v ' " . 'ii'ViLriiiNG tbbiic "LuEiJ-i-niL&fiiA:; 'ruESDAt;:-5tJLY it 1922
- --H - .aWsS
.fjj .. r t"i-' fu 1
LOVE JOINS WITH SCIENCE IN PERFECTING ROCKE
! "J" .'
IV HICH MAY BRIDGE SPACE FROM EARTH TO MOO
I"' i "
Professer Rebert H. Goddard, Inventor
of Giant Lunar Projectile, Is Aided
in Experiment and Research by Cel
lege Girl Jrhem He Will Marry
FIANCEE WRITES PLAYS AS
SAVANT STUDIES WAY TO
CHART REALMS OF SKIES
May Revolutionize Accepted Theories
of Earth 9s Atmospheric Conditions by
Recording Accurate Data of Regions
Miles Above the Clouds
THE rose-tinted glow of romance and the cold, steady light of science,
usually as far asunder as the poles, have been united in remarkable
tests that may revolutionize, man's knowledge of the atmosphere.
Prof. Rebert H1. Goddard, originator of the idea of the "moon rocket,"
has fallen in love with a charming young college girl. s
Miss Esther Christine Kisk, of Worcester, Mass., the professor's
fiancee, has become absorbed in the experiments her future husband is
making at Clark University, Worcester, where he is head of the De
partment of Physics.
The moon and levers have been
associated since the earliest ages.
Peets have lhapsedized ever the
spell of romance cast by its silver
flood of light.
But te Dr. Goddard and his bride-te-be
the moon has become the sym
bol of a scientific goal. The super
rocket which he is planning, if suc
cessful, will add one mere victory
te man's conquest of nature.
Dr. Goddard became renowned
overnight several years age when
the world learned of the great rocket
he was planning te sheet into in
The public fancy wac caught with
the suggestion that eventually the
Goddard super-rocket might carry
a man te the moon. Numerous men
and some women offered te attempt
the trip. ' ,
But the professor is net interested
primarily in any attempts te reach
the moon. What he wants te de is
te solve the mysteries of the spaces
beyond the earth's atmospheric
He wants te learn the density, the
chemical composition and the tem
perature at various pianos of ele
vation. He hopes that hi3 invention will
enable aviators te chart the sky and
gain reliable information as te flying
conditions at great heights.
He wants te learn mere of "geo "gee "geo
ceronium," a gas net found at the
surface of the earth, which is said te
comprise the fourth region of the
In two years Dr. Goddard expects
te reach his scientific goal. Scien
tists in this country, in Europe and
even in Africa are in touch with his
Initial Steps in Leve
and Research in 1917
It is a coincidence that the first
step that brought exceptional prog
ress with the model rocket was made
by Dr. Goddard in 1917, the year he
met Miss Kisk. She graduated from
the Seuth High Scheel in Worcester
in that year and became secretary
te Dr. Edmund P. Sanferd, then
president of Clark University.
Mis? KKk's scholastic attainment
aw Indicative, friends sny, of the ns
flstnnre that she will give Prof. Gnd
diril in weiklng out perplexing preb-
'CDS anil leii.llnir svmnntlictle nnd in-
he served ns secretary te Dr. San-
rd for two years before entering
Hates College. In her first yenr there
'he attained the highest grnde of schol schel
rship, net enlv in her own elnss, but
In the entlie student body. This yenr
die wen sophomore honors for thchlgh
t rank in her clan. She linn nlse the
fotlnctlen of being a half holder of the
Bancroft Seheluishlp In Worcester, nn
lener going only te these who have
Bntnl nhllltv fur nbeve the average.
Miss Risk's verse und prose frequently
'UPcnred iM magazines, and her play.
'Sew and Then," wen the competition
' the sophomores nt Hates this cnr
nd was prevented nt the Utile Theatre
t the college. Miss KIsU also held nn
MKtntitshln in economics ax a part of
student activities. Next yeer she
""'H hae a similar position in Greek
"'I English. When she was graduated
. 'rem the high school she hud the high
t school scholarship.
n mi.T nnd 1010 the actual expert
jntntal investigation was undertaken,
Tests concerning ordinary rockets, steel
""ambers, and nozzles were made nt
Uark I'niversity. The erlginnl caleu caleu
'attens were then repeated, using the
J'ta from these experiments, and both
""J theoretical and experimental "re
"Hi 1 wcie submitted te the Smlthson Smlthsen
t costs money te carry en scientific
"Perlments, and especially these Hint
"Telvc Blll.j, jmilwH0 possibilities as n
""n-gelng rocket, but It came from nn
"pected source after Prof. Goddard,
"b's confidence In Ills theory, lmd
" own into his own pocket te advance
Want of $5090 from the Hedtklmi
Fund nt the Smlthsenlnn Institution
gave Impetus te the development of a
reloading or multiple charge rocket. The
work was begun at the Worcester Poly
technic Institute in 1017, and Inter was
undertaken as a wnr preposition. It
was continued nt the Mount Wilsen
Obscrvntery in Califernln from June.
1018, up te very nearly the time of
signing the armistice.
Gets Financial Help
Frem Unexpected Source
Since then the work has net prog
ressed as rapidly owing te a lack of
funds, but ngnin financial nsslstnnc"
hns come from nn unexpected qunrtcr.
The source hns been especially gratify
ing te Dr. Goddard. in that It is in
dicative of the confidence which the
trustees of his university have in his
theories, despite the fact thnt the ex
periment has net ndvnnccd beyond the
Dr. Goddard wns in his laboratory at
Worcester when he consented te tell of
his experiments. Before him wns a
model of the rocket ever which he has
worked for seven years.
"I have faith in the possibilities of
the rocket," he said, "net only as an
aid te science in determining the den
sity, chemical composition nnd tempera
ture of the atmosphere, but also us a
means of exploration."
"De you really believe that eventually
you will bu able te send a human being
te the moon?"
Prof. Goddard's smile gave way te n
leek of seriousness.
"I think the suggestion of such an
achievement tame from my original
paper te the Smithsonian Institution,"
"Hut," the questioner continued,
"there hnvc been repeits from time te
time thnt your locket theory did net
anticipate meie than sending a rocket
te en unexplored region of the air te
determine, scientific facts concerning the
atmosphere and the nature of the
"The possibilities of the rocket which
I have outlined In theory and have
brought te'n degree of perfection in
model' form can readily be recognized,"
Dr. Goddard replied.
"I must make it clear, however, that
as the financial nsslstnnce te carry en
my work came from Clark University.
it becomes essential that I keep silent
until such time ns the institution is pre
pared te announce any definite develop
ments. "I enn say. however, that I believe
the sum which Clark University hns
put nt my disposal will be sufficient te
ennble me te mnke rapid progress In
the future development of the rocket.
It will enable me te mnke meie ex
periments with my model and pave the
way for the larger rocket, "'eiid thnt
I can sny nothing."
Many Have Offered
te Take Lunar Trip
Thnt ninny people throughout the
world hnve taken serious cognizance of
Dr. Gedelnrd's experiments is evinced
by the large number of letters he bus
received from persons eager te take n
trip te the moon.
"When my theory wns first made
public." said Dr. Oeddnrd. "I re
ceived letters from men who desired te
ride te the moon. They are still com
ing. .Only recently I get u letter from
a woman in Kansns City. Me., who
appealed for the opportunity te take the
"The majority of the writers, how
ever, reveal in their letters that they
nre nnlmntcd bv the desire for publicity.
Their offers are net te be taken seii seii
euslv as nn effort te give scientific as
slstnnce." Dr. Goddard hns received countless
letters from scientists who have offered
their services. Seme of them pro'iese
journeying te Worcester te aid the
professor in the Clnrk laboratory.
Perhaps the most Interesting of thes.
missives has come from Khuitum,
Africa, where a scientist who hns spent
his life in research weik details hew
he gleaned the knowledge from u news
nnner which reached there ulmest two
years after the subject gained promi
nence In hclentifif discussions. Offers
of help hnve come from a Herman stu
dent nt Heidelberg nnd still another
from a Danish engineer, ,
There i only one person, te ?y
. & rti.
Dr. Rebert H. Goddard, head of the Department of Physics
at Clark University, Worcester, Mass., who originated the
idea of a "moon rocket" for scientific research, upon,
which he is new working
knowledge, beside myself who is nt work
en 11 rocket theory." sold Dr. (Sod (Sed
dnrd. "He Is a French engineer, but
his experiments nre net being conducted
with the Lien of exploring extreme alti
tudes." The amount of money which Clark
University trustees have placed nt the
disposal of Dr. (Jeddard te further hN
experiments has net been made public.
Dr. (ieddaril contents himself with the
statement that It Is a modest amount,
but entirely adequate for the work In
hand. The trustees nre likewise un
communicative, but they say the up up up
proptintlen was made becnuse they had
tnlth in the practicability of the pieject.
It is net the sensational idea of
sheeting a human being te the moon
that hau attracted the attention el
scientists und impressed the university
tiustees, but rather the possibilities for
scientific inclination which has long
Dr. (Jeddard says that while his
theory Is net being worked out with the
idea of getting data en weather condi
tions for forecast, the rocket plan would
be an immeasurable nlil te the weather
Observations May Aid
Science of Aviation
"The observations that could be
made with rockets and proper Instru
ments fired only a few miles into the
air would be valuable te aviators also,"
he suld. "I think the time Is net se
very far distant when such methods will
be employed te ascertain Hying condi
tions. "This is one of the Immense possi
bilities in the development of the rocket
theory. VHille my rocket would be cm- J
plejed te reach extreme altitudes, It,
WlllllM JilM UU IIIUllUIL III UWUftl' 11 (111 U
smaller scale for just Mich purposes.
"Speculations hnve been mude as te
the nature of the upper ntmesphcre
these by Wegner being perhups the most
"Ity estimating the temperature and
percentage composition of the gases
pieseuti In the ulmespherc, Wegner
calculates the partial pressure of the
constituent gases, and concludes that
there are four regions or spheres of the
atmosphere in which certain gases pie pie
demliiate: the troposphere, in which
are the clouds; the stratesphcic. pre pre
eominatingly nitrogen; the hydrogen
sphere, and the geoceronluin sphere.
"This highest sphere appears te con
sist essentially of nn element of 'gee
( emnium,' a gas net present at the sur
face of the earth. The existence of
such u gas is in agreement with
Nichelson's theory of the atom, and
its investigation, would, of ceuise, be
a matter of considerable importance
te astronomy and phjslcs, us well as
"The greatest altitude at which
soundings of the .atmosphere have been
made by balloons, namely, about twenty
miles, Is but a small fraction of the
height te which the utmesphcie is sup
posed te extend.
"Slmultnneeus dally observations at
n large number of stations of the vari
ous planes of pressure, temperature and
wind velocity would doubtless be of
great value in weather forecasting.
The theory, which I have worked out. Is
well suited for such a purpe-e, in that
the time and rise of such a fall would
be short, se that the apparatus would
readily be found en Us return. The
expanse would be slight, being simply
that of a fresh magazine of cartridges
for each day."
Nitrocellulose smokeless powder Is
the propelling fetce of the rocket which
Dr. (leddard has worked out in theory
and through patient experiment. The
gases are ejected frein the rocket nt
u high velocity, most of the prejectile
consisting of prepellent material.
Successive churcs ure tired in the
same cbambcri ns in a rnpid-flre gun.
W111 n r'Vtfcttl itn 1 1 il
Vfic i " -
7& N iw'' (
. f '"';'
Such reloading mechanisms, together
with what is termed A "primary and
secondary" locket piluclple, have been
patented by Dr. (leddard under four
Their ate thice principles Involved.
The first lencerns therine-dynnmic ef
ficiency through the use of a nnoeth
nozzle of proper length nnd taper,
through which the gaseous products of
combustion arc dlsehniged.
"Ily this means the expansion of
the gases Is obtained ns kinetic energy.
and complete combustion is ensued.
A 1 cle.idlng device embodies the
second principle, whereby a huge mass
of explosive material Is used, a little,
at a time, in a small, strong, cnmbiis- '
tien chamber. This enables hljjh ham-
lmr prcssuies te be employed. 1m-
pessiiue 111 1111 eKllntiiy paper rocket,
unci iuse permits tne mass et tne lecUct
te (enslst of prepellent material.
The empleyim nt of a pilmury and
sic eiidury locket apparatus is dealt
with in the third pilnelple. The
secondary, a minutuie of the primary,
Is filed when the pilmury hits reached
the upper limit of its flight. Itv this
means the large l.ttle of prepellent
material te total mass is kepi vlrtu.illv
the same dining die entire flight. A
tmrnchntc device m-eiiili'-. for the rn.
turn or tlie iltseaiileil inslligs te the
ground without damage. I
.. ... . i,
Rocket Striking Moen
Visible by Its Flash
, The calculations of I'ref. (ledduul
1 reveal that with an initial mass charge
vvekiilir; (l.'iltl pounds he could cause an
explosion en the suifaie of the moon
sufficient te make a Hash visible en the
earth through a telcseoec of one feet
apertilie. With '!.'!, "J7S pounds lie
could pieduce a Hash visible te the
Through the employment of a largei
telescope ihive amounts could, of
I course, be much i educed. With an
apeituie of two feet the masses would
ue reuuceil one-teurtli of tliese given, i
but the uie of such telescopes would '
gicnciy iiiuii 1 iu milliner 01 epscricrs.
Dr, (Ieddaril has nlie.tdy made tests'
' with tubes containing Victer Hash pew - i
, cier 111 .Milium, .viuss,, just eiltsli e of
the city limits of Worcester. The flashes
fired en n fairly clc.tr uiclit were nl.
served in Worcester. It was found tlmt
oie-twentieth of a grain of Victer flush
powder fired In vacuum could be" fccen
Miss Esther Christine Kisk,
Rates College girl and fiancee of
Dr. Goddard, whom she is ex
pected te assist in his experi
ments by her profound knowl
edge of physics and meteorology
at a distance of two and one-quarter
1'ief, (iedd.ird has taken Inte con
sideration every condition that it Is
possible te anticipate in the flight of
the rocket tiivvaid the moon. He hns
even given deep study te the possibility
et u lOlllsien between tile imhct ami i
metiet's. lie says the danger of such
an nit'ideiii is negligible, e;iect,ill.v as
the locket would be discharged i as
te avoid meteor swarms, the direiilniii
et ninlien 1 hesen being that of the
iJr. (iiiddaul gave u cnieful smii
muij of the situation as it is today
after years of experiment and study.
ltilelh. t Iii facts that stand out me
these' Tin imUt in prim Iple is ideally
adapted tn nncliing high altitudes, in
thai it minis nppiii.itus without J.u.
and docs net ill ucud upon the messuie
let all ter piopulsien
A tin niet i nl tie.itmeiit of the rocket
... I ......!.. .-li..,,.. rliti, ,f tli.t ,iit. ,.!, nl
expulsion U the gases wcie consider-
nbv in. leased nnd the ratio f ,-
....ii. , .1 ... .1 i. '..!..,
III UK IIH, .lii 11 n ,11,(1 i, ,111 .ilirill. Ml
prill-Ill 11m i-li.l. I" l.ii- i-illiic ll'C'lvci.
wcie also inuciisiii, a ticiiicncieus in- i
cie.ise m l.tiu'e would icsult
nxpetiincuts with nniiimij mckets
show that the ctliclruc-y of such lockets
Is L' pel cent and the velocity of ejec-
tien of itllses 1000 feet per second ,
Fer small i-.ckets the ratios a-e si,vhtl, i
.''ss' """ " special i.vpe nt sieci
chamber and nozzle, an efficiency has
ti.i.i ..., ., . ,
1 ueen eni.iincii vvuii mikim icss pewncr
let ever (11 per cent (higher than tlmt
of anv heat engine ever liefeie testedi,
together with a velocity of nc.ulv seen
feet pei sciend, Which is the highest
velocity m lar obtained in anv way
exi ept in clcitiicnl disihuigc wcuk.
r.xpenim nts tepeiited with the same
cliaiuiieis in n vacuum dcmeiistiuted
that the high velocity of the eicettd
gases was a real velocity, and net
nierclv an tlTecl of icactleii uynliist the
air. In fmt. expeiiinenrs pciimmcd at
prcssuies such lis pieb.ibly exist at
an altitude of thltly miles ,uve veloci
ties even higher than these obtained In
air at ntnin'I'dic pref.uies, the In
dense in viiecitv p nimbly being due
te a dlfteienie in h-uUien. Keiths of
the epeilmeuis also Indicated that this
velecitv could be exceeded with a uiedi-
(led feim of appaiatus.
When a large clumber was used in
e.xnei inent- It was c eniensti.ite. i Mi
net only aie large ihui.ibris epcrntlie
but th.it the velocities und ctlhlencics
are lihhrr than for small chambers,
A cnlculiitlun based upon thy theory,
Involving data tlmt n partly theetetlctil
and partly empirical, indicates 'that
only n moderately large initial mass is
required te raise recording Instruments
weighing a pound, even te the extreme
The Initial mass necessary is likewise
net excessive even if the effective ve
locity is reduced by one-half. Cnlcu Cnlcu
lnttens show, however, thnt any ap
paratus in which ordinary rockets ere
used would be impractical, because of
the large initial masses that would be
Could Recover Rocket
by Means of Parachute
The recovery of appnrtus en Its re
turn, Dr. Goddard says, need net be
n difficult mntter, inasmuch ns the time
of accent even te great altitudes In
the atmosphere will be comparatively
short, due te the high speed of the
rocket throughout Its entire course.
The time of descent will nlse be short,
but a free full can be prevented satis
factorily by n suitable parachute. A
parachute will be operative, lie says,
for the reason thnt high veloc
ities nnd small atmospheric densi
ties nre essentially the same ns low
velocities nnd erdlnnry density.
l'ven If a mnss of one pound were
propelled by the nppnrntus until it
possessed sufficient momentum te escnpe
the earth's attraction, the propelling
mass need net be unreasonably large,
for n high velocity of ejection would
Dr. Oeddard has net been unmind
ful of the popular discussions thnt have
ensued concerning the merits of his
theory and the possibilities It presents.
He hns given careful consideration te
nil questions that have been raised and
has net failed te convince his critics
of the faith lie hns in the principle
and the ultlmnte success of his project.
Dr. Oeddnrd says that te nianv
people the operation of n jet In a
vacuum is still n mystery. However,
he says the phenomenon is easily un
derstood if one thinks of the ejected
gns as a t barge of fine shot, moving
with a very high velocity. The cham
ber will react or kick when the charge
is fired, exactly u' a shotgun kicks
when firing a charge of erdlnnry shot.
An objection which Dr. Oeddard has
answered is that if a rocket were te be
inniected te an infinite distance, the
nppnrntus would engender great frie-
tmn while passing through the nlr, nnd
If it moved with a speed as grcnt as one
and one-half miles per second outside
the atmosphere, It would catch fire by
fiictinn or fly te pieces, because of the
I excessive speed.
He declares that the Initial speed
does net exceed two thousand feet per
second ever the first twenty-live miles,
' beyond which the density of the ntmes-
pheie Is negligible. He snys the Idea
of 11 bedv Hying te pieces is unfounded,
and points out there Is geed evidence
'tn believe that the earth, together with
I . ,
'"' ' m..e je.m ...ieB
j; "ling through ..puce
tittccn miles per second
lar system is
at a speed of
nut tills does
,,.,. ,.,l.,nl,l., C.,...., .,,,1
Te Steer Projectile
by SllCmUm Cells
,,.t ,i, n.n,.. i... ......
Ml' """:., " ' T. ""Y, "'n ' ', . "'i
says It has been argued, granting that
the projection te spch a distum e can
he made, theie will be se many disturb
ing influences affecting Its course tlmt
It will be very unlikely te continue In
the proper direction te make a hit.
He declares the photo-sensitive cell
win ne tne menus et automatically guid- i netimiiig.
ing the uppnintus toward or near a1 D'" Oedd.trd's familv is widely known
luminous object, In this case the cres- I In Worcester for Its philanthropy,
cent of the moon. The steering, he When the piofesser was a child the
says, must be accomplished by jets, . family moved temporal ilv te Hosten nnd
which weik laterally just as the mnin , he graduated from the Hugh O'llrien
Jet vveiks perpendicularly. i Grammar Scheel and went for a year
Dr. Godchild is of average size but , te the Kngllsh High Scheel Then the
Inclined te slimnrss. A pair of penc- , home wns moved again te Worcester,
trutltig eyes accentuates the Intelligence ij0 s K1-nduutecl from me ieuth
of his face ami forehead. He Is enlv High Scheel In Worcester with the clnst
forty yciirs old. Ills scientific re- of 1l)fi ns an honor man, and then nt
scinches and his perseverance In the tended Wniccster PnhtcciiniiA Institute,
piifcctleu of a rocket te exploit' ix- .from which he was nlse graduated with
triune altitudes has net diminished u ' h'gh honets.
the slightest degree his humor, or Ids Then came degrees from Clnrk Unll'
iippucia Inn et the lompunleiishlp of vers'tv He was made honorary Fellow
tliese wiiese mlllils de licit ileal ulrli
siieiitlfie pteblems. Ne professor at
Clink Univeisitv Is mere loved und re.
spected than Dr. Oeddard, nnd the
students -hnve frequently demonstrated
their deep a (Tee I tan for Um uwq.
Illustrative of Tils knowledge of the
-v X .
human Interest element in his rocket
experiment is the following incident he
told students of the Worcester Poly
technic Institute, for which Institution
he has a deep affection born of his stu
dent days, and because many of his
most Important experiments were per
formed there :
"It Is probable that the points which
the average person would desire most,
te have discussed are sheeting the moon
and allied problems.
"After the announcement of my
theory by the Smithsonian Institution
the popular Impression was se much in
evidence that a moon-sheeting device .
wns under way, and that all the public
needed te de wns te sit still and watch
it, that I believed it necessary te cor
rect the Impression. But I wanted at
(the same time te hint thnt further ex
periments would lead te even mere In
"My statement wns token mere con
servatively thnn I had anticipnted, but
in the light of subsequent events I was
very glad thnt this was se. In the first
place, I am net a sensationalist, even
though I realize I am dealing with a
scnsatiennl subject. I almost wish I
were, for I could certainly start some
thing. "Te discuss details before one
hns checked up matters completely by
experiment is unwise, for te de se
merely precipitates a flood of useless
argument, discussion and comment, te
which reply must be made. The Ideal
method, when possible, is te solve a
problem completely, as wns done with
the tests of the jet In vacuum, and then
te state results. Thus the discussion
dies before it starts.
Has Unalterable Faith
in Principles and Theory
"Rut while I prefer te avoid sensa
tions, I x ill net back down when I
nni convinced of the soundness of a
physical principle nnd net only is the
moon-sheeting preposition based upon
sound physical principles, but there nre
ether principles just ns fundamental
which are bound net only te lend te
certain refinements, but nlse te results
of still greater interest."
And while the discussions continue,
Dr Goddard works unceasingly en the
model, which lie Is confident will seen
be brought te such perfection as te
permit work te begin en the rocket
which he believes will justify his beliefs
The people of Dr. Oeddnrd's native
city die was born in Worcester en
October .", 1SS2) have great respect for
his scientific nbilitv. Tliev knew his
struggles nnd hardships in bringing the
i model te the advanced stage it has
' nlrendy readied.
, They hnve likened his experiences te
i these of ether inventors who have mnde
l notable contributions te the world's
progress; they knew of the success of
experiments he has carried en In the
Past, and they me confident that the
; finnnclnl nsslstnnce from Clnrk Unl-
I verMty will icsult within the next two
I years in an announcement that will
(startle the scientific world and bring
, wen greater honor nnd fame te Prof.
Oeddnid and the institution with which
I he is connected.
' Supporters of Dr
ueueve tni.i ine nrst leal test of, tne
equipment will net long be delnycd,
with a small rocket mounting about two
milci in the nlr, te be followed later by
the sending of a projectile te the moon.
And then the stipicinc nchlevcmcnt
the sending of a human belnj; te that
I'ven, before two jenrs hnve elapsed
Ids" associates believe the long-awaited
announcement will come. The clone
acquaintances of Dr. Oeddnrd nre fully
nwnre of his medestv and his dislike
for making statements before there is
just reas'iu, but tliev believe the fnith
of the trustees of Clark University will
be rewarded with i exults uhieh the pre- "
fesser's medestv iniiv new fei-hld nn.
In l'hvsles Tlie following yenr bt
went te Princeton University ns a re -?itrJ
seaich Instructor in the sunifl subjMtItif,3
out was speeijtiy receneci 10 Uini'K, rtKVwSt.;i
as instructor, men mistitnt JfteWMat,
then associate antMt.i;Metki&.m
i , i
.!-' ?f t
1 f "
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