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-v. w tWv-i vttCjRtf 'MPM' 1fflfflJWK w-raf?'gp?s , MV J s- ' 1 . 1 '!?,'' EVENING FUBEIO lDGBB-PHrdA33fBEPHIA, WBDiNESDAY, AyfftTST 28, J922 .x i .v . a rj- r1, J j SCIENCE PROVIDES E YES FOR BLIND JUSTICE ft TO TRAP LIARS AND PROVE TRUTH OF ALIBIS If? fc l h r X' tf ft ji r !;' H I 1. r y-r ' vr i?t V3l E , H S Professer JV. M. Marsten Perfects His Sphygmomanometer, Which Tells Whether Witness Is Prevaricati?ig When Under Grill r COURT REFUSES TO TAKE VERDICT OF INVENTION, BUT FACTS UPHOLD IT Constant Tests Upen Criminals and Suspects Indicate Heart Action Is Certain Barometer of Falsity of Statements OC1ENCE, which has explored many fields in the lat 100 years and wen scores of victories ever disease and the elements, is new tackling a problem as old as history viz., deception, or just plain, ordinary every day lying. Us practice, we are told, was started by old N'ick himself back in the Garden of Eden. It spread like wildfire until by Jeremiah's time it had become a serious problem. He observed bitterly that "the heart is deceitful above all things and I desperately wicked; who can knew it?" i Lies go hand in hand with mis helpful suggestion, nnd I proceeded te work with that In mind. I then hurt te devise some apparatus that would be useful The earliest instrument caused some pain when it was attached te the human body, but this has been elimi nated. ' Since that time considerable work ha been done by me and ether upon deception tests in cennectlun with the PSioheIosic.il tasks undertaken for the nb-fil tic. eminent during the recent war." Understandings and crimes of every kind. The prophets and preachers aince Jeremiah have inveighed gainst them with all the thunder of their eloquence. Warnings of hell fire and brimstone have been shouted for centuries from every pulpit. But the habit is net yet uprooted, and ciencc will see what it can de. It believes it is finding the way te nail a lie every time. Maybe in a few hundred years it will demonstrate Bleed Pressure Gauged the usclessness of lying te such an While Story Is Told extent that people will net try any i pr. Marsten found besr mere, but commit it te the realm of j through measurement of what the lest arts. And the oath may net have te be administered in the courts. An instrument, the "sphygmo manometer." popularly called "the lle detector," already has furnished I Berne rather startling evidence of its ability te demonstrate whether a person is telling the truth or a '. e. Early this month in Wash.r.irr n experiment was conducted v.z E. E. Dudding, ex-cenic: cr.i z-" sent of the Prisoners' Re :cf ; : -"T as the eluntary subject. Tr detector said he waj tell .-.? :--. rr.- about the allowed cr:.T.e :":r - '. he was convicted, and t-.a: !- f Innocent. At the same t.rr.e. .- ver, it tripped him en 'err.i - - matters, as he himself adm.ttei -private. Science Says Confession in Murder Was False James Frye, who had cenfef: a fcnurder, was found by the mach.ne te hae confessed falsely and te have been innocent. The unusual evidence was brought forward that be had made his confession in the hope of sharing a reward, and al'e In the belief he would be acquitted. I Other instances are en record, tome of persons who were found guilty and ethers who were cleared, e far as the lie detector is con-1 ecrned. It is a machine that has long been used, but applied only recently in the new way. This new application was discovered by William M. Mars " ten, Harvard, A. B., L.L B., Ph. D., who is new director of the Psycho Psyche Iegal Laboratory of American Uni versity at Washington. "What it ucturiliy 1"." h nn, "Is an insti nun tit te ni'iis'irc- bleed pres sure. It was developed by a doctor fifty years age and hns been uvd lnc ' In medical practice." Dr. Marsten is ii geed-natured young dentist. He does net leek like a man who has, toiled b sunlight and randl" light for eight wars iiiit a pet theory. Observed casual!?, he has the appear ance, though n tritl be.iy, of an ath lete who bus spent the greater pnrt of bis tlme out of doers instead of In tb! laboratory. , He has simply taken nn old lnetru- ' taent, ndded some things te it, nnd ap plied bin theory, lie dibclnnnii any pre- tense te having originated tlic spbjgme- i linemetcr. l "I haw- just dei eloped the test," he1 aid. "My position is the s.nmi an if you Should take jour lawn mower out In the jard and discover that it was a Bieful Instrument with which te meas ure the dlstnnoe between the sun and the moon This use of the lawn mower Would be your discovery. " Dr. Marsten started te work en the freMera of deception In llllft-ll In Harvard l's.wholegieai Laboratory tin- in the direction of Prof. Huge Mun- terberg. Like many another scientific explorer, lie was studjing In general way. The experiment wns te be a erlea of "ps.u-hu-psysloleglcal prob lems In Ihe Held of legal testimony." Quite by necident his feet landed en ae trail of the lie detector. "I waa working," us Dr. Marsten paid, "en absolution reaction time twta, and I was getting some result, kat nothing startling. My wlfu knew ( my efforts te study deception and l ft Causes. She wrote me one day tell ' lafl of a woman doctor who could regis vtw 4fWlen if her hand was en the StUMtt' 0. feat T iua & n suits &M$I H 4C ' sb J ! ,vsvsvsBisvsvsvsvsvsvsvsvsvsvsh - L iaPlvsBavKOKwSriJvvdl iHlBx BSBSBs BSBSBSBSBSa vBSBBSBSBflBBSDBSBSBSBSBSBABSBSBSBSKrHl V. V s'SKSsBBBVaBSiSBBnt-vQf i" " 01ItJI I iff? c V asBSHl w SBsBsYfwaX ' BsIbbV friP 'BJBSBSBBsfBWaSBSBSBSBSBSBSBSBSBSBSBSBSB.'''- iBrfwBWPlFB'f' "Lte Detector Picks Out Truth In Uncanny Manner IW42V confessed te murder. t, "M Detector" said confession Wa, false. Investigation showed n had "confessed" te share a r.' ward with detective te whom fa admitted crime. Weman accused of bootlegging said, she had sold liquor only three times. "Lie Detector" mm "Netee." Investigation upheW me spnygmomanemeter. Convict denied crime for whith he was convicted. "Lie Detector upheld his denial, but said he hai prevaricated ai te details. , later admitted these miner lies. Weman shoplifter said 'i, never naa stolen before. He," said the detector. InvtiH. gatien brought out e form cnmxnal record. llc calls JSSs&SSmmmK iBKisiHiwffiy " Iff JhiliifM ii jj llwilJ .WlttL Mill'l. , iL'JMLTii-l 3 J. .'... L . E. E. Dudding, president of Prisoners' Relief Society, under "lie-detector" test. The "detector" declared Dudding had been convicted unjustly, but pointed out several lies told by him which he admitted later two general descriptions it is in keep- who called four timei at the office of lug with the way science undertakes the plijslelan nnd had finally killed him. te simplify .matters. He calls them There was a rewnrd of 1100 for the "positive" and "negative." i capture of the murderer. After the The positive liars will lie fuster than i confession he was Identified ns the mur they will tell the truth. That i. they derer and the evidence, seemed con talk faster. The ether type blows up. elusive against him. Then he lie de Tluit is, they take mere time In an- lector sum he jj, nt commit the crime. swering a question or in innKing an .,.,.,, nl.n.l,1 . ,.,. ,,,. 1t,1,.lve i te whom the confession was made said If I'rye would confess he would have thu forgery charge dropped and the He, In, SHOD reward divided between Trje and 'association" framing the ether wenls. Mr. .vinrsten iinds n new negative type which can lie faster than it can tell the truth. He is positive about the skill of his machine in reporting the true status uf a subject's heart. All people have emotions it seems, that are making impressions en the bleed, no matter bow calloused they may be In prevari cating. "Couldn't a man be se reld blood ed." )r. Marsten vvasasked, "thnt te tell n lle would make no difference with him nnd cause no change In the machine?" "Oh. ne: eh. no," he replied earnfst- i- vA.. n.m A H.,n:.,n- .. i.i. Ij tun til km (i irhnici I'lifiiiiii . ., , , . ,.- every time. The trouble is that you get , '," r:;cer "f,tlllll(' detector says rrye , tee many reactions. '"'" l"' i " 'i l-eii- 1 fehMen was false. The deception test Needle Gees en Rampage "'se proved the truth of his sterj as te When He Flirts With Truth , nn,tnl,"',';fs thP illtMe,tiiis point. u this "The needle will ily up when the connection, as te whether the lii ; ninn comes te the point when he knows tivter may ever tu';e the pline ,of lie is telling nn untruth, it happens juries. ni .viarsten emph.'itienli ilo ile wheu he comes te what is the climax dared It would net, but thnt it would en the strength of the testimony of a Xegre from whom a ring was alleged te have been stolen. Defendant during the six months had net made restitution, as she had been ordered. Examination wai te determine whether or net she stele the ring in the first plnce. It. P. judgment: Innocent. Weman telling the truth as te the ring, having been given te her. Verification : The Judge dismissed the case, although probation officer ad vised sK months' further probation. him-elf. I'Yjp was assured the evidence N'cw evidrnee had turned up ii. dicating that the Negro who nllegcd thnt de fendant stele ring wnn a disreputable character. Weman, forty-six years old. Ar rested for sale of liquor. Admits sale of liquor this once, but says that she never did It before. This statement pre against blm would be tee weak te con vict. The identifications, it is said, were managed bj the detective along with the ether business. Lie Detector Is Used in Severest of Tests Krjp seen changed his mind and re I pixilated his confession. His luw.vers , did net believe him and sei.t for Dr. .Marsten. The latter examined Five. year-old boy. Upen being told that Utera virna n fvilirf pePArd ncrnttiu l. & ..... v """'" urr iwtin. year-old boy In the Juvenile Court, d, thereupon said thnt It was the twelT'5 year-old boy she referred te and that the fiftccn-jcnr-eld boy was Innocent Evldcnce of neighbors nnd pollce fend-1 te show that oeth boys have bcea.f gaged In petty thefts for years. 1 Man, forty-six years old. Defendul arrested for larceny. (Kxnmlner ritd no further details.) B. P. judgment: Although defend ant tells most Improbable story about having found n pair of sheea In thi uuiu ui biui iwiuiuen iie was wotkiet B. 1. shows his story te be truthful. Verification : Police discovered that sevcral ether longshoremen, working j the biime (ship had teen systcmaticaflj stealing the supplies nnd it was further found that one of these men lind taken the shoes In question, but lind beei obliged te drop them into the held t! avoid detection. Defendant's eempu. Ions testified that he wns Intoxicated at the tlme he took the shoes and that he shouted up te the foreman in cham of the crew Hint he hud found a pair of shoes In the elevator pit. Dr. Mnrstpn's conclusions from then and similar tests are: "The bleed picture deception test has demonstrable prnctical value in de termining the truth or falsity of vurleai elements in u witness' story, as well at of the story in its entirety ; and also in determining the general nttltudc of In nocence or guilt in n person accused el criminal acts. "The bleed pressure deception test seems te have value ns a substitute let the oath new; used In court preevdurla that confessions seem te occur imJef the conditions of the ptycholegkal test which It hnd been previously iraiies'ible te extract In court or under tfie elimi nation of the probation officer and m lice. "By detecting guilty emotions fe-' cused upon hitherto unsuspected peind of testimony the deception tests appear te open new nnd fruitful channels for pnliee Investigation." Reduction of Crime Is Seen Through Discovery Kventually he continued. It W mean a 7.ri per cent improvement in the reading of the humnn document en tin witness stand. Just as juries bit ucen determining whether n innn is in nation officer suspects Is untrue. AM.nne en the testimony of experts se la the next ten years they will be replying en expert testimony of this character te show whether men are liars or net, whether they have n conscieumea el evasion. . ' "As te the ether ramifications of tit deception test, it will lend, of ceur te reduction of crime very considerably. The deception test will turn up chia sns the only drinks whisky nnd milk three times a day ; never drinks any ether sort of alcoholic bevernge. Proba tion officer suspects this Is untrue. It. 1'.,. Judgment Lied as te only drinking milk and whisky three times a day. Probably drinks heavily when ever she can get liquor. As te sale of liquor, lias feeling of guilt ; probably knew when she sold it thnt It was i The test will show when suspects H against the law. Telling truth ns te hew lying en certnin points. It simply put) she get the liquor nnd ns te never hnv- the state of his mind en a sheet e! lug sold It licfere. I paper te be read. Verification Medical examination, "hisurance companies and comp&' The "lie detector" being ucd en a witness ' the systolic- bleed pre -sure" of a ii pee; while testlfjing. "The systolic bleed pressure test Is te be regard'-d." he said, "as a psyche-lu-iial!y complicated indicator of de ception requiring pxp'rt knowledge and -kill In its application and interpreta tion "The phvgmomanemeter is attached te the Kubjei-t's left nrm above the el bow, the mbjict being seated comfort ably before a table with ids left arm resting en the top within easy reach f the operator, who then proceeds te take the subject's bleed pressure from tune te time v bile the witness Is being cress -examined either by thi bleed pres sure operator, or, preferably, by a ser ser ernl operator who may be called the examiner. The effectiveness of the te-t depends almost entirely upon the con struction and arrangement of the ernss- f Tin inntien nnd it proper correlation viih the bleed pressure readings, a s.vstem of signals between examiner and blen, pressure operator being neces sary." The machine, as the examination preu-res-rs, makes n jagged line, high or low, in cording te the effect of the emotions en the bleed. The excitement of Attaching the npparntus caues the line te start high, but the varying emo tions, Ir, Mtreiten says, never rise above this point. Deception is indicated when the line suddenly sheets upward. The effect of a He en the bleed Is te rai.se the sys tolic bleed pressure sbnrply. Like Geerge Washington, It Cannet Tell a Lie "Net that the heart bents faster," Dr. Mnrsten explained. "It is the trciigth of the heart bent that counts." ' "Is there any chance," he was asked, "that the machine itself can tell ni lie?" ' "Se." he replied emphatically. He added that three elementu may cause a rise of the testimony line, pain, anger and fear. If a witness should see an enemy enter the mom he might become enraged nnd thus cause a rise in pres sure. "Hut anger is swamped out by fear," Dr. Marsten paid. "Practically, pain i and anger de net mean as much te a witness ns the general surroundings of the court or as the fear of cress-examination." In the future It may be necessary te forget that old adage that gees some thing like this: "There are three kinds of liars geed liars, bad liars and damn 1 ii,,.,. i i""''- .. Dr. Mar3ten is cin'-'ulylng them in 160 150 40 130 110 MO Quiet (Sdbjedb tdld netH nq c))f bejsb)b)3CrimCeife S Maruyearseld (Under indictment for ..Degree Murder ,yum, rjru.e .v. i en his own -Confession) 5 uestieh. IMevai '- Preliminary Questie; nsefh Siert Su bjectt repudiated aAd tills raTHFUlL siAiyHSuBject v-Vv-: of his act Cerifess ions hen Quiet iL xs KA: told evem tes T"r 4 SPHYGMOMANOMETER ! LRUBBE-R TUBE COVERED . X, A t &K WITH CtOTH WRAPPED J J! Wssi&IPABOUTABM LIKE y ' illilM 5TETHESCOPE IN ,' A I &59ff PHYSICIANS EARS , ., ' BULB INI -A ' PRE55E0 CjQ . -s. Cig 1 ) FOREARM RE5Ti(iaONTA8Lfe , . . "' . -- . . - iJmjiiSmkmm v Chnrt of fiphj'Kmomanemetcr test shewinjj flu ctuatien of line as witness answered questions PHYSICIANS HAND TO INFLATE THE TUBE te lit in the eiin-inl liemt. When we get en the question where he n.ust tell the truth or nn untruth, if he lies that needle, In tlif meter will jump, net ten ur twenty points, but up te '-'(HI or he.Mind. lie rnn't conceal It or control it nnv mere thnn he can control Ida heart bents play the role of an expert witness te 1 help the juries in arriving at the truth. Here aie some lnstnnces showing hew the detector has ciposed the false and defended the Innocent. (It. 1. means bleed pressure.) Colored wemnn, thirty-one years of age. . nested six months ng.i for lar by thi doctor showed without question thnt defendant was a confirmed alcoholic who is new drinking heavily and con tinuous!, r.vldenci) by detective who made the arrest tends te show defend '.V,1' ,m '"'r n(,t ln K'HIng liquor was illegal: also Ills evidence temls lr. clmiv- 0oief diagram si 1! detect tlioHe petntB and admitted inuKiug cer tain inlHstatementH relating te biislnesa matters. The 1'rye cate attracted much atten tion beeaune .Tustlue McCev, of the Ils trict hjiipreme Court, declined te per mit the readings of the lie detector as evidence, The cnae rends llke a mystery detec tive story. In November, 11120, a Negro physician wn murdcicd, nnd the 1 man who committed tiie crime escaped. I A cur Inter Krjn wns aricsled en u I forgery charge. Whlle In jail he mid- WtalycenftBKd that lie was the maul Plain or Fancy Liars Are the Same te Detector ANGER, pain and fear are the three emotions that are' watched unerringly by the "Lie Detector." Fear of punishment or of de tection flashes through the mind of the witness as he starts te tell a falsehood and the chart indi cates the corresponding change in his heart beat. "It's a lie" is the report. "Positive liars" lie faster than they tell the truth; negative liars take mere time te frame their answers. wile of Ihpin- by defendant and us te new cleiejulnnt get liquor in question, there was absolutely no evidence. as B A rnan may be a skillful liar, but ! cSnj of a ring and placed probation R"?,, '"1 V.?. ""T"L"?. 1, will Imuiw l,en l,n l,n. fr.1,1 n.. en. I "l .,1".." "",'". "' '' truth and there will m a wave, of fear that will send his bleed pressure kiting. l.Vnr, n 111, I,. Ii,. I., ., 1 1 1 .. I, 1 .1 ,, .,'. ,, .Ll,U J, IT I, I, Ml. , linil ,', . f . m V-a-a X T J A Wr a - In the cxnmlnntien of Dudding a pe- " flw te ucivviur Oman's Steril False ciiiiar circiimsinnce niiecieu tun record. ,t e...- . ,, He lstieubled with what is described as tx,nnn - ., "'" ettt-' IS V pilCKl "flironie IllbtllDlllty et the emotions." ".., ,.. urai,.r ura ma We'imii fert-hU vnrs old Defend huh caiiBCd inn urn- 10 waer iiiiu line- --three emnlinna thnt. aa' ant arrested fop Hiniiifih.i. .....i iu . . .. t e . .... ... !... . - '" " " . w I .... . ; -','......, ...ii .a tunie hi iie.,.i.-,u .,.-, HiH. et uier... t,,,ri.,rf .,; ;,., th T.i """eW suspected of having stolen be were certain places w lien; tne nne snot "-" . '-u " "- " i lore. .lce Is kiiNeeeieil .f ,iPii,i., ,... nlmn ..11 .1... I.lnl.n.l 1ii-.l,.u Afl.. 1 -1 1- " li.il.l.ll. ..11 , , '. . . . ''"-l'l ni, uiiw.-- in. in.- inhK- - ji-'iiin. ..ii.-. .v.sv...,. ..v.i.ii.., luuieug i denies tils iitiMi utelv uiu eAuiuiiiuiien jiui wiin Mium. in i nn, h'enr nt nnnii)iii.t .. nt J i It I' niVmr.i.t i i., i . . , , , . ii,. .. .,u .,i.i...i ., 1,1. .,.,.. ... rear ej puntsnment or of de- ' -i augment I. led us te drinking ,.i- un .-Iiiiii- ,, in e ,i,,n.,,in iifc ... n . .. .... fkilll I! s,l liu t,, ,.n. nR I I ,-. , ' ,. cnll.t l,...l., . i,m, in- irre.1t -' .....uii iiuiiiiii ill,; rin,nn - ., Inrn.l In ll, I ... I Tl ...ill HI 1,1(1 U'11' ..'-.fc III 1IIC IVAli 41 II II- !.-- te them cettln? iicciirac.V lit n ft'' llminnry state of facts, ami InnllTiireritii. rPIwi iu .. r,,..,H,l' te llflVO t" .,,.11 Id f IllUtklllVII, - lALf n.nn.- Uv ihn 1 ell!l ft IllCIlt .. ii. imiliil uj mvi i . Jitstfce. Willlnm J. Ittirns is cre" nterested. A erlllli of IPsJCIIOHV ,luclle iis n resuli n( tests l.v the National '"J group sts liv search Council udvlsed Its Iritrului iu the department, the .liidp' w,j. (Ji-iii-rul's efflcu mid Ihe .Military If ligencc. That group contain'"! WJ Hubert M. Yerkes. chief el "e,':'pjl logical iiivisiiiu, i). .-5. .v., "",, ijm- Sc-ett, piesldent Mirtnwe,i en . j - Ynle I'nhersity; Dr. T 1I-,,W". Di iiiernuiive, leiiiinuiii i ', i i,,-tt .-... ...j.., hi i. neicr Having stolen lie- i I Jr. Herbert .Sydney l.nngni". ""Bth fore. Alse led ln testifying that mm.. Harvard I'hj ;hoegical l.l",rl.,,u?.' ,u of her children had eer stolen an- iJr. MnrMen. On the legal M, U tlli'!''-, , ' work was actively indorsed ami $ erlllcatlen-Medical cxamliiatleii by Jehn H. Wlginere, probably W snowed that defenduiii wns u confirmed eminent nutherliy en inliU'ine i" and liemj dl llker. On tl,,. ,,i.,i f l'nlt.,1 ,.,... .i,,,,,, ,.f NnrtUf.V I'nhersity Law Scheel; 'l"-'"n;uttrt Hal... of the Husten bar, ami "' , I. .....1. nnil Liu. premiueiii iiiemuerH 01 ui-m-n ," t tf I nrm' I iiadw liuicnti previous theftK, no crlinlnnl record wn tllllllfl ll(.ll.i... .I...' t . ... . .. ..., , mi eeieiiuaui, nut tint policy i nine ...... .,. i-viiieiice cunt defendant had iL... i'1'1""" t;t'tlfiilly and en' .lust new there Is being own"' - in ,.,,,'"i"i ,l(;",,"llll" wh found Washington tlm American ' rid,' 'l",l;';,l1",! l"-"lj''tl". Uw . Society. Kfferts will bf i ni'leudlllit aduilttei II, i .,,,,, ..c I,.... ...... ' ..... 1....1 i........ e ,.uinlilisl IllC I,..,.,. .,i 1 v " '" " " k' 1 11 Kisiimeii no we' " , ii.,j ."i." lul '""'."'''.'t-'d ferwtcallna iind.i I he lirst uiev.- el 11 Hitreuu of His1 UViU U81tu wui), suld Uie JUUea- ( in tUe Uepurtiaeut of Justice. , " Y MSt, I f y nt. 1-. .!.