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HVJjsssmiKtHtrM .$ v ' " . 'ii'ViLriiiNG tbbiic "LuEiJ-i-niL&fiiA:; 'ruESDAt;:-5tJLY it 1922 - --H - .aWsS .fjj .. r t"i-' fu 1 LOVE JOINS WITH SCIENCE IN PERFECTING ROCKE te 'XA ! "J" .' IV HICH MAY BRIDGE SPACE FROM EARTH TO MOO I"' i " Professer Rebert H. Goddard, Inventor of Giant Lunar Projectile, Is Aided -&' Mi " JS CSTi v tt.WV ?vr ' fi in Experiment and Research by Cel -,;V 1 lege Girl Jrhem He Will Marry FIANCEE WRITES PLAYS AS SAVANT STUDIES WAY TO CHART REALMS OF SKIES May Revolutionize Accepted Theories of Earth 9s Atmospheric Conditions by Recording Accurate Data of Regions Miles Above the Clouds THE rose-tinted glow of romance and the cold, steady light of science, usually as far asunder as the poles, have been united in remarkable tests that may revolutionize, man's knowledge of the atmosphere. Prof. Rebert H1. Goddard, originator of the idea of the "moon rocket," has fallen in love with a charming young college girl. s Miss Esther Christine Kisk, of Worcester, Mass., the professor's fiancee, has become absorbed in the experiments her future husband is making at Clark University, Worcester, where he is head of the De partment of Physics. The moon and levers have been associated since the earliest ages. Peets have lhapsedized ever the spell of romance cast by its silver flood of light. But te Dr. Goddard and his bride-te-be the moon has become the sym bol of a scientific goal. The super rocket which he is planning, if suc cessful, will add one mere victory te man's conquest of nature. Dr. Goddard became renowned overnight several years age when the world learned of the great rocket he was planning te sheet into in finite space. The public fancy wac caught with the suggestion that eventually the Goddard super-rocket might carry a man te the moon. Numerous men and some women offered te attempt the trip. ' , But the professor is net interested primarily in any attempts te reach the moon. What he wants te de is te solve the mysteries of the spaces beyond the earth's atmospheric envelope. He wants te learn the density, the chemical composition and the tem perature at various pianos of ele vation. He hopes that hi3 invention will enable aviators te chart the sky and gain reliable information as te flying conditions at great heights. He wants te learn mere of "geo "gee "geo ceronium," a gas net found at the surface of the earth, which is said te comprise the fourth region of the atmosphere. In two years Dr. Goddard expects te reach his scientific goal. Scien tists in this country, in Europe and even in Africa are in touch with his experiments. Initial Steps in Leve and Research in 1917 It is a coincidence that the first step that brought exceptional prog ress with the model rocket was made by Dr. Goddard in 1917, the year he met Miss Kisk. She graduated from the Seuth High Scheel in Worcester in that year and became secretary te Dr. Edmund P. Sanferd, then president of Clark University. Mis? KKk's scholastic attainment aw Indicative, friends sny, of the ns flstnnre that she will give Prof. Gnd diril in weiklng out perplexing preb- it 'CDS anil leii.llnir svmnntlictle nnd in- lijtent encouragement. he served ns secretary te Dr. San- rd for two years before entering Hates College. In her first yenr there 'he attained the highest grnde of schol schel rship, net enlv in her own elnss, but In the entlie student body. This yenr die wen sophomore honors for thchlgh t rank in her clan. She linn nlse the fotlnctlen of being a half holder of the Bancroft Seheluishlp In Worcester, nn lener going only te these who have Bntnl nhllltv fur nbeve the average. Miss Risk's verse und prose frequently 'UPcnred iM magazines, and her play. 'Sew and Then," wen the competition ' the sophomores nt Hates this cnr nd was prevented nt the Utile Theatre t the college. Miss KIsU also held nn MKtntitshln in economics ax a part of student activities. Next yeer she ""'H hae a similar position in Greek "'I English. When she was graduated . 'rem the high school she hud the high t school scholarship. n mi.T nnd 1010 the actual expert jntntal investigation was undertaken, Tests concerning ordinary rockets, steel ""ambers, and nozzles were made nt Uark I'niversity. The erlginnl caleu caleu 'attens were then repeated, using the J'ta from these experiments, and both ""J theoretical and experimental "re "Hi 1 wcie submitted te the Smlthson Smlthsen "B Institution. t costs money te carry en scientific "Perlments, and especially these Hint "Telvc Blll.j, jmilwH0 possibilities as n ""n-gelng rocket, but It came from nn "pected source after Prof. Goddard, "b's confidence In Ills theory, lmd " own into his own pocket te advance iota. Want of $5090 from the Hedtklmi t & Fund nt the Smlthsenlnn Institution gave Impetus te the development of a reloading or multiple charge rocket. The work was begun at the Worcester Poly technic Institute in 1017, and Inter was undertaken as a wnr preposition. It was continued nt the Mount Wilsen Obscrvntery in Califernln from June. 1018, up te very nearly the time of signing the armistice. Gets Financial Help Frem Unexpected Source Since then the work has net prog ressed as rapidly owing te a lack of funds, but ngnin financial nsslstnnc" hns come from nn unexpected qunrtcr. The source hns been especially gratify ing te Dr. Goddard. in that It is in dicative of the confidence which the trustees of his university have in his theories, despite the fact thnt the ex periment has net ndvnnccd beyond the model stage. Dr. Goddard wns in his laboratory at Worcester when he consented te tell of his experiments. Before him wns a model of the rocket ever which he has worked for seven years. "I have faith in the possibilities of the rocket," he said, "net only as an aid te science in determining the den sity, chemical composition nnd tempera ture of the atmosphere, but also us a means of exploration." "De you really believe that eventually you will bu able te send a human being te the moon?" Prof. Goddard's smile gave way te n leek of seriousness. "I think the suggestion of such an achievement tame from my original paper te the Smithsonian Institution," he answered. "Hut," the questioner continued, "there hnvc been repeits from time te time thnt your locket theory did net anticipate meie than sending a rocket te en unexplored region of the air te determine, scientific facts concerning the atmosphere and the nature of the aurora." "The possibilities of the rocket which I have outlined In theory and have brought te'n degree of perfection in model' form can readily be recognized," Dr. Goddard replied. "I must make it clear, however, that as the financial nsslstnnce te carry en my work came from Clark University. it becomes essential that I keep silent until such time ns the institution is pre pared te announce any definite develop ments. "I enn say. however, that I believe the sum which Clark University hns put nt my disposal will be sufficient te ennble me te mnke rapid progress In the future development of the rocket. It will enable me te mnke meie ex periments with my model and pave the way for the larger rocket, "'eiid thnt I can sny nothing." Many Have Offered te Take Lunar Trip Thnt ninny people throughout the world hnve taken serious cognizance of Dr. Gedelnrd's experiments is evinced by the large number of letters he bus received from persons eager te take n trip te the moon. "When my theory wns first made public." said Dr. Oeddnrd. "I re ceived letters from men who desired te ride te the moon. They are still com ing. .Only recently I get u letter from a woman in Kansns City. Me., who appealed for the opportunity te take the rocket trip. "The majority of the writers, how ever, reveal in their letters that they nre nnlmntcd bv the desire for publicity. Their offers are net te be taken seii seii euslv as nn effort te give scientific as slstnnce." Dr. Goddard hns received countless letters from scientists who have offered their services. Seme of them pro'iese journeying te Worcester te aid the professor in the Clnrk laboratory. Perhaps the most Interesting of thes. missives has come from Khuitum, Africa, where a scientist who hns spent his life in research weik details hew he gleaned the knowledge from u news nnner which reached there ulmest two years after the subject gained promi nence In hclentifif discussions. Offers of help hnve come from a Herman stu dent nt Heidelberg nnd still another from a Danish engineer, , There i only one person, te ?y ', ' 0 ,1 J '?, '''', 'itfl rsv, OaJMHIM szHm . & rti. wmZs $&& mrwwfmmm &zwm Dr. Rebert H. Goddard, head of the Department of Physics at Clark University, Worcester, Mass., who originated the idea of a "moon rocket" for scientific research, upon, which he is new working knowledge, beside myself who is nt work en 11 rocket theory." sold Dr. (Sod (Sed dnrd. "He Is a French engineer, but his experiments nre net being conducted with the Lien of exploring extreme alti tudes." The amount of money which Clark University trustees have placed nt the disposal of Dr. (Jeddard te further hN experiments has net been made public. Dr. (ieddaril contents himself with the statement that It Is a modest amount, but entirely adequate for the work In hand. The trustees nre likewise un communicative, but they say the up up up proptintlen was made becnuse they had tnlth in the practicability of the pieject. It is net the sensational idea of sheeting a human being te the moon that hau attracted the attention el scientists und impressed the university tiustees, but rather the possibilities for scientific inclination which has long been desired. Dr. (Jeddard says that while his theory Is net being worked out with the idea of getting data en weather condi tions for forecast, the rocket plan would be an immeasurable nlil te the weather man. Observations May Aid Science of Aviation "The observations that could be made with rockets and proper Instru ments fired only a few miles into the air would be valuable te aviators also," he suld. "I think the time Is net se very far distant when such methods will be employed te ascertain Hying condi tions. "This is one of the Immense possi bilities in the development of the rocket theory. VHille my rocket would be cm- J plejed te reach extreme altitudes, It, WlllllM JilM UU IIIUllUIL III UWUftl' 11 (111 U smaller scale for just Mich purposes. "Speculations hnve been mude as te the nature of the upper ntmesphcre these by Wegner being perhups the most plausible. "Ity estimating the temperature and percentage composition of the gases pieseuti In the ulmespherc, Wegner calculates the partial pressure of the constituent gases, and concludes that there are four regions or spheres of the atmosphere in which certain gases pie pie demliiate: the troposphere, in which are the clouds; the stratesphcic. pre pre eominatingly nitrogen; the hydrogen sphere, and the geoceronluin sphere. "This highest sphere appears te con sist essentially of nn element of 'gee ( emnium,' a gas net present at the sur face of the earth. The existence of such u gas is in agreement with Nichelson's theory of the atom, and its investigation, would, of ceuise, be a matter of considerable importance te astronomy and phjslcs, us well as meteorology. "The greatest altitude at which soundings of the .atmosphere have been made by balloons, namely, about twenty miles, Is but a small fraction of the height te which the utmesphcie is sup posed te extend. "Slmultnneeus dally observations at n large number of stations of the vari ous planes of pressure, temperature and wind velocity would doubtless be of great value in weather forecasting. The theory, which I have worked out. Is well suited for such a purpe-e, in that the time and rise of such a fall would be short, se that the apparatus would readily be found en Us return. The expanse would be slight, being simply that of a fresh magazine of cartridges for each day." Nitrocellulose smokeless powder Is the propelling fetce of the rocket which Dr. (leddard has worked out in theory and through patient experiment. The gases are ejected frein the rocket nt u high velocity, most of the prejectile consisting of prepellent material. Successive churcs ure tired in the same cbambcri ns in a rnpid-flre gun. K rxrd MMmji W111 n r'Vtfcttl itn 1 1 il i. -$ ." Vfic i " - KHvfe;!;;vfe: p; ;" tt rK. ' m m 7& N iw'' ( Vs ' . c t . f '"';' i . . in & & ussa Such reloading mechanisms, together with what is termed A "primary and secondary" locket piluclple, have been patented by Dr. (leddard under four patents. Their ate thice principles Involved. The first lencerns therine-dynnmic ef ficiency through the use of a nnoeth nozzle of proper length nnd taper, through which the gaseous products of combustion arc dlsehniged. "Ily this means the expansion of the gases Is obtained ns kinetic energy. and complete combustion is ensued. A 1 cle.idlng device embodies the second principle, whereby a huge mass of explosive material Is used, a little, at a time, in a small, strong, cnmbiis- ' tien chamber. This enables hljjh ham- lmr prcssuies te be employed. 1m- pessiiue 111 1111 eKllntiiy paper rocket, unci iuse permits tne mass et tne lecUct te (enslst of prepellent material. The empleyim nt of a pilmury and sic eiidury locket apparatus is dealt with in the third pilnelple. The secondary, a minutuie of the primary, Is filed when the pilmury hits reached the upper limit of its flight. Itv this means the large l.ttle of prepellent material te total mass is kepi vlrtu.illv the same dining die entire flight. A tmrnchntc device m-eiiili'-. for the rn. turn or tlie iltseaiileil inslligs te the ground without damage. I .. ... . i, Rocket Striking Moen Visible by Its Flash , The calculations of I'ref. (ledduul 1 reveal that with an initial mass charge vvekiilir; (l.'iltl pounds he could cause an explosion en the suifaie of the moon sufficient te make a Hash visible en the earth through a telcseoec of one feet apertilie. With '!.'!, "J7S pounds lie could pieduce a Hash visible te the nuked eye. Through the employment of a largei telescope ihive amounts could, of I course, be much i educed. With an apeituie of two feet the masses would ue reuuceil one-teurtli of tliese given, i but the uie of such telescopes would ' gicnciy iiiuii 1 iu milliner 01 epscricrs. Dr, (Ieddaril has nlie.tdy made tests' ' with tubes containing Victer Hash pew - i , cier 111 .Milium, .viuss,, just eiltsli e of the city limits of Worcester. The flashes fired en n fairly clc.tr uiclit were nl. served in Worcester. It was found tlmt oie-twentieth of a grain of Victer flush powder fired In vacuum could be" fccen -.07 e s? - y .7; Miss Esther Christine Kisk, Rates College girl and fiancee of Dr. Goddard, whom she is ex pected te assist in his experi ments by her profound knowl edge of physics and meteorology at a distance of two and one-quarter miles. 1'ief, (iedd.ird has taken Inte con sideration every condition that it Is possible te anticipate in the flight of the rocket tiivvaid the moon. He hns even given deep study te the possibility et u lOlllsien between tile imhct ami i metiet's. lie says the danger of such an nit'ideiii is negligible, e;iect,ill.v as the locket would be discharged i as te avoid meteor swarms, the direiilniii et ninlien 1 hesen being that of the SW'.ll Ills. iJr. (iiiddaul gave u cnieful smii muij of the situation as it is today after years of experiment and study. ltilelh. t Iii facts that stand out me these' Tin imUt in prim Iple is ideally adapted tn nncliing high altitudes, in thai it minis nppiii.itus without J.u. and docs net ill ucud upon the messuie let all ter piopulsien A tin niet i nl tie.itmeiit of the rocket ... I ......!.. .-li..,,.. rliti, ,f tli.t ,iit. ,.!, nl expulsion U the gases wcie consider- nbv in. leased nnd the ratio f ,- ....ii. , .1 ... .1 i. '..!.., III UK IIH, .lii 11 n ,11,(1 i, ,111 .ilirill. Ml prill-Ill 11m i-li.l. I" l.ii- i-illiic ll'C'lvci. wcie also inuciisiii, a ticiiicncieus in- i cie.ise m l.tiu'e would icsult nxpetiincuts with nniiimij mckets show that the ctliclruc-y of such lockets Is L' pel cent and the velocity of ejec- tien of itllses 1000 feet per second , Fer small i-.ckets the ratios a-e si,vhtl, i .''ss' """ " special i.vpe nt sieci chamber and nozzle, an efficiency has ti.i.i ..., ., . , 1 ueen eni.iincii vvuii mikim icss pewncr let ever (11 per cent (higher than tlmt of anv heat engine ever liefeie testedi, together with a velocity of nc.ulv seen feet pei sciend, Which is the highest velocity m lar obtained in anv way exi ept in clcitiicnl disihuigc wcuk. r.xpenim nts tepeiited with the same cliaiuiieis in n vacuum dcmeiistiuted that the high velocity of the eicettd gases was a real velocity, and net nierclv an tlTecl of icactleii uynliist the air. In fmt. expeiiinenrs pciimmcd at prcssuies such lis pieb.ibly exist at an altitude of thltly miles ,uve veloci ties even higher than these obtained In air at ntnin'I'dic pref.uies, the In dense in viiecitv p nimbly being due te a dlfteienie in h-uUien. Keiths of the epeilmeuis also Indicated that this velecitv could be exceeded with a uiedi- (led feim of appaiatus. When a large clumber was used in e.xnei inent- It was c eniensti.ite. i Mi net only aie large ihui.ibris epcrntlie but th.it the velocities und ctlhlencics are lihhrr than for small chambers, A cnlculiitlun based upon thy theory, Involving data tlmt n partly theetetlctil and partly empirical, indicates 'that only n moderately large initial mass is required te raise recording Instruments weighing a pound, even te the extreme upper atmosphere. The Initial mass necessary is likewise net excessive even if the effective ve locity is reduced by one-half. Cnlcu Cnlcu lnttens show, however, thnt any ap paratus in which ordinary rockets ere used would be impractical, because of the large initial masses that would be required. Could Recover Rocket by Means of Parachute The recovery of appnrtus en Its re turn, Dr. Goddard says, need net be n difficult mntter, inasmuch ns the time of accent even te great altitudes In the atmosphere will be comparatively short, due te the high speed of the rocket throughout Its entire course. The time of descent will nlse be short, but a free full can be prevented satis factorily by n suitable parachute. A parachute will be operative, lie says, for the reason thnt high veloc ities nnd small atmospheric densi ties nre essentially the same ns low velocities nnd erdlnnry density. l'ven If a mnss of one pound were propelled by the nppnrntus until it possessed sufficient momentum te escnpe the earth's attraction, the propelling mass need net be unreasonably large, for n high velocity of ejection would be attainable. Dr. Oeddard has net been unmind ful of the popular discussions thnt have ensued concerning the merits of his theory and the possibilities It presents. He hns given careful consideration te nil questions that have been raised and has net failed te convince his critics of the faith lie hns in the principle and the ultlmnte success of his project. Dr. Oeddnrd says that te nianv people the operation of n jet In a vacuum is still n mystery. However, he says the phenomenon is easily un derstood if one thinks of the ejected gns as a t barge of fine shot, moving with a very high velocity. The cham ber will react or kick when the charge is fired, exactly u' a shotgun kicks when firing a charge of erdlnnry shot. An objection which Dr. Oeddard has answered is that if a rocket were te be inniected te an infinite distance, the nppnrntus would engender great frie- tmn while passing through the nlr, nnd If it moved with a speed as grcnt as one and one-half miles per second outside the atmosphere, It would catch fire by fiictinn or fly te pieces, because of the I excessive speed. He declares that the Initial speed does net exceed two thousand feet per second ever the first twenty-live miles, ' beyond which the density of the ntmes- pheie Is negligible. He snys the Idea of 11 bedv Hying te pieces is unfounded, and points out there Is geed evidence 'tn believe that the earth, together with I . , '"' ' m..e je.m ...ieB j; "ling through ..puce tittccn miles per second lar system is at a speed of nut tills does ,,.,. ,.,l.,nl,l., C.,...., .,,,1 '""""'" ence. Te Steer Projectile t by SllCmUm Cells ,,.t ,i, n.n,.. i... ...... Ml' """:., " ' T. ""Y, "'n ' ', . "'i says It has been argued, granting that the projection te spch a distum e can he made, theie will be se many disturb ing influences affecting Its course tlmt It will be very unlikely te continue In the proper direction te make a hit. He declares the photo-sensitive cell win ne tne menus et automatically guid- i netimiiig. ing the uppnintus toward or near a1 D'" Oedd.trd's familv is widely known luminous object, In this case the cres- I In Worcester for Its philanthropy, cent of the moon. The steering, he When the piofesser was a child the says, must be accomplished by jets, . family moved temporal ilv te Hosten nnd which weik laterally just as the mnin , he graduated from the Hugh O'llrien Jet vveiks perpendicularly. i Grammar Scheel and went for a year Dr. Godchild is of average size but , te the Kngllsh High Scheel Then the Inclined te slimnrss. A pair of penc- , home wns moved again te Worcester, trutltig eyes accentuates the Intelligence ij0 s K1-nduutecl from me ieuth of his face ami forehead. He Is enlv High Scheel In Worcester with the clnst forty yciirs old. Ills scientific re- of 1l)fi ns an honor man, and then nt scinches and his perseverance In the tended Wniccster PnhtcciiniiA Institute, piifcctleu of a rocket te exploit' ix- .from which he was nlse graduated with triune altitudes has net diminished u ' h'gh honets. the slightest degree his humor, or Ids Then came degrees from Clnrk Unll' iippucia Inn et the lompunleiishlp of vers'tv He was made honorary Fellow tliese wiiese mlllils de licit ileal ulrli siieiitlfie pteblems. Ne professor at Clink Univeisitv Is mere loved und re. spected than Dr. Oeddard, nnd the students -hnve frequently demonstrated their deep a (Tee I tan for Um uwq. Illustrative of Tils knowledge of the -v X . (L 'V . human Interest element in his rocket experiment is the following incident he told students of the Worcester Poly technic Institute, for which Institution he has a deep affection born of his stu dent days, and because many of his most Important experiments were per formed there : "It Is probable that the points which the average person would desire most, te have discussed are sheeting the moon and allied problems. "After the announcement of my theory by the Smithsonian Institution the popular Impression was se much in evidence that a moon-sheeting device . wns under way, and that all the public needed te de wns te sit still and watch it, that I believed it necessary te cor rect the Impression. But I wanted at (the same time te hint thnt further ex periments would lead te even mere In teresting results. "My statement wns token mere con servatively thnn I had anticipnted, but in the light of subsequent events I was very glad thnt this was se. In the first place, I am net a sensationalist, even though I realize I am dealing with a scnsatiennl subject. I almost wish I were, for I could certainly start some thing. "Te discuss details before one hns checked up matters completely by experiment is unwise, for te de se merely precipitates a flood of useless argument, discussion and comment, te which reply must be made. The Ideal method, when possible, is te solve a problem completely, as wns done with the tests of the jet In vacuum, and then te state results. Thus the discussion dies before it starts. Has Unalterable Faith in Principles and Theory "Rut while I prefer te avoid sensa tions, I x ill net back down when I nni convinced of the soundness of a physical principle nnd net only is the moon-sheeting preposition based upon sound physical principles, but there nre ether principles just ns fundamental which are bound net only te lend te certain refinements, but nlse te results of still greater interest." And while the discussions continue, Dr Goddard works unceasingly en the model, which lie Is confident will seen be brought te such perfection as te permit work te begin en the rocket which he believes will justify his beliefs nnd theetles. The people of Dr. Oeddnrd's native city die was born in Worcester en October .", 1SS2) have great respect for his scientific nbilitv. Tliev knew his struggles nnd hardships in bringing the i model te the advanced stage it has ' nlrendy readied. , They hnve likened his experiences te i these of ether inventors who have mnde l notable contributions te the world's progress; they knew of the success of experiments he has carried en In the Past, and they me confident that the ; finnnclnl nsslstnnce from Clnrk Unl- I verMty will icsult within the next two I years in an announcement that will (startle the scientific world and bring , wen greater honor nnd fame te Prof. Oeddnid and the institution with which I he is connected. ' Supporters of Dr (lOddard's nreleet ueueve tni.i ine nrst leal test of, tne equipment will net long be delnycd, with a small rocket mounting about two milci in the nlr, te be followed later by the sending of a projectile te the moon. And then the stipicinc nchlevcmcnt the sending of a human belnj; te that planet. I'ven, before two jenrs hnve elapsed Ids" associates believe the long-awaited announcement will come. The clone acquaintances of Dr. Oeddnrd nre fully nwnre of his medestv and his dislike for making statements before there is just reas'iu, but tliev believe the fnith of the trustees of Clark University will be rewarded with i exults uhieh the pre- " fesser's medestv iniiv new fei-hld nn. In l'hvsles Tlie following yenr bt went te Princeton University ns a re -?itrJ seaich Instructor in the sunifl subjMtItif,3 out was speeijtiy receneci 10 Uini'K, rtKVwSt.;i as instructor, men mistitnt JfteWMat, then associate antMt.i;Metki&.m ei tne v ?h I lift .1 ' Yf !t I i ' 5m I 11 , , i , i ,' sViAy .!-' ?f t 1 f "