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y ' "l EVENING LEDGBR-PHILADELPK Pictorial Skfetfeh 19 7TSm fcJ7tfc & r (rH H I TH Jr H H jH H H t II 21 . TUTM-DEmSA' w J-n.ejhsirirLCeSSJbCad'ziwzJLL (Copyright. 1917. Tuhllo Lcdter Company. All rlnhtii rrervr ) German Intrigue, Ever Present Throughout the Vorldj Has Linked Rasputin's Name Vith the Fairest and Highest of Russia's Court Circles But These Rumors Are False, the Princess Radziwill Insists h 2$e "Black Monk" Appeared on the Scene at a m w f- F m r f If till titi II7 m J- W, j F)m -. rSyClluiuymuv iTxviiiviti, w ncii iiiu ivuvtjiail People Had Drifted Away From the Church and Were Ready for Any Strong Appeal to the Mystical Side of Their Character KAft SUI.41UV - rfVTTT me 1AY, OCTOBER 23, 1917 asputin is that he was not murdered sooner. aivcrsally detested all over Russia, that it wai ain alive so long a time after it had been found scene by other than violent means." S S A rule the general public knows very little concerning these A gects, but I shall quote here a passage out of a book on Russia by Sir Donald Mnckenzio Wallace, which is considered to this day as a itandard work in regard to its subject. "Among the 'Khlysty, " he writes, "there are men and women who take upon themselves the calling of teachers and prophets, and In this character they lead a itrict, ascetic life, refrain from the most ordinary and innocent pleasures, exhaust themselves by long fasting and wild ecstatic reli ious exercises and abhor marriage. Under the excitement caused If their supposed holiness and inspiration, they call themselves not only teachers and prophets, but also Saviours, Redeemers, Christs, Mothers ,of God. Generally speaking, they call themselves simply I ods and pray to each other as to real gods and living Christs and jjtdonnas. When several of these teachers come together at a i meeting they dispute with each other in a vain, boasting way as to which of them possesses most grace and power. In this rivalry they lometimes give each other lusty blows on the car, and he who bears the blows the most patiently, turning the other cheek to the miter, acquires the reputation of having tho most holiness. "Another sect belonging to the same category and which indeed claims close kindred with it is the Jumpers, among whom the erotic element is disagreeably prominent. Hero is a description of their religious meetings, which are held during summer in a forest and during winter in some outhouse or barn. After due preparation prayers are read by the chief teacher, dressed in a white robe and itanding in the midst of the congregation. At first he reads in an ordinary tone of voice and then passes gradually into a merry chant. When he remarks that the chanting has sufficiently acted on tho (hearers he begins to jump. The hearers, singing likewise, follow hi example. Their ever-increasing excitement finds expression in the highest possible jumps. This they continue as long as they can men and women aliko yelling like enraged savages. When all are thoroughly exhausted the leader declares that he hears the angels ringing, and then begins a scene which cannot be here described." ' I have quoted this passage in full because it may give to tho reader who is not versed in the details of Russian existence and Russian psychology tho key to the circumstances, that helped Ras putin to absorb for such a considerable number of years the attention of the public in Russia, and which, in fact, made him possible as a great ruling, though not governing, force in the country. In some ways he had appealed to the two great features of the human char acter in general and of the Russian character in particular mys- ticism and influence of the senses. It is not so surprising as it might I leem at first sight that he contrived to ascend to a position which ! no one who knew him at first ever supposed he would or could attain. ' At the same time I must, in giving a brief sketch of the career of this extraordinary individual, protest against the many calumnies I .which have associated him with names which I will not mention here i out of respect tnnd feelings of patriotism. It is sufficiently painful to)we to say-so, but German calumny, which spares no one, has ' used its poisoned arrows also where Rasputin came to be discussed. I It lias tried to' travesty maternal love and anxiety into something quitdifferent, andft has attempted to sully what it could not touch. , There have bce.fi many sad episodes in this whole story of Rasputin, (but some of ttlcTeRple who have been mentioned in connection with i .them were commeiely innocent of the things for which they have "been reproaenecr. Finally, the indignation which these vile and unfounded accusations roused in the hearts of the true friends and J servants of t5o people led to the drama which removed forever from t the surface of Russian society the sectarian who unfortunately had Kmtrived to glide into its midst. " , , Rasputin a Master of Corruption ' The one extraordinary thing about Rasputin is that he was not t iiurdered sooner. He was so entirely despised and so universally ' tyeated all over Russia that it was really a miracle that he could remain alive so long a time after it had been found impossible to remove him from the scene of the world by other than violent means. , It;was a recognized fact that ho had had a hand in all kind of dirty 1 $ny matters and that no business of a financial character con- oecfed with military expenditure could be brought to a close with l out his being mixed In it. About this, however, I shall speak later I fto fn trying to explain how the Rasputin legend spread and how it k ya's exploited by all kind of individuals of a 'shady character, who 5f.J VI. .- -j! iL.! ml.- J-1 l.J u ins numo ior purposes 01 tneir own. xne ucanuai tuuucvieu with the shameless manner in which he became asspciated with Innumerable transactions more or less disreputable was so enormous that unfortunately it extended to people and to names that should I .neyer, have been mentioned together with him. It must never be forgotten, and I cannot repeat this suffi ciently, that Rasputin was a common peasant of the worst class of the Russian mougiks, devoid of every kind of education, with out any manners and in his outward appearance more disgusting jhan nn thing else. It would be impossible to explain the influence which he undoubtedly contrived to acquire "upon some persons belonging to the highest social circles if one did not take into account this mysticism and superstition which lie at the bottom of the Slav nature nnd the tendency which the Russian character has to accept as a manifestation of the power of the divinity all things that touch upon the marvelous or the uncx plainablc. Rasputin in a certain sense appeared on the scene of Russian social life at the very moment when his teachings could become acceptable, at the time when Russian society had been shaken to its deepest depths by the revolution which had fol lowed upon the Japanese war and when It was looking every where for a safe harbor in which to find a refuge. At the beginning of his career and when he was introduced into the most select circles of tho Russian capital, thanks to the caprices and the fancies of two or three fanatic orthodox Indies who had imagined that they had found in him a second Savonarola and that his sermons nnd teachings could provoke a renewal of religious fer vor, people laughed nt him and at his feminine disciples, and made all kinds of jokes, good nnd bad, about him and them. But this sort of thing did not last n long time and Rasputin, who, though devoid of every kind of culture, had a good deal of the cunning, which is one of the distinctive features of tho Russian peasant, was the first to who made I nat nt last Rasputin himself deemed it advisable i. native village of Pokrowskoie, in "Siberia. A few days after his departure the little Grnnd Duke fell soriously ill nnd his mother became persuaded that this was a pun ishment for her having allowed tho vngrant prenchcr to bo sent nwny. Rasputin was recalled, nnd after this no one ever spoke again of his being removed anywhere. From that time all kind of adventurers began to lay siege to him and to do their utmost to gain an introduction. Rasputin and the "Fair Ladies" Russia was still the land where n court favorite was all-powerful, and Rasputin was held ns such, especially by those who had some personal interest in representing him ns the successor to Menschl kolT under Peter the Great, Diren under the Empress Anne nnd Orloff under Catherine II. He acquired a far greater influence out side Tzarskoie Selo than he ccr enjoyed in the imperial residence itself, and he made the best of it, boasting of a position which in reality he did not possess. The innumerable state functionaries, who in Russia unfortunately nlwnys have the last word to say every where and in everything nnd whose rapacity is proverbial, hastened to put themselves nt the service of Rnsputln and to grant him every thing which he asked, in the hope that in return he would make him self useful to them. NsiiiiiiiiiV j iiiiiiH iiiiiVsiiHBBHiiiiiiifliSE&aiiiHBBQiHH 111111111119 - VHHr HiB Tr9iaiiHsiiiHsw IKKr " iiiiiHE9sH9sv!S8alH!nKSr9i9 liniiiiiiiH I'V'uVl t- H aK. iiiiS?9k..L I 1 wiTv x iiiiiiBatiiiHBBiiiiiiiiw lifliiiiiiiiiiiiZf ibiiiiiiS - iHHHsBiHaSiBKVf&sMt wnHHlQHliiBaBiBiVBsflliiiiB p- jpBc i JiVR X B g&V lllB HiBllKHtakR$Ste. iwRuiH?4t"& 1 Rasputin (in the center with his hnnd on his chest) surrounded by a group of admirers in a fashionable Pctrograd home. guess all the possibilities which this sudden "engouement" of influ ential people for his person opened out before him nnd to what use it could bo put for both his ambition and his inordinate love of money. He began by exacting a considerable salary for all the prayers which he was supposed to say at the request of his worshipers, and of all the ladles, fair or unfair, who had canonized him in their enthusiasm fQr all the wonderful things which he was continually telling them. He was eloquent in a way and at the beginning of his wonderful thaumaturgic existence had not yet adopted the attitude which he was to assume 'nter on of an idol, whom every one had to adore. t IIe was preaching the necessity to repent of one's sins, to make due penance for them after a particular manner, which he described as being the most agreeable to God, and to pray s constantly and with unusual fen or for the salvation of orthodox Russia. He contrived most cleverly to play upon the chord of patriotism which Is always so developed in Russians, and to speak to them of the welfare of their beloved fatherland when ever he thought it advantageous to his personal interests to do so. He succeeded in inspiring in his adepts a faith in his own person and in his power to save their souls akin to the one which is to be met in England and in America among the sect that preach mental heading. A few hysterical ladies- who were addicted to neuralgia or headaches, suddenly found themselves better after having conversed or prayed with him, and they spread his fame outside the small circle which had adopted him at the beginning of his career. One fine day a personal friend of the reigning Empress, Madame W.r introduced him at Tzarskoie Selo, under the pretext of praying for the health of the small heir to the Russian throne, who was occasioning some anxiety to his par ents. It was from that day that he became a personage. His success at court was due to the superstitious dread with which he contrived to inspire the Emprpss in regard to her son. She was constantly trembling for him, and being very religiously inclined, with strong leanings toward mysticism, she allowed herself to be persuaded more by the people who surrounded her than by Rasputin himself. She believed that the monk, of whose holiness she was absolutely persuaded, could by his prayers alone obtain the protec tion of the Almighty for her beloved child. An accidental occurrence contributed to strengthen her in this conviction. There were per sons who were of the opinion that the presence of Rasputin at Tzarskoie Selo was not advantageous for many reasons. Among them was Mr. Stolypine, then Minister of the Interior, and he it was A kind of bargaining established itself between people desirous of making a career nnd Rasputin, eager to enrich himself no matter by what means. He began by playing the intermediary in different financial transactions agninst n substantial consideration, and at last he thought himself entitled to give his attention to matters of state. This was the saddest side of his remarkable career as a pscudo-Cagliostro. He had a good deal of natural intelligence, and while being tho first to laugh at fair ladies who clustered around him, he understood at once that he could make use of them. This he did not fail to do. He adopted toward them the manners of a stein master, and treated them like his humble slaves. At last he ended by leading the existence of a man of pleasure, denying himself nothing, especially his fondness for liquor of every kind. At that time there was ,no prohibition in Russia and, like all Russinn peasants, Rasputin was very fond of vodka, to which he never missed adding a substantial quantity of champagne when ever he found tho opportunity. I shall abstain from touching upon the delicate point of the orgies to which it is related that Rasputin was in the habit of addicting himself, the more so because I do not really believe these ever took place in those higher circles of society where it was said they regularly occurred. That strange things may have happened among the common people, who in far greater numbers than it has ever been known used to attend the religious meetings which he held, I shall not deny. It must nlways be remembered that Rasputin belonged iO the religious sect of the Khlysty, of whose assemblies we have read the description, and it is quite likely, and even probable, that the assemblies of these sectarians nt which he presided were not different from the others to which these heretics crowded. But I feel absolutely convinced thnt as regards the relations of the ndventurcr with the numerous Indies of society silly enough to believe in him and in his gifts of prophecy, these consisted only of superstitious reverence on one side and exploitation of human stupidity on tho other. I must once more insist on the point that the apparition of Rasputin in Russian society had nothing wonderful about it, and thnt the only strange thing is that such a fuss was made. Before his time people belonging to the highest social circles had become afflicted with religious mnnias of one kind or another out of that natural longing for something to believe in and to vvoiship which lies hidden at the bottom of the character of every Russian who has the leisure, or the craving, to examine teriously tho difficult RASPUTIN AND THE RUSSIAN, CHARACTER TT WOULD be impossible to explain the influence which Rnsputln undoubtedly contrived to acquire upon some persons belong ing to the highest social circles if one did not take Into account this lnvsticlsm nnd superstition which lie at the bottom of the Slav nature and the tendency which the Russian character hM to accept as a manifestation of the power of the divinity all things that touch upon the marvelous or the uncxplainablc. and complicated problems of n future life and of the faith one ought to follow and to believe in. In 1817 there was discovered in the very heart of St. Petersburg, holding its meetings in an imperial residence (the Michael Palace), n religious sect of most pronounced mystical tendencies, presided over- by n lady belonging to the best circles of tho capital the widow of u colonel, Mndamo Tntarinoff. In her apartments used u gnther officers, State functionaries, women and girls of good fnmily nnd excellent education who, with slight variations, practiced all tho religious rites of the Khlystys. One of the Minister! of Alexander I, Prince Galitzyne, was suspected of having honored these assemblies with his presence. Thanks to a letter which accidentally fell into the hands of the police, the Government became iiware of what was going on, and Madame Tatarinoff, this Russian Madame Guyon, expintcd in exile in a distant province of Siberia the ecstasies which she had practiced nnd which she hnd allowed others to practice under her roof. Some of her disciples were prosecuted, but the greater number escaped scot free. The authorities did not care to increase the scnndal which this affair hnd aroused in the capitnl. Uplifting the Cab Drivers Much later, in 1878, after the Russo-Turkish war, which, like the Japanese affair, had been followed by a strong revolutionary movement in the country that culminated in the assassination of the Czar, Alexander II, another prophet, this time of foreign origin, nppenred on the social horizon of St. Petersburg society, where he made a considerable number of converts. This was the famous Lord Raditock, whose doctrines were taken up by a gentleman who up to thnt time had been known as one of tho gayest among the gny, a colonel in the Gunrds Mr. Bnsil Paschkoff. He was enormously lich, and put all his vnst fortune nt the service of the religious craze which had seized him. He used hls best efforts to convert to tho doctrino of salvation through faith only not alone hia friends and relatives, but also the poorer classes of the popu lation of tho capital, devoting in particular his attention to the cab drivers. All these people used to meet at his house, where they mingled with persons of the highest rank and standing, such ns Count Korff, nnd a former Minister, Count Alexis Bobrinsky. Later on the whole Tchertkoff family, to which belonged the famous friend, of Count Leo Tolstoy, associated itself with them, and, indeed, displayed the greatest fanaticism in regard to its par ticipntion in the doctrines of the new sect. The Paschkowitcs, as they came to be called, had nothing at all in common with tho Khlystys. Their morals were absolutely unimpeachable, and what they preached wa3 simply the necessity to conform one's existence to the teachings of the Gospel, which they explained nnd commented upon, each person according to his own light. They were Protestnnts in a certain sense, inasmuch as their views were distinctly Protestant ones. But they had much more in common with the nonconformists than the real followeis of Luther or of Calvin. They were a kind of refined Salvation Army, if this expression can be forgiven me; though they never acquired the importance, nor did the good which the latter has done, perhaps because they could never make any practical application of the principles and of the idens which animated them. But at one time the Paschkowist craze was just ns strong as the Rasputin one became later on, and Lord Radstock and Mr. Paschkoff wero considered just as much prophets among their own particular circle as was Rasputin nmong the fanatical ladies who had-taken him up. These crises of religious mania are regular occurrences in Rus sian higher social circles when unusually grave circumstances arrive to shake their equanimity. Seen from this particular point of view, the apparition of Rasputin nnd the importance which his personality acquired in the life of the Russinn upper classes present nothing very wonderful. Before him other so-called prophets had kept tho attention of the public riveted upon their doings and their actions. What distinguished his short passage was the fact that it was made the occasion by the natural enemies of the empire, consisting of the discontented at home and of the Germans outside the frontier, to discredit the dj nasty as well as those whose life was spent in its immediate vicinity and to present this figure of the vagrant half monk and half-layman. He preached a new revelation to those foolish enough to listen to him, representing himself as of almost gigantic importance, who could at his will and fancy direct the course of public affairs and lead them wherever he wanted. My object in this study will be to show Rasputin for what he really was, and in retracing the different vicissitudes of his strange career not to give way to the many exaggerations, which, in familiar izing people abroad with his person and with his name, have made out of him something quite wonderful, and almost equal In power with the Czar himself. It is time to do away with such legends and to bring Rasputin back to his proper level a very able and cunning, half-cultured peasant, who owed his successes only to the fanaticism of the few, and to the interest which many had in dissimulating themselves behind him, in order to bring their personal wishes to a successful end. It Is not Rasputin who performed most of the actions put to his credit. It was those who influenced him, who pushed him forward and who, thanks to him, became both rich and powerful. He has disappeared. I wish wo could be as sure that they have disappeared along with him. (CONTINUED TOMOnilOW) fiJEFFERSON HOSPITAL UNIT, No. 30, MOBILIZES FOR DUTY AT SECOND REGIMENT ARMORY 1 , - VM itf t I r i , s j rtjotuiraib Tiy"rC( rt Jrlkcr'itts I'i vr wim 0 0 u rj ..A. mBW&. -f" !