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A 17 i ,i -ri W r; ii 5W 1 .p xmm rSSIA HAS HAS REGENT. ;BGREATL1BERAL rand Duke Was Banished f) ' for Marrying Beneath ,, XXOJXU 'HAD A STORMY CAREER $? V The talent, inclinations and capacities of t- . . .. . .." ..,. .. jTe urana jjuko Aiicnaet Aicxanaruin.in .,, P. .. - , ....... .....I nm rattifir pr.reaoui, nuve uccn uustui, v. ......... r had no opportunity to becomo known, reason of tho neraonal affairs which re eled a little moro than four years ago In tit being forced Into exile In England. i This residence outsldo the empire, which '..' forced on him by' tho Imperial dls- gitaauro following his marriage to a woman lower birth, came to an end nt tho out break of tho war, when tho drand Duko 'returned to Russia, was taken back Into Ma army and commanded a division during ,6tho-attack on tha Carpathians In the spring i Vef 1916 with dlstlngulHhlng success. Slnco v .then Uttlo has been heard of him, and It Is :'lo be presumed that his military career has ontlnucd. ,' lis was born at St. Petersburg, November ,13. 1878, and Is. therefore, ten years r younger than the Czar, threo years younger ' T than their sister Xcnln, now married to . Alexander Mlchallovltch, and four years older than tho Grand Duchess OlKii, wno V:1 1 tnarrled Duko Peter of Oldenburg. , t' v i'uai-iu TO AUTOCRACY ; y,J In, his early llfo he received tho ordinary K irr iBUWiiu1! vi nil iiui'vi mi u mitr, uuu, - piw.1 awual with Imperial princes, Is reported '.ViJ A havn nentitfAatiwl afrnniflv Mntnnnrnfln t'k., tendencies. His character, however, does not seem to havo mado a very deflnlto Im pression on the court circle, either became of his easy-going disposition or because ho It? "was not In sympathy with tho mystical T-ji, Binit nntrwrjitln tnnrlrnpla ilnmlnnnt In htt Pas. i" family. royal weddings, royal funerals and other almllar occasions, ho did not come into prominence, particularly after tho birth of tha Czarevitch Alexis made him only the heir presumptive, until 1908, when thero iHUi tnuiti iMnrtal tn lVAtrfrrnrl fiVfli" (tin F'ttoort that he had fallen In lovo with tho il' j -daughter of a member of tho landed ariaiocracy oi soiunern iiussiu unei n.iu fK Been visiting her family Incognito. r 4 ,,., .- ...,.,. .... ..,, j Pi iiuB uietiir, illicit w.ih KciiLTuuy uenevcti tv '' to be his first Berlous entanglement of the ..art desnlto tho frenuent rumors thnt he was about to be engaged to nno or another J , mHnr.rns. was mileklv ellHHlnnteri hv thn In. ,.'f', atant manifestation of Imperial displeasure it ,But It was hardly two years beforo ho be , f amino Involved In another and moro serious pne, which lod ultimately to his marriage. St , MARRIED WOMAN FROM MOSCOW W Natalia Sergeyovna Scheremcterskala (Jflj W0 H.O UUUfelllCI Ui t laud.uv IMJUltllllUll hd, fWho had early married a wealthy man "i i'Wuu.j itr..Mn T-ni.. Ih loin I, i ?wucu tiuiiiuiiiuii. x.itij' in ioiv lb uebnu to be whispered that her recent divorce 7 from Mamontoft had been motivated by a ;X Iova affair with thn drand Duke Mlrhnel f'tf Alexandrovltch, and that the marriage with -CahUIii on Woulfcrt, a youn? euard oillccr. 1?? i Which followed almost Immediately, was " mn nrrniiKviiiciit ill nuiiiu uiii, ucbikiicu m -it lmim ,1... fltn,lnllnMnn rf (ha Imtto!.!! irsv w- ImeciioTL tfij or more man a year mo j;mperors s?fr feelings did not becomo pobllcly irmnlfest, Wt-1 'L oul V January, ivii. no issueu a uecree re PT Kevins his brother of the command of the W-mI 1 ChVfll1tr fliiflrila nnrl of hl.q nnntttnn ni v ftuwnt.i1aBlmiata ll1tltn tti.k mlHnsltif n J TCBU-U09iBlintU UU IQ hill iiutiui vj w. ha. v. " .. . .. p?,!i,Jf According to an accounts' the married Ki! ft Ufa of the new Regent has been an cx- f" -ij, ,tremely happy one, and his return to the , rarmy and to successful command has given fPr, him a high degree of popularity with tho .f . , Lt j. -wussian people. r..T'fi e has been credited, and In view of re-"-tV eent events no doubt rlehtlv. with hrlnir ijfvn antagonist of tho German influence at wufv jo w nn uuici i.uniai.ictiaiiua, ur- Ut.i ldea written fnr Tlnffllnh n9dpra mnrolniit IV " 'fclm as strongly sjmpathetlc with England f t nd those for Americans give him credit yv.K n Deln a carerul student of American S ' 'HUstory and addicted to American manners. RED SUNDAY" SPOT J.KI) - -'- ,---- wm SMl.i4 RUIN FOR THE CZAR 1-J5j Wosancro of Plioainn Donnln ;.. M?'' 1905 Caused Distrust -. - ,, of Ruler i) VJLOST GREAT OPPORTUNITY rOnca In every man'h life, so It lin.q boon HCi ' com6a a great opportunity. To Czar '?E?5fhoia8 n the Breat opportunity cama on U L? y ' 1905, I,e waa not e(lual t0 'l- n. ci3U!&d of nroclalmlni n iiau .p. nt iit.av., l-:,"fcr RusBla. he callpil nn hi Pnnnnii. ri,. c Li'WAs a great masRarrA In ?t Pat.r.hn.n nn.i j.fcttory waa called upon to record what "Z Wtll be known thrnnn-h th. naAa ., un.j 'C BKmaa3r' , ,' . - "" - .-.. ...u HbQ ua 11CU Zl iJror Mcholas II "ncd Sunday" was tho s BfiClnnine of tha end. The. povAii.Unoi .faovement, which started In loot with the , fMsassloatlorf of Bojrollepov, the Minister of W l,"""0"' y siuaent. Had becomo threat- ; ' fllnf; thrOUirh tho Untirntrun n.raa n ,11,.- A k. 'Mters which marked Itussla's nr with V pan. By the middle of 1904 there came .", ; ntiu uuuiiuai ouiDurais ntirt July 28 the head and forelront of ihft etlonarfes. Von Plelne. the Minu, Interior, waa assasalnatpd. th ,.,,- flor of Vnn Plf-tiv. ! ti.ih.. c..i.j.. It-M . -...., ..to x i into ovjaio rMtk-MIrskl. waa of lthf-rai ionriAhi.a nW people beran to hnnn that t K.in K War support for the prosecution of the war i me bureaucracy would irrant th.m oin iik. bureaucracy would grant them civil lib- rty. ";int November, delegates from' the zemst lmt, or municipal councils, held a secret J"ne in tn. retersburs, and finally sub IMtted a report to tha Czar, warnlne him ------ .-.-.-.-..w nuuiunDirniion naa t .touch with the people and asking for fmMiu, , iree press ana civil and re- iiuoriy. Again in nmi Ifer petition was presented, virtnoiiu dlnsr that a lecrlslatlvA ABumM.. lieuses be formed. Miwhlle there were strlk.n In ,. n-. iMit Iron works and numerous disturb- in Gt. Petersbunr nnil mh.. i leader of the worklngmen waa Father vovai. tviiii mR cnnwnt , .t.A nent he had begun to onrani hh.. I to wean the worklnirmen nwav e, Btlonlat agitators. 'oii January 21 thai Vath n.-.- Jetter1 to the Czar telling him JJiat i following day the striker. ,i 'to , the Winter Palace and r.,-..-. FMWM In peraon. " """"' JSPifcS'S0? L tbe,f hea tha "eVS"0" 'ur "le winter palace r. hWomeH and children -accoro-4lM.j -Itf waa not a.. thrAAtinM Itwta a, Joyauaone. All thought I briar 'wliatHus. hV ..I.i mmmtm-nf liberal .SvSSli mshflt;,ra, wu rua. jTZrZ:i'T? "?? "" - l in 9omm-mmuuiA- t-taM. m tk JwaiM !f-TOWnTI -Tv .rtp!v-w' 'I ITS FIRST CONSTITUTIONAL RULER; GRAND DUKE MICHAEL BECOMES REGE CHRONOLOGY OF RUSSIA'S TRANSITION FROM AUTOCRACY TO DEMOCRACY TWrARCII 8 (Thur'sdny) Shortage of bread cnuscd unrest nmong working " men. Strikes declared nt vnrlous munitions factories. First rnid by hungry pcoplo on food shops. March U (Friday) -I'etrogrnd streets under guard of mounted police. Minor outbreaks when hungry people broko into bread stores nnd wcro dis Pcrsed by tho police. Pcoplo nnd somo troops from Pctrogrnd garrison visibly hnlf-hcartcd in suppression of disorders. In many cases blank car tridges were fired on mobs now steadily increasing. Cavnlry regiments cheered by people who obeyed orders to clear streets. March 10 (Saturday) Crowds increased. Government officials finally alarmed and ordered troops to fire into" the solid masses in Ncvsky Prospect. Troops -drawn up with machine guns flatly refused to enrry out massacre. Officials replaced them with police known to hnvo no compunctions. Fired several volleys. First general clash followed. Tho Cznr ordered Duma dis solved. It wns npparcnt he had determined on stern repression agnin. ' March 11 (Sunday) Widespread clashes nil Saturday night nnd Sunday culminated in first big break in Government's forces. Russian regiment of Pctrograd garrison levoltcd'whcn officers demanded they open firo on hungry people. Another Joined later. Four more came over late at night. These forces combined nnd took tho strong fortress of Sts. Peter nnd Paul nftcr a brief battle. Success led to other wholesale mutinies of troops with bloodv scenes ns the troops killed officers or overwhelmed the small number stifl loyal to Czar. Troopi marched in forco against police nnd defeated them in bloody stiect fight. First day of organized revolt. March 112 (Monday) Street fighting continued unabated, but in after noon tide of battlo turned in favor of revolutionists. With dramatic swift ness n Government regiment opposing legimcnls lighting for people sud denly left barricades and Joined revolution. Desertion spirit swept wholo lino. Thousands joined. Within nn hour nearly all of Petrogrnd in hands of revolutionists. Immediately Duma met, although ordered dissolved. Mani festoes issued. Czar was apprised that tho peoplo would now rule. Im perial Ministry resigned. New Cabinet named by reolutionistsr Really tho second day of revolution with organized control by those seeking overthrow of old regime. At night tho troops, now organized, made vigorous assault on the few Government buildings held by Czar. March l.'l (Tuesday) Karly in tho morning remnant of Government forces nnd officials surrendered. Ministers anested. Pie-mlent Kodzinnko, of Duma, sent final appeal to Czar demanding immediate reform measures. Revolutionists assumed full control of governmental machinery. WASHINGTON REGARDS REVOLUTION AS OP BENEFIT TO ENTENTE ALLIES "WASHINGTON'. Mnrch 16. Kaleldpscoplo chanKes In world uffalra now In process yet may seriously aflcct tho futuro of tho United States, olllclals admitted today. Tho next few wocls must ho fraught with tun montous happenings, they sny, which may force radical action at a dozen points by this Government. Administration ofllclals arc seriously con cerned with tho outlook They lmpo for tho best, of course, but are leaving untiling undone to protect tho Interests of the nation Naturally, doelopments In the Russian reo!utlon wero tod.iy oeinlmUolng nil else. Olllclals wero Inclined to belloo that thp outcomo thero will bo bcticllcl.il to tho cuuse of tho Kntcnto nations. They (in serted tint for the first time In generations tho Ilu'slans themselves arc In control of their Government. Monarrhlc.il and aristo cratic corruption nnd degencr.uy have over reached themselves, olllclals sav, nnd llussla has finally overthrown nbhulutlsm. incomiuti:nts out It Is believed hero that with the advent of tho new Duma nnd tho ruprciututtvcs of liberal thought In llussla thero will bo u general resumption of tho offuihlvo against Germany. This offensive, nlllcinl reports reaching hero during tho lant two months havo pointed out, hns hen held bnck by Inofilclenry Ttid pnslbly rorntp tlon on tho part of certain Hussian lead ers Thoo men now havo been iclegateil to obscurity Rome of them face trials by couit-martlnl nnd death. And It Is expected that In their placet will bo brought for ward competent olllcers who will lead. In this very connection It Is recalled that only a very short tlnio ugn c xperlenred Jnpanc-o soldiers, who had been detailed to train tho Ilusslau units, vvrro forced out of tho servlco by tho direct ordeis of iVar Nicholas. With him deposed, theso oHIccis are likely to return to their former posts. Administration olllclals say Uerniau sug gestions that tho revolution In llussla nnd tho parliamentary crisis In Trance will lead to a breaking down of the solidarity of the lntchto nro without foundation, 'they cx poct that tho war will continue ns here tofore, with tho exception that llussla will provo more powerful. U S. FAVORS REVOLUTION Tho sympathies of tho United States, which may bo forced nt any moment into war with Germany, nro clearly with tho nusslan revolutionists. Out of the mnzo of reports coming from Tctrograd State Iie- PRINCE KRAPOTKIN, FORTY YEARS AN EXILE, TO RETURN TO RUSSIA BRIGHTON, Kng., Mnrch 1C. Forty ycars'"banlshment from Russia did not dim the Joy today of Prlnco Krnpntkln In tho prospect onco again of "going homo" under a government whlci would make all peoples equal In control. It was a Joyful interview which the seventy-llvc-year-old self-professed anarch ist accorded your representntlvo here, In tho presence of his equally Jubilant wlfo and helpmate, for forty jears tho sharer In his enforced absenco from his native Russia, which started when ho enst his lot with tho worklngmen. "I hopo this means Russia will follow tho example of America and glvo full freedom to tho people," he declared "Autocracy haB now llnally como to Its end nfter a fifty years' struggle A new era of progress has opened." "This Is tho happiest day pf our lives." Interjected tho Princess "Perhaps." she added with a sigh, "wo will now rtturn to Russia." "I said n new era of progress was opened for Russia," tho Prlnco continued "A nation unlteel with tho army Is sure to win tho war. Free Russia will help the German nation get rid of tho Hohenzollerns "Russia, freed from Germnn pressure, Is sure to recognize an Independent Poland not a Poland governed by autonomy, but a really Independent Poland "I bellevo tho Russian peoplo will point the way for the German people. Tho latter aro kept flBhtlns by a manufactured fear of the menace of Russian arlstocrncj . "I wonder," Interrupted the Princess again, "If Dethmann-IIoliweg know what RUSSIAN PAPERS HAH SUCCESS OF REVOLT Organs Published in U. S. People at L'ast Get Their Own Sny NEW TORIC March 16. nussoye Sloyo (the Russian Word), a dally newspaper published In tho Russian language at SI Seventh street, says editori ally this morning under "The New 'Russia": "Russia has become transformed In the course of three days. Our country has lived through an unprecedented historical mo ment. That for which Russian people have been striving for whole decades, for which they have shed seas of their precious blood, for which they have' endured Colossal suf ferings and palna Is now an accomplished fact. '"The army Is on the aide of the revo lutionists The Russian 'army of today Is the people themselves, alt those millions of men who have been dying at the front and touis vvmpmi iu mo piuenur oi ine txMiutry, ,, iony Mir.tine Mew World), a dally pub is. n iiuawan, language at 77 St. Tlally:. HERPl p-irtment offlrlnls Interpret tho troubled situation In Russia ns tho Inevitable movo ton .ltd Russian ti'itlonallsnt. Any movo toward nationalism Is essen tially aiitl-iierinnii, Tho levolutlon Is re garded In ollklil circles hero ns tho culmi nation of a movement which his been In teimlttetitlv on the siirf.iro ever since the outbreak of tho meat war In 1I"1J. Tho opening of hostilities found Russia thor oughly GirninnUeil Germ. in hurenucr.icv domlinted both polities nnd Industry In Ru'sl.i. Wholo colonics of Germans In Russia had remained true to their German Ideals, so that tlvn outbreak of Jhn war found them moro I'lttssi.iti than the ICalser himself Then was uncovered tho elaborate spy sjs tem which had been doing such cITeitlve work biueath Urn nut face It was this predominance of German Influenco that was responsible for thn persistent reports that Russia would seek a separnto pence, with all of the ndvantago to accrue from such a movement to tho (lei manic Powers Hut thn nationalist spirit In Russia nre- valltd. Observers of intenntlnnal politics found It dllllcult In tho enily. stages of tho great war to leioncllo tho stand of Russia, with the Allies. Russian autocracy was u h)-vvord and It was thought the sm pathlea md alniH of tho Russians wcro liml) In boo with the theories of Geiinan kultiir." am, in m:am:rsiiip Rut the dlffeieneo vias In leadcishlp. In nil Get many thero muld not be found a leader among tho so-e.illed Intellectuals who was not heart and soul with the spirit of I'russl.iiilsin In Russia tho Intellectual leadiishlii foi more1 than a generation or since the late Count Tolstoy was III middle life has been 111 fiivor of nationalism nnd tho right of thei people,, to devKo tho Gov crimtmt under whlih they shall live. The revfi'ution Is theiefoio legardcd hero as tho first fruit of the nationalist move ment fillers the Germans nro nhlc to tnko Immedlntii ndvnniage of tho chaos Into which Russia has been tin own tho revolu tion will react strongly against tho German caue A i evolutionary tiluniph means tho annihilation nf German influenco from Rus sian affairs and then a renewed war to crush I'russlanlsm Itself. If the pro-Germans fn Russia cannot copo with tho levolutlon without dcliy, it means disaster to thlr causo in llussla, as tho Duma nnd tho army aro lioth of and for tho people was happening in Russia when lie i,ia,i0 his Hienh Tuesday piomlslng grentei share In government to tho German people after tho "I know tho new members of tho Gov erniiiental Council." tho Prlnco resumed. They are all light ' Prlnco Krapotkln wns born lit one of the n"Sn "V1,",00"0 f Husslnn families and as n child nn a page nt court L'vcry circumstance, should havo combined to make him an aristocrat., Hut circum stances. Instead, led him to ,..,, stU(ly ,, bought of tho plain people's condition In Russia. Meanwhile ho traveled extensively In Sllrla ns military attache, thero seeing first hand tho horrors of tha eMllmr of T,!eV,ta!0an-oCrS, Il becamo " Biographer. Vf, 'J.. 18,2,h0 ca?' "'a l"t definitely against tho nobles and with tho working men. "". Two jcais later his nctlvlty marked him for persecution by tho Russian autocratic government. Ho was sentenced to impris onment in the same fortre.sH of St Paul and M. Peter which was the first building cap turod in Petiogiad by tho revolutionary forces Ho lemalned thcio two years cs cuplwr to England Thero ho started his Piopagan.la of u "theoretical anarchist" . ! '10t. i'c""e wlth tha dlcal an archists, hut ho wes an exponent of vigorous measures In demolition of nutocracles and establishment of tho rules of the people It wus vigorous prosecution of these alms that caused his expulsion from Switzerland subsequently and three years- Imprisonment "lr .S'neo 1680 he has lived In rig. nV nn r I . "'"'"i,'",ul3 an1 bcm as a geographer. J ?SBh, Up.ln th0 'avrlt"sm of the Czar and Czarina but devoid of Intellectual abll It). Since the revolt of 190E tho present supremo powers of Russia have been unable to meet the Industrial, political and eco nomlc problems of the country. Those who know Russia realize that 6,?re, hree.force3 ln th9 unhPPy coun J5i7 tll lteact!onarle3 or those close to the PfnJtL nn, comlnatlon of landlords, capl Ullsts and minis era who combine to form tho Liberals, and, third, the people. The Liberals wanted, nnd still want, to estab. llsh a constitutional monarchy ;they want the war to continue because, having great Interests themselves, they find war profit able, and they want Constantinople opened because a port to tho south would be of personal commercial worth to them. But It was the people. theWkera and tho peasants, who fought hardest against entering the war and who wanted and still strive to establish a democratlo republlo It was the peoplo who started the present revolution. The Liberals, once the revolu ton had been started, fell in with the revo lution, 'The Russian people are opposed to war and to militarism, but they .bellevo that their own success ns revolutionists will mean revolution on the part of the Oer manlo peoples. Then they hope and believe thero wll come a consolidation of all the revolutionary peoples, Russian and Ger manic, a combination that by f ta verv tnrr and wlKht will comriel tha .mllltaVLf. nr I . .' ri j o i. '.'.; REVOLT OF RUSSIA PURELYPOLMCAL Overthrow of Monarchy a Demand for Represen tative Rule BLOW AT PRO-GERMANS By SAMUEL N. HARPER I'rofo"nr of Hu-ilnn T.nniuit, Utersture and History nt th Unlvr-lty .of Chicago. (Written for the United Prenn.) CHICAGO, stnrch 16. The nusslan coup d'etat Is the loglcat culmination of the political situation of theso last few months. In November last, when tho Duma convened, a complete change of tho Government system wns de manded. Tho Government had shown ngaln Its Incfllclency, tills tlmo In connection with tho distribution of tho food supply of thu country. Tho Government wns actively Interfering with tho nctlvlty of tho public (jrgnnlzatlons working to support tho army and to solvo tho many problems raised by tho war. And finally somo members of tho Government wero suspected of pro-Gcr-inaiilsiu. It was not considered posslblo for n mo ment that Russia would betray her allies, but It was realized that tho then Prlmo Minister, Stunner, might put his Influenco forwiird for a premature confcrcnco of tho belligerents, such iih Germany did, in fact, later propose. On theso grounds tho Duma demanded definitely n rcsponslblo Government of Ministers rcsponslblo to tho representntlvo bodies. This di'mnnd was supported by tho upper Ikjiiso of tho Russian Parliament, hair of whoo members nro nppolnted by thu soveielgn And behind tho Duma weie tlu-e public oiganlzatlons In which all classes weio repiesentcd hind owners, peasants, membUH of tho Liberal profes sions, manufacture! h nnd workmen In fact tho Russian jicopli'. A few da) s after tho Duma had Issued its ultimatum tho Ministers of War and of the Navy uddiessJd tho Duma reporting upon thu woik of their departments, prais ing tho public organizations that wero woiklng for tho support of tho army and stating that thero must be co-opcrotlon be tween Duma and Government. A tow days later tho Prime Minister resigned. Tho new Prlmo Minister appointed at tempted honestly to work with tho Duma. Ho tried to rid himself of colleagues lu whom neither ho nor tho Duma hail con lldence lo failed, however, and was In turn dismissed nnd :i frankly icactionary Minister was appointed nnd those memhcis of tho Government whoso names had been mentioned In tho pro-German Intrigue were letnlned in olllce. Tho el.ito for tho reopen ing of tho Duma was postponed. Vhen tho Duma convened llnally on Feb ru.iy 27, It declared that tlio new Govern, incut did not lepresent lesponslble govern ment. In tho meantime tho food situation In tho largo urban I'cnters had becomo n leal crisis Thero was danger of disorders breaking out. Then came the edict dissolv ing the Duma After trying moral pressuro to no purpose, the Duma had to resort to revolutionary methods. Tho movement Is a purely political revo lution with tho single aim of establishing lesponslble government Tho Duma leaders will bo able to hold tho confidence of tho people, for the) aro acting In ae.corehine,o with tho popular demands definitely voiced by tho nll-comprehenslvo public organiza tions mentioned above Tho sanio organizations havo mado It pos slblo to bring off this revolution rapidly and without much violence. Tho Duma l supported by the army, for tho army would havo bfnrved but Tor tha work of the public organizations, tho presi dents of which are among Duma leaders. The fact that tho army Is behind tho Duma also accounts for tho fact that this revo lution was attended by ii minimum of dis order. The rovolutlon Is political but not nntl dynastic. Hvery effort was maelo to con vlnco the Kmperor that ho could safely trust tho people, that tho people wcro really loyal to him nnd wholeheartedly back of tho war, but It seemed Impossible to gain his ear Constitutional government was tho demand of tho Dthna, nnd Is tho object of the levolutlon. But the monarchical Idea is llimly established In Russia and tho move ment was directed not against tho ruling dynasty hut ngalnst tho irresponsible Min isters who wcro cither deceiving or nt least Slvfng bad counsel to their sovereign. Finally tho aim of tho movement and Its Justlllcatlon is to secuio conditions which w 111 raako It posslblo for Russia to put for- 'ward all her strength for tho successful prosecution of tho war. Last summer leaders of the Duma said to me "Perhaps wo will havo to havo n levolutlon before' wo win tho war." Theso same lenders saw then nnd admitted the danger of any such move. Rut they have llnally realized that the movo had to bo made, and they, also. It Is now clear, saw that It could bo concluded quickly nnd effectively without weakening Russia, from tho military point of view. Many, looking forward to the military operations of tho coming spring, hut know ing tho Internal conditions In Russia, had doubts. These doubts should now bo dis pelled. Again, many, Knowing of tho pro Germim Intrlguo going on in Russia, feared not separate peace, but n premature bettle ment. Tho rovolutlon spells the end of theso nnxletlcs. Tho levolutlon means moro actlvo prosecution of tho war to victory. OPINION HERE DIVIDED ON RUSSIAN SITUATION Varying opinions on tho Russian revolu tion are held by Philadelphia citizens con versant with tho peculiar conditions exist ing In tho great autocracy. Dr. Henry Golden, of 1722 South Broad street, one of the small group of nusslan Americans In this city, said that tho belief of tho Russian pcoplo ln the divine attrib utes of tho Czar would be shaken by revo lution. He predicted that It woulB result In n constitutional form of monarchy, "With the divine Idea abolished, tho rest will bo comparatively easy. At the same time tho masses ln Russia are so 'thick' that It will take some time, for them to comprehend the full significance of tho sit uation." Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf, of Keneseth Israel congregation. Bald that ha was un able to form a correct opinion from tho In formation available. He said he preferred to form his opinions on the matter when he could find whether the uprising waa from distressing economlo conditions or a na tional revolution. Doctor Golden, on the other hand, said tho revolution waa duo to hunger. "I doubt If thla could be called a victory for the Allies, aa the news from London seems to Indicate. The Russian masses are pro-nobody. They have no quarrel with any one. "They are fighting condi tions like hunger not men or nations. This revolution la the second phase of the dls. turbance which began sixteen years ago." Chaos will reign, according to Doctor Golden, If the democracy galna the upperl hand, or there will be, and thla la more probable, a constitutional monarch with a constitutional government. REVOLT AID TO ENTENTE, YALE PROFESSOR SAYS NEW7 HAVEN, Conn., March 16. "No better thing could havo happened for tha cause of the Entente' said I'rofesaor Alex ander Petrunkovltch, noted Jluaslan member of tha Yalo faculty, in commenting today on the revolution. H .TfeM,"- B QOMinuM. :-wiu wllaaloato aJl (KOPfitA'. OrfBEfc.. w ft . THIRD ESTATE TRIUMPH; RENCH REVOLUTION REPEATED IN RUSSIA Rising Commercial and Agricultural Classes, Carried For ward on Wave of Popular Revolt, End Rule of Absolutism German Plots for Separate Peace SmashedLiberalism Secure By JOSEPH Russian absolutism has lost Its rear guard action. It has been fighting this rear-gunrd action since tho reign of Alex ander II nnd tho abolition of serfdom. To day's news from Russia Indicates that, bo far as this system of absolutism Is con cerned, tho battle seems to bo over. For tho successful revolution reported from Petro grsd differs most radically from nil previous outbreaks and social upheavals In the litis slan Empire during the last century, be ginning with tho revolt of the Dcceinberlsts In 1814, nnd ending with the revolution of 1D0B. Tho revolution of 1005 gave Russia thirty-six hours of freedom nnd tho Duma. Tho Duma, too, was soon reduced to Im potence tinder tho respective regimes of Gorcmlkln, Stollpln. Kokovtscff nnd their successors. Hut whllo deprived of netual parliamentary power nnd desplto tho Trus slnn system of representation Introduced by Stollpln, the Duma remained tho tribune from which tho real representatives of tho peoplo continued to shout their" defiance nt tho reaction and to demand radical reforms. To understand why tho present rovolu tlon hns been successful nnd diflcrs, there fore, from all other revolutions In Russia It 1h necessary to understand tho varleel social elements romposlng tho Russian Em pire) and tho fact that nbovo nil theso ele ments hns arisen a rlas whose historic mission It has bee, on previous occasions to ralso tho banner of political democracy, not merely ns an abstract Ideal, but us n vital necessity to Its economic ndvanco mont and position In society. That class Is the modern Industrial nnd conuncrlcal class. The present order of complex eco nomlo development came Into being with tho birth of political eleinocrncy nnd repre sentative government it was Impossible for It to grow nnd expand within tho nar row confines of feudal tradition and gov ernment, nnd since revolutions nro tho product of changed social condition tho nscendency of new productive forces n so ciety and tho rise of tho trading class tho Third Estate mndeho death blow to 'feud alism In western Euiopo nnd ln England ln- hovltable. Tho Freneli Revolution ended for- over inc ruie ol ieim.u uepueism 111 I'rance, and the silent lnelustil.il revolution In Eng land created tho democracy of modern Great Britain. RUSSIA 100 YEARS REMIND In Russia, tho appearance of tho Third Estnte had been postponed for a century, nnd while during tho elecado prior to the war. In the process of finding Itself, It has not been nblo to sever Its allegiance to tho old order, tho war seems to havo com plcted Ha education nnd made It ripe to play the part allotted to It by social evolu tion. At last tho forces of progress ifl Rus sia seem to havo received their most es sential Impetus tho active co-operation and leadership of tho vigorous, munitions nnd entorprlslng Third Estate. That Russia's Third Estate has really found Itself Is demonstrated by tho fact that It seems to havo won tho support nnd,H)mpathy of tho army and the peoplo nnd that, nfter assum ing the power of government. Its diet move wns to order tho banks and financial In stitutions to resumo business For It Ls well to remember that tho e)cs that gazo with longing and ambition tovvnid western Europe nnd the Dardanelles aro not tho e)es of the reactionary pro-Geimnns and Holy Synod, but tho c)cs nf the merchants, manufacturers nnd bankers. Tho Third Estato took vlttually no part In the revolution of 1005. That revolution was a spoiadlc, badly organized outburst on tho part of tho workers In tlio large cities. In a largo measure, as demon strated ln tho general strlko of 1005. tho revolution earned tho enmity of tho Third Estate, for It was directed as much against tho Third Estato as against tho old, monarchical order. Tho llch land owners, too, particularly the pro-German landed aristocracy of tho Ilaltlc provinces, fought shy of tho democratic agrarian movement Tho bankers, manufacturers nnd merchants had little sympathy for the trade unions in the largo cities, nnd tho agricultural gentry looked with distinct suspicion upon tho growth of tho peasant lural organizations. None of theso elements realizes! that, for the tlmo being nt least, their Interests wero Identical; that neither of them could make much headway under thn old system of Czarlsnj, for that system drew Its main support from medieval tradi tion and brutal force; that If tho trade unions and peasant organizations threatened to cut the profits of tho land nnd fnctory owners, tho old political regime, because of its apathy and Inefficiency, waa not ln a position to make the development of agri HrrmiTininii mm mum ip IE Extra Special Tomorrow $AA Easter Suits and Top Coats for Men and Young Men WM I Suits, Coats and Dresses for Women and Misses. JW m You will bo deliBhted with tho beautiful garments you will find in this MKM W W special collection marked at tho attractive price of $20 each. Thoy nro the season's a a smartest styles and all of them are worth S25 to $30. Many are samries nf whii, , i. j n ctes. immediate selection is therefore urged. Pay Sl.OO a week. Which wo have no duPU - je. .'.I- SHAPLEN culture, tho expansion of Industry and tha making of profits posslblo. EDUCATION OF THIRD ESTATE The ten years following the Russo-Japanese War and tho two nnd a half years of tho present conflict havo convinced the Third Estate thnt the fulfillment of Its destiny lay In Its co-opciatlon with the progressive forces of the workers, tho peas antry nnd Jhe "Intelligentzia." For tho )enrs between 1005 nnd 1914 havo been years of expansion of German trado and commerce In Russia. Under the stress of tho Russo-Japanese Wnr tho Junkers of East Prussia and the Iron nnd steel barons of tho Rhino succeeded In Imposing upon Rus sia a most onerous tariff system, one which mado tho Russian merchant and manufac turer agents for German corporations nnd put the Russian landowner nnd peasant at tho mercy of tho German Harvester Trust. Russia became, for all Intents nnd pur poses, a dumping ground for German goods, a colony for tlio sale of German surplus products. And nil this wns accomplished without a murmur of protest on tho part of tho Government In Petrogrnd. For the powets of absolutism In Petrograd, consist ing, In n largo measure, of Russians of Gci man birth, rcrelved their support and Inspiration from Herlln, Not In vain, ns was charged In the first Duma, did William 11 offer to send nn army Into Russia to strangle tho revolution of 1005 If tho Rus sian finny proved dls!o)nl. (Did not Nicholas I save tho throno of tho Into Francis Joseph of Austria by a similar favor In 18487) The forco that drovo tho Slavophile cle ment Into wnr with Germany on the side of tho Allies was German) 's policy In Turkey nnd the Near East. The certainty of Ger man control of Constantinople; tho Czar grad of Slavophile territorial Imperialism' and tho economic tyranny of Germany, which wns becoming well nigh ulbearable to tho Russian Industrial, commercial nnd agricultural classes, wero tho prime factors In tho apparently Incongruous alllanco of Russia nnd Great Urltaln. Small wonder It was then that the aforementioned classes threw themselves Into the wnr, when It came, with enthusiasm and a determination to win. GERMAN INTRIGUES IN WAR German Intrigue, however, continued to find eager auditora In Pctrograd. Tho Inner lcnctlon was more Interested In preserving Its power by a separate peace, If need he, even though It may forever havo had to surrender all dreams of Constanti nople and looso Poland to completo tho bargain What to It wcro the growth and development of Russia? Privately, In dividual members of the reaction were speculating on tho Rerlln, Paris and London stock exchanges, but their souls wero In medieval monasteries and their boots In the bowels of the Russian people. And so wo havo heard, on very good authority, of tha various attempts nt n separate peace between Russia nnd Germany, the last of which was fiusliated by tho assassination of Rasputin nnd tho resignation of Sturmer. Despite the efforts of the reaction during tho war to keep the Duma where Stollpln had left It bound hand nnd foot tho na tional nssembly, through its own determina tion, energy and patriotism, assumed a most threatening nttltudo so far ns tho govern ment was concerned. At last the Third Estato began to leallzc, amid the graft, Incfllclency and treachery of the government, that It was being deceived. And so the re actionary Purishkcvltches, the patriotic Rodzlankos, the elllclent Gutchkovs nnd the honest, learned and cautious MUtukovs of 130.", carried forward upon the wave of popular revolt, becamo tno revolutionary fathers of 1017. Apparently they havo won. Evidently they havo the people and the army behind them. At last they aro ln a position to es tablish truo constitutional government ln Russia At last they will throw off German economic t)ranny, gain an outlet for their own products through the probable neutral ization of tho Dardanelles and lead an In dependent economic life. At last Russia will tako her place among the nations of tho West, whllo the Industrial and agri cultural proletariat of tho empire will Join hands with tho proletariat of tho rest of Europe for driving the chariot of progress still farther. For It ls well to remember that In epochs of revolution and this war has certainly created tho soil for a great social transformation national boundaries becomo but Imaginary lines and Moscow nnd Rerlln aro on tho samo parallel. faster Is Just Around the Corner Dress Up! Buy Your New Clothes " at STERN & CO., on the CLUB PLAN $1 .00 A Week 1 In a season when keeping prices -down has been difficult, it is a tribute' to the resources of this store that we aro now ablo to announce NO IN CREASE in our prices for Spring wear ing apparel. -714 , Market Street EVOLUTION OP RUSSIA TOLD IN EVENING LEDGER Book Pago Tomorrow Will Conl.1. AT,ln TV..!-,.-.!. - .. vuMfl tlons in Monarchy What do you know about Russia" The governmental crista in Petrotru seta us all to asking ourselves what know about conditions In the empire of iv Little Father. Most of us have to conf, that we know very little. The Rook Pngo of the Evenino ltaat. on Saturday will contain an article aw the atate of civilization In Russia and tin progress which It Is making n th .To tlon from autocracy to democracy, with' new history of tho country for the hundred years as tho text. Tho hltto ls written by a professor ln the PollteeJin?. cum of Peter the Great In Pctrograd ),' Is In sympathy with tho causo of protreii It shows how modern Russia differs from the Russia of Catherine tho Oreat. REVOLT DUE TO PUBLIC'S IRE, TOLSTOY'S SON SAYS I10ULDER, Col., Mnrch 16.' "Ru,,, revolution ls wholly duo to publlo tndljiu. tlon nt the pro-German P)mpathl anil conduct of tho vvnr of tho old mlnl-ten," said Count llya Tolstoy, eon of tho Rug-lta novelist, here today. "Russia's activity In tho war has bn constantly curtailed by those minister!. Of them Sukhomllnoff, Minister of War, 'wm probably tho worst, One tlmo he even went so far as to havo sheila manufactured for tho nrmy that, ware absolutely worthless. There Is ample proof of this. "The soldiers will now know that tha Government Is behind them and will flzht with renewed vigor." MliMIM Saturaay 'Paddy's Night" at the H anover There will be a "Little bit of Heaven" nt the Hanover tomorrovJ night " Pi" and his "Bonn? Lassie" tvill be with us We'll expect jtou. We have celebrated many holiday occasions, but for a real typical good time v?e stand "pat" on this one. Souvenirs, Special Music and Dancing. tNEW ' y Ianov ANOVER Twelfth ancl Arch Sts. (Entrance on Itlh St.) CLAUDE M. -MOIIR. Mir. imm rtt jixh 1 M-tHU-rtag'rnntlaaat'ty.pLMtf wlwu.