallying around the colors of tho empire, which, after all, they love. Such Is "tho expulsive power of a new affection." such the influence of a j new duty breaking through prejudice, anl- i mosity and bitterness, as the sun breaks ! through the clouds. The big perils and possl- bllittea unite, the little Issues divide. One J way to overcome an old trouble is to engage j in a new task. Then does a man take up hts j bed and walk- This truth is amply illus trated in the experiences of tho everyday life and especially in the European war. ! The Turk has talked himself into a return voyage. The Democratic party in the United States is Woodrow Wilson. "Watchful Waiting" Orond Spectacular Revival of Last Season's Tremendous Sue. cess. Doctor Brumbaugh has been teaching morality too long for any bosses to toaeh hro to forget it. The "atrocity" bowlers may learn Borne day that human kindliness is about the same under any helmet. If the poet Villon had been a Virginian his nlamt would have run, "Where is the mint of yesteryear?" Wherever there ts calamity there is Uu strength of Mr- Penrose. He is at his best In the community wb th roast men out of work. Italy can tread on Philadelphia's toes as much as she wants to and fi will find them to be the best toes that her soldiers ever wore. That New Jersey iron and steel manufac turer ho went into bankruptcy "on account of war" has probably not been dealing in the styles of those metals popular itjst now abroad. The President still Insists that the Govern ment should buj a merchant marine of its own The war in Europe had nothing to do with this scheme except to give Its sup- I porters an excuse for bringing t, ward. lV THE "On to Berlin" and "On to Paris" cries of the European combatants recall a story about a certain gentleman known to history as Napoleon. First, however, be it said that Charles XII of Sweden was the original "On to Moscow" man, and that he came to grief on the road at Poltava, where Peter tho Great overwhelmed the Swedish army. Napoleon had begun his Russian campaign . and had crossed the River Niemen. Czar Alexander sought peace, and sent General Balmashoff as an envoy to ask the Corslcan to go home like a good little man and stop annoying the mujlks. No sooner had Na poleon heard tho proposal for peace than he led Balmafhoff out of the tent In which they had been conferring and said: "My dear general, do you think that I brought my army merely to look upon thtt River Niemen? Won't you please tell me the best road to Moscow?" "There are many roads to Moscow," re plied Balmashoff. "For instance, there Is the ono via Poltava. Charles of Sweden tried that one." A reference to history will tell you about Napoleon's "On to .Moscow'" trip. NOW that It Is rumored that the United States and Spain may act ns arbiters In the European struggle, attention Is called again to that most democratic of monarchs, Alfonso. Kingly dignity .sits lightly upon his still youthful brow. Ans example of this has Just come from Castile, where Alfonto spent a week moie or less Incognito. He put up in an old Inn. where modern Improvements were unknown. One morning he went Into tho courtyard to make hts ablutions, like any other citizen, and to shave. A maid fur nished n piece of broken mirror. Then she began to quiz tho stranger. "You don't look like an ordinary traveler," she said. "Are you connected with the court at Madrid?" "I am," said tho King, "Perhaps you know bis .Majesty himself." "J do." "What do you do for him?" oh, lots of things. Just now I am shav. ins him." BRADFORD. Divorco jn Kansas Pro ttw Kanfis flty Ttmts. One tUvoive proctor leprejenting society and p raft of dlvon-o lawyers making fees out at that particular branch of the administration ot Justice! Ib it any wonder that our divorce business Is in a ery bad state of health and logleno? Two or three or half a dozen proctors attached tu the divorto courts tould handle all the busi ness ut far less coat to the "clients" and lo society. The business would be much rsduccd in volume no one would be Interested In po rroting ii; no tollufcive suits would dare be filed CURIOSITY SHOP Written op a hacltman's slate In Kennebec, Me, was the following: "Joe, send hacks and wagons In time to carry the following to the Bar Harbor train: Ono wife, two nurses, three servants, four children, five trunks, four valises, three grips, two bun dles, une Me." About 1645 a strange sect made its appear ance in England, maintaining that the mil lennium was at hand and that the Saviour would descend from Heaven and erett the fifth universal kingdom Its followers went so far as to elect Jesus King of London Cromwell dispersed them In 1653, but In 1681 occurred another uprising, which was sup pressed with loss of life. They conspired to murder the Protector and usurp the Gov- llccognilion. Instead of the usual "notice to staff" the city editor has caused to be placarded lit the news room a "notice to gentlemen of the staff." Yc district, street nnd rewrlto men who yearn for the days of old, When the saucy scribe with his diatribe was a bit of a common scold; Ha done wl" score for the newer game and your fodder of pork nnd beans, Hereafter ye nre gentlemen who batter tho type machines. Hereafter ye are Journalists what though ye long In vain For a (lowing tfo and a hunk of pie and the price of a dainty cane! What though ye dream of the olden way nnd tho one-time mighty pen, Give car to tho City Editor he calls ye gentlemen. The Friendly Isles "Will Stay So. King George II of the Tonga or Friendly Islands has Just heard nbout the war In Europe. It may be ended by tho time he reads through tho files of the last two months to learn what It's all about. Natural Weapons. Gimlet eyes. Tho hook nose. Tho biting tongue. The natchet face. The cutting voice. Keen ears. . The bullet head. Iron nerve. The sharp chin. The marble heart. The stony glare. He Lived in Boston. There was a young fellow named Murray, Who knew not the meaning of hurry; And when he was chlded He laughed and derided His friends and declared Really, If I wero addicted to tho reprehen sible habit of using slang, I should find it incumbent upon me, at this particular Junc ture of circumstances, to enunciate tho lightly ironic current expression, "I should worry." Unlimited Opportunity. The publisher was in despair. "What's wrong?" asked the eminent author. "My best advance notice man has left me. He's writing letters for breach of promise plaintiffs." Naturally. "I say, old man, you're looking rather drawn." , "Yes, I've Just had a tooth pulled." Not Yet Decimated Przemysl still holds out, only three of her consonants having been put out of commis sion by the Russian guns. Yes, Where? Wheie, where Is Whltcomb Riley now? His rhymes we seldom see. Remember how he used to write Step-ladder poet-re e? Kansas City Star. Arrliitccturally Speaking Shooting at the towers of ancient cathe drals is something to which not to a-spire. Censored "Does your wife bathe? The girls on the beach make some pretty pictures." "My wife hns mi time to Join In making pictures. She nnd s-ome others have formed a board of censorship." Pittsburgh Post. Vegetable Gardens "You should by all means have an Italian gaiden." "A I right," said Mr. Nurlch. "And we'll plant some spaghetti." Kansas City Journal. Not a Bit Heroic "Why don't you see that your daughters learn to cook?" "Why should I? They wouldn't cook for me. Let their husbands supply the material for them to practice on." Louisville Courier Journal. Synonymous Tommy Flggjam Paw, doesn't "reverse" mean to back? l'uw Flgglam Surely. Tummy Flggjam Then what did Uncle Bill mean when he Mild that he busted up in business because he had too many re verses and not enough backing? Chicago Post. More or F.ess This war, indeed, Is mixed up so The more you read The less vou know. Knnsas City Journal. And we didn't know much in the first place. Great Gnus! Rrandcr Matthews says tho war will stim ulate literature, Pphsibly somebody will writo a book on the "six best shellers." De troit Free Press. Disillusioned In Denver thoy tell of a young Britisher who will some day inherit a title, and who not long ago married a daughter of a sup posedly wealthy man of that town. A month or so after tho marriage the father-in-law took tho husband aside. I am ruined!" he exulnlmed. "Practically every cent is gone!" The Ifriton wus a good loser, however, for lie gave vent to a long, low whistle, and e,. claimed with a little laugh! Iy uroige: tiicii I did marry for love, after all." Harper's Magazine. IN MKMORIAM Notre Paiir rte Ithclms, FeRtemtr, 1914, Men laised thee with loving hands; Thy stones, more preiioud than gems, The wrought for a Light to tho Lands; Now tho LiRht of nil Lands condemns Hun and Vandal and Goth Who serve th- t.urds of the Night, Who have turned the coat of their troth And darkened Our Lady of Light. Jltjp mJ.de thee beautiful. ea Their hearts flowed out as they wrought: Thou wast bullded not for a day. For an uge thou want buildcd not: And they carved thy portals and towers For peer and brucher and c-loiyn. Tlut the Hook of our L3dy's Hours Might endure tho' the u burned domt. B the grace of thy ruined Rose B the sullied strength of thy Toners. Thou shall triumph. Ld ' Th foe Shall coucr as the hunted cowcrg. Thou hast not fallen in ain- Fallen? Thou canst not fall. They shall crate thy pity In pain. Who flung thee hate for a pall. im n ison fjj, m ji?w york Tr MORE serious attention to mnrkets has been given lately limn at any tlmo slnco 1859, when tho city had time for little else. But tho occasion which drew attention to tho erection of market houses all over tho city BO and moro years ago had nothing to do with reducing tho cost of living. Wo nre now beset with that problem In addition to the one of convenience, which was nil that Beemed to call for consideration in 1859. The establishment of a farmers mar ket at' 69th nnd Market streets, where farm ers from tho surrounding country, and as far away as Lehigh and Northampton Coun ties, may bring their products to Philadel phia, promises to be a very interesting experiment. PROM the point of convenience It has some thing to recommend It today, while In 1S59 It would have been Impossible and ludicrous. Before the elevated railroad on Market street was erected 69th and Market streets was not so near ns West Chester, so far as tlmo was concerned. Now It Is a small matter of 10 minutes or llttlVmore. One of the first conveniences, we might call it necessities, that was considered for his capital by tho founder ot Philadelphia was the establishment of a mnrket In High, now Market, street, at Front. Tho old Journals of tho Common Council arc filled with refer ences to the regulations for this market. In deed, scarcely one meeting of that body from 1704 until tho Revolution passed without moro or Ipps reference to the markets. In those days the city fathers did not havo authority to crcato loans and Bell bonds for municipal Improvements. When they desired to extend the market sheds another square, thoy had to borrow from some Phlladelphlan who had civic pride enough to advance tho necessary money. Thero was somo Income from rent of stalls, from wharfage and a fow other perquisites, all of them rather trivial nnd small from the modern viewpoint. BY 1816 tho market sheds extended west ward on Market street to Eighth street, where thoy stopped. Thero were also tho sheds on Second street, north and south, and these still remain. Later In the last century similar sheds wero erected In the middle of Rnrlntr Garden street, by the District of Spring Garden; in Glrard avenue, by the Penn Township, nnd In Bnlnbrldge, then Shlppen, street, and in Moyamensing avenue by tho District of Southwark. The District of Moyamensing erected sheds In Eleventh street, south from Balnbrldge street. Those were tho places where Philadelphia went to market before the Civil War. All of the sheds, except those on Market street, survived until about 25 years ago, nnd visi tors to the city, especially those enrly European travelers who enme here to look us over like some rare and astonishing trlbo that had done well under civilization, wroto enthusiastically about Philadelphia and her markets. TTTHEN Philadelphia started to regain Its VV commerce and was doing a larger manu facturing business than any other city In the country, In the early 50s, the business men on Market street began to demand tho removal of the market sheds. They might be convenient, but they did not believe It. They declnred business demanded that tho main business thoroughfare should present a better appearance, now that the city had become a metropolis by the consolidation of all political parts of the county. Accompanying this agitation for the re moval of the sheds was a movement for the erection of market houses in the central part of the city. A good many business men, probably to assist in tho removal of the sheds more than from uny Idea that the investment would prove profitable, took shares In numerous market companies that were started. For a few years there was a veritable craze for erecting market houses. Other sections of the city became. Inoculated with the spirit, and market houses aroso in virtually all of the populous centres. Somo of the speculations proved failures, or at least enjoyed little success, but some of them are still in being. TTUNALLY, In 1859, Councils agreed to the X? lemoval of the sheds from Market street, A and then the market houses began to assume Importance. Tho Eastern Mnrket was erected on the site of the Bourse. The Franklin Market erected tho building now used by tho Mercantile Library. Indeed, this building was never occupied as a market, and the statue of Franklin, which was cut by Ballly and adorned the platform over the entrance, was later erected on tho Punuc Lkdour Building. At Twelfth and .Market streets two market houses were built, the Twelfth Street Mnrket and the Farmers' Market. These havo been superseded by the Terminal Market. Above Sixteenth street on Market another market house went up, and still an other at Nineteenth street. But they were put up In so many quarters that the housewives soon appreciated their convenience, and the od, nngalnly sheds were never missed. GRANVILLE. the fundamentals of the mob spirit frm- i to day In quite Imperceptible. m T we can mao a lesson from the i. i tj eyon If we do not asplro to wealth. M of tis harbor nn Indeacrlbable aver.iI4'1 meeting new people, mixing with folk. M are likely to bo qullo strange , and tl?M in inoir mens ana activities. Rnm.n"' wo think they know so much less th !?,1 so ves that they are quite apt to pro?, "N '.'J iiiiuicaiifiKiy uuil. Mi i .lhr,,.nv.,.j:?" J?1" t mix with n.i ...u, .iifji.i ...uwiuiii hiiu iow, men you ii.7 I to. know human nature. Continue in YWJ Vimr nrniinliilnn..l1l.. ii.i"nU0 l0. kern II circle on the strength' of their social lug. education or possessions and you .m," tinvpr Itttnnr II uu will, Doubtless, the merchant with the autnn,. big wheel had mixed with the mob i,w self, for corlnlnlv 1m km ii i,i.i r" "m knowing Its habits Is knowing human nainl VIEWS OF T?T?.ATVt?.nS l ON TIMELY TOPICSJ I Contributions That Reflect Public Onirt. I inn rtrt Q1.!nnia TMHU. . . -w.. . vjujio iuiijurmni to j(y ; State and Nation. ' - To the Editor of the Evening Ledger! Sir Tho story of the death of the form. Duma representative, Dszhcparldze, which ! peared In your naner todnv. nrnmnii , . .P . a few words about the Czar's manifesto to hi. "dear Jows." I was In Klshlneft on that fnUi dny of Anrll. 1903. which to.. ,,,,. .:.Ltt,'?l history as tho day of the Klshlnoff massacr. On that day, tho holy day of Easter. somVu Jows wero killed, sovcral hundred wmn.j I their homes destroyed by the gnngB of hn,5 I Itims, who, with orders from "above" nnd 2J& .' cue nciiye nia ana encouragement of the doIIp.' nnd soldiery, exacted a horrlblo revenge uZ tho people whose ancestors, they contend? were responsible for tho crucifixion of the Car penter of Nazareth. It Is not necessary for . to narrnto the story of that massacre and th series of others that followed. They nre ill well known nnd still live In tho horrified Imae! Inatlon of tho civilized world. Tho Belllss tr too, is still nllve In tho mind of the newspaper reading public. v" 1 only want to emphasize the fact that thl Cznr's promise Is but a delusion nnd n snart Ho enn no moro grant a respite from the Indig. nltles and persecution suffered by his Jewlifc subjects than the protest of an Individual can stop the slaughter on the Continent of KuroD -The Czar never has acted and never can act upon his own Initiative. He Is surrounded and ruled entirely by a clique of bureaucrats, wh' are the real rulers of Russia. Thero is but oni hope for tho Jews of Russia and the people of Russia In general, and this Is that history will repeat Itself; that the present war, like thi Russo-Japanese War, will be followed by an other revolution in Russia, which will wipe oft forovor from tho face of the earth the moat hated and most criminal dynasty of thj Romanoffs, and that tho victory of democracy In Euiopo will havo Its effect upon Russia In firing that gVeat empire with tho true spirit of culture and modernism. Then nnd then alons will tho Jews and tho people of Russia breaths a sigh of relief from tho thraldom of ten cen turies. JOSEPH SHAPT.t. Philadelphia, September 21, 1914. Feeil America First. From Life. Almost any little boy or sirl can undei stand why wo might hao to p.cy more for sonin things which are imported Into tills country from war districts. That is a matter over which w have no contiul. We have to pay what Is nuked or so without. But can any little boy or girl tell why we should pay more for things which are cxpoited? Alas and alack! the old-fashloncd excuee that they vho own tho stuff are nnxtoud to be richer no longei sulflccs. We nre trying to get away from the idea that wo are a nation of cannibals feeding on each other. And there la such a simple way to fix it. possibly a number of simple wa.es. National govcriimu.it are) granted the contiol owr their r.xpoits and imports. How easy it would be to pass a law ta.clng thdt no goods should be exported ao Ion? us the price hero at home Is higher than before the war minors began How would that be? Wd have always rather llkcii tho slogan, "Sea America First." Isn't "Feed Ameilia Fiist" quite us euphonious and much moro important THE IDEALIST One day a merchant erected a newly tired automobile wheel right Inside the entrance to Ills store. He was enterprising; more over, he llrmly believed In the conservation of energy. Hut, more important than all, he knew human nature. One out of every 20 persons In the throng that passed through the door gae tho wheel a fresh spin. The meuhunt llguied on the wheel being kept in a stute of motion all day. Down In the basement of the store a washing muchino demonstration was in progress. Its purpose was to show the mechanism of the machine in uction. it moved and moved all day. For every turn of the automobile wheel upstairs supplied power for the machine downstairs! Some men make tremendous fortunes simply because they bank on human nature steering along certain fixed and prescribed lines. They foresee the movement, they know what people in the mass have done before, and they know that the change In WHERE DOES THE FUNGUS GROW? To the Editor of the Evening Ledger: Sir May I congratulate you upon the engross, ing news conveyed through the columns of your paper, both in tho news and editorial columns? Very Interesting wns a recent ed. torlnl telling of tho discovery of an Intoxicating mushroom and Its description by Doctor Verrall, of Yale. An intoxicating mushroom must surely prove a popular delicacy, especially If, as ths discoverers assert, It has no bad after-effects. I have been Interested purely from a scien tific standpoint, I aBSuro you In tho use of alcoholic stimulants from ancient to our times. "The Banquet" of Plato is chiefly fascinating In that it gives a vivid picture of the bibulous habits of philosophers. Socrates Is described ns passing his cup until morning. Jack London and Will Levington Comfort are the most recent confessors along this line. It indeed seems all tho struggles ngainst the redoubtable John tuna been In vain. As you say, perhaps the reign of Bacchus may be over. But can you tell'ma where the delectable inebriating fungus ran L secured'? R. D. Philadelphia, September 23, 1914. UNIVERSITY OPPORTUNITIES IN U.S. To the Editor of the Evening Ledger: Sir In an essay on university and research work, written by Hamilton Wright Mabio befora tho slognn of "Educated In America" was ciented by war conditions, the author has this paragraph: "Opportunities for advanced woik In the American universities are now so ample that study in foreign institutions, while not without Its advantages, la no longer a necessity, and the number of Americans In German universities has greatly fallen off." Tho whole essay Is a substantiation, by meant of concrete facts, of this assertion. F. R. G. Trenton, N. J September 23, 1914. WHAT HAS PENROSE DONE? To the Editor of the Eicnlng Ledger: Sir I nm glad you ate devoting the editorial columns of tho Evening Ledger to a campaign against thr election of Penrose. You know tho saying, "It Is the m.in behind the Klin that counts," applied to war It Is a much more pertinent saying when applied to pnaco and thn development of a real prosperity. The prosperity of a country cannot be mea- tiled by K. .rent materlnl and finnncU! o vplnpment. It can only bo measured really and . permanently by the character, development and opportunity of the great mass of Its peopl. A. H. TOMLINSO.V. Swarthmore, Pn.. September 15, 19M A NON-PARTISAN VIEWPOINT To the Editor of the Evening I.cdgtr: Sir Knowing the powerful Induene tt" Leuoeh wields In Pennsylvania, I write to you In all slncciity and ask whether .vou do not 11, !.!. Hut tliiu InflnnrtfA hhrilllrl be flOCLtCQ against the re-election of Senator Pentose do not write fiom a paitisan standpoint, hav ing only In view tho wclfair of my Mat Won't you give UiIb your consideration SAMUEL Kt'NKEL Hairlsburg, Pa., September 15, 19H. Killing Off the Race Trmn lh rbrlallan Herald. ,. , Kiom the Christian era till the present time. ns statists and historians tell us, there nav bc-en less than 210 wurless je.ars. I'p to u ...i.i. ii- .. ,n.i. ti ...no i mifrlllv COm puted th.lt nearly 7.0uO.OAOOO men lind died 1 battle tilnce the beginning ot rcc-orucu "-: a number cqu.il to almost live times the prese" estimated population of the globe. NATIONAL POINT OF YIEW pile of the high pi Ices reported elseher Is at u discount in Washington J"8' n0W' In s noik I New Vor! World. It Is unlikely that any news derived from (icimun sources would change the curr'"',. opinion In Hie fnltcd States as to "spam. billty for tho present war. New Yoik Times. Speaking of governmental economy, h'j would be a good time also to shut off the abuses of tho franking privileges and to reduce the pense of the Congressional Record by CU"J" out the unspoken spc-eclics. Pittsburgh '" patch. The President has the emphatic support oj the couiitiy In hid vlgoious protest "S4'"" "fake" peace stoiles which have been sent owe from the National Capital. They could p nothing less than seriously mipchievous to ii cause of peace and. moreover, must put United State in a false and ridiculous po!lu Brooklyn Standard Union. Theie Is need for the prompt opening ot njJ Federal Reserve Bank system There is i tw for a system of finance In the Fiilted & J thut will stubillze und localize the financial fairs of tho I'nlon-oue that will be nation81 Its chaMcter and free from (lib.' 'J",'lerl, the slightest degree by the bankers financier and promoters of Europe, or of our own . try. Cincinnati L'nquirer. Tne President Is to be recommended for W ..r....l ,. flh.,ia hi. Movli-an nollCV 3S & 1" . of the reported quauel between t drran"r,J Villa So far as the United States is ,0,r ,U) iv.uo mm represent tho same i'lCrC Jl '"',! principle of self-iule. Jf they must n order to settle the personal issue, " 'jtM 1 to be regretted, but the priw-ml. rcna- same new aorn, uonu. 4 ,-n ,lrv, -