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LIVE of Dr. FRANKLIN.
Continued from our last. ';i 176(5, when the unfortunate fh.nr. k.M created fo much difcontent and uneafi neft in America, Dr. Franklin was exam ined, refp :eSfcing the repeal of it, before tlie Houfe of Commons. The emeries put to him, toe-ether with nnfwcr:;, which were clear and decifive, were printed in the year 1757, under the form of a milling pam phlet, and may be feen in his Political, Mif cellaneous, and Philofophical pieces, page l 2 5 5 . Governor Hutchinfon, Lieutenant Go vernor Oliver, Charles Paxton, Efq« Na i Lfrj. and Mr. G. Roome, having lent from Bofton certain reprefcn t it'tons and informations refpciting the difputcs between Britain and the colonies, to' Thomas Whately, Efcj, private fee-re tary to Mr. George Grentille, the parem of the ftamp act, thefe letters were, by fome private channel, conveyed back to Bof ton. As foon as the Affemhly of the pro vince of Maflachufctts Bay fasv ihem, they werefoexafperated, that they returned home attefted copies of tl em, accompanied by « petition and remonftrance for the removal .if Governor H itchinfon and Licutenan' , nor Oliver from their polls. On the 21ft of Auguft, 1773, this petition was tranfmitted by Dr. Franklin, ageflt for the houfe of reprefentatives, to Lord Dart mouth, who having presented it \o the Kin, his majefty was pleafed to fignify that it Ihould be laid before him in his privy coun cil. Various conjecflures were formed reflec ting the manner in which thefe confiden tial le'ters bed efcaped from among tlie of Mr. Whatety, at this time de d; and fome cofrefpondence on the I palled between Mr. Whately's «r, a banker in Lombard-ftreet, and John Efq. Governor of New i lampfhire, through the medium of the public prints. Tin-on;-gentleman wiliiing to avoid the charge of having given them, and the other of having taken them, the difpUte it length became fo perfonal and pointed, that Mr. Temple thought it ne e'< ffarv to call the brother into the field. The challenge wa-, given in the morning and the par in the afternoon in ] [yde Park, when the former was elange ronlly wounded. Dr. Franklin Wl then in town, and as he could not f< rfee what was pift, he endeavoured to prevent any further bad Confluences, by the I'! lowing letter, addrcnea to the Printer of ♦■he Public Advertiser, and dated Craven ftreet, December the 2.> th, 1773 :—" Fin that two gentlemen have been nnfor l in a duel about a tranf and its circumftances,of which both of them are totally ignorant and innocent. 1 think it incumbent upon me to declare (for the prevention of further mifc.hief, a? far as fuch a declaration may contribute to prevent it) that I alone am tlie perfon ibtained and transmitted to Bofton the letters in quefiion. Mr. Whately truild not communicate them, becaufe tin y were never in bis poffefiion ; and for tin afon th y could not be taken from bin: by Mr. Temple. They were not of the na ture of private letters between friends. They were Written by men in public Rath public affairs, and intended to procure pub ■ "re therefore handfce to other public perfons who might be in due need by them to produce thofe liner,. Their tendency was to incenfe the mo'ber-country againft her colonies, ami iiv the fteps recommended, to widen th breach ; which they effected. The chief caution cxpreiTed with regard to i was, to keep their co im the 11 10. tits ; who, the writers apprehi • return them, or copies of tliem, to America. That apprehennon was it feems '-veil founded ; fir the lirlt agent who laid his hands on them thought it his duty to tranfmit them to his ccrtftitucn Or. Franklinls conduct on this occafion ver his enemies may have ("aid t 'i his charaefter, is confident with • t ii .ii of honour ; fince he gave up his nrti"t'i public fcrutiny, in order to pre vent mifchief to others, and yet did net h, tray his coadjutor to relieve his own fame from tl ft obloquy. In cinfee iddrefs prefented to his Majefty by Lord Dartmouth, Mr Mauduit prefe nted a petition to the privy council, humbly praying that he mi I on behali of the Gover noraSd Lieutenant Governor. On the 1 lti of January, 1774, Dr. Franklin was ex d at the conn her, on the ■ ■ ye the alTifPnce of coun t-',I, the affair was put off till Saturds The privy Council having tin-; Mr. Dunning and Mr. ' ired a c»er/?lforthe afferjably-, and Mr. Wed iltrburne, now Lord Lough! •...uiifei bar the Governor ai.-i Governor. Mr. Wedderburne was very long in his ant'wer, which related chief!) to th * mode of obtaining and (ending aw; j Mr. Whately's letters; and he (poke of Dr. Franklin, who was c.onlielered as the prin cipal aeStorjn this bullnefs, in terms of the :l abufe. Alluding to the duel before mentioned, Mr. Wedderbiirne laid, "The letters could not have come to Dr. Frank lin by fair means ; the writers did not give them to him ; nor ye:t did the deceafed cor refpohdent, who from our intimacy would otherwife have told me of it. Nothing then will acquit Dr. Franklin of the charge of obtaining them by fraudulent or cormpt means, for the mod malignant of purpofes ; unlcfs he dole them from the perfon who ftdle them. This argument is irrefragable.—l lio]ie my Lords, you will mark [and brand] the mail for the hoflOUr ef this country, of Europe, and of man hind. Private correfpondence has hither to be en held facred, in tunes of the greateft party rage, not only in politics, but religi on. He has forfeited all the refpeft offo cieties and of men. Into, what companies will he hereafter go, with an uncinbarrafs •d face, or the honed intrepidity of virtue. Men will watch him with a jealous eye, and lock up their efcrutoires. He will henceforth efteeni it to be called a man of ; homo ir'ium liter arum. " But he not only took away the letters from one brother, but kept' lin.felf concealed till be nearly occa lioned the murder of the other. It is im poffible to read hU account, exprefh\e of the coolelt and mod deliberate malice, without horror. Amidfi thefe tragical e vents, of one perfon nearly murdered, of a notber anfwerable for the iflue, of a worthy Governor hurt in lis de nel' interefts, the fate of America in fufpetice, here is a man who, with the utfiioft infehfibility of remorfe (lands Up and. avows himfelf the author of all. I can compare it only to Zanga, in Dr. Young's Revenge. " Knovr, then twss 1 : " I forged the letter, I dil'nofcd the picture " I hated, 1 dtfpfcd.and I deflroy. I afk, my Lords, whether the revenge ful temper, attributed by a poetic fitVlOn i-nly to the blooi in is not furpaffet by the coolnefs and apathy of the wily A ti ?" f the privy Council bav in which was exprefled the following opin ion :—" The lords of the committee do a :rree humbly to report as their opinion tc your Majefty, that the petition is founded upon refolutions formed on falfe and er roneous allegations ; and is groimellt f aticus, and fcandalous ; andcalculai ly for the feditious pin poles of keeping v] i fpirit of chunour and difcontent in tht Paid province. And the lords of the com mittee do further humbly report to yoill Majefty, that nothing has been laid be fore them, which doe:; or can, in their opinion, in any degree, impeach the hon our, integrity, or conduct of the faid go vernor, or lieutenant governor ; and then lqrdfllips are humbly of opinion, that the iit to be (bi'm ffed." On the 7th of February, therefore, his Majefty, taking the laid report into confidt ration, was pleafed to approve of it, order that the petition of the houfe - f icpre tentative* of the province of Maffachulett! Bay, be difmHr d the board—as groundlefs "His, and fcandalous, and calculate ipus purpofe of keeping up ii of clamour and difcontent in tie faid province* This was a prelude to Dr. Franklin's difgrace 5 he was difmiffed fr v ►he office of deputy pefl-malter general foi the colonies, which he had enjoyed far 'bine time, and Mr. Wedderburiie G • n the high road fore very kind of advance ment. This gentleman's conduct, however, ■ obnoxious to the Americans, that ,vhen they learned in what manner he had ibufcd andinfulted their agent, hisi ; I er with that of governor HiiUhinfon. were put in a Cart, and conducted througl he ft'reets of Philadelphia. On ihe bread •f each a label was fixed, containing an infeription, couched in very violent and I'oftile terms, and after being expofed fir ievera! hours, they were hung, and airnt in the evening, amidfl a vafl ourfi- of people, who teftified their refent nent againft the originals, with the loudef IIS. Previous to this period, Dr. Franklin hac his Utmoft endeavours to prey- nt ; I between Great Britain and America - couniels and advice were either dif ! with contempt. Evei r 1774, he feems te tave been defirous, notwithftanding the ill ho li-'c 1 ... q£ lioinjr oven rto accommodate matters nan amicable manner. Some time pre vious to bis departure, an intimate friend oi Dr. FothergiH, being in company with a nobleman of great political experience, the Conversation turned on the critical fituation of the American colonies, and the latter i- man to attempt a compro iiili with Dr. Franklin, before he quitted ml. From a cordial wilh to promote i permanent reconciliation between the two countries, the gentleman readily undertook the bufinefs, and accordingly ftp] fed to Dr. FothergiH, who heartily unite cl in the cauf'e. They therefore mutually invited Dr. Frank lin to a conference the fame evening, and, after much difcnilion, it was agreed that die)- (hould meet again the next e\ when Dr. Franklin was to commit to paper fuch a conciliatory plan as he conceived America had a right to expect, and the other two were then to ebjedt to fuch claim1; as they might judge Great Britain ought not to grant. On the appointed evening Dr. Franklin produced a paper, c ontainingfcveral articles. fome of which being obje&ed to by Dr. FothergiH and his colleague, were given up by Dr. Franklin, and fufFcred to be expun ged. In this Hate a copy was taken, and imparted for negociation. The anfwcr was, that the proportions were fuch as appeared to demand too much, and, in. confequence, feveral attempts were made to reconcile the fubjeeScl of contention ; but as the- twelfth article that " the late MalLihu felts anei " Oi.ebec acts ihould be repealed, and a « free government granted to Canada," was indited on by Dr. Franklin, though many of the others were acceded to, the iation was broken off, and nothing fuither attempted* From this time he en tertained fo ardent a rcfentment againft the conduct of England, that neither politencfs nor moderation could prevent him from giving vent, in mixed companies, to the me ft flitter iarcafms againft her inealures ; and, indeed, it is but doing him jultice t<; fay, that lie foretold all the lubfequent calamities with an almoft prophetic faga city. In the year 1775, Dr. Franklin, returned to Philadelphia. The general affembly wa.<. fitting when his arrival was announced, and his confeiit being previoully afked and ob tained, he was thofe n cue of their eh I tq the continental congrefs, and took his feat accordingly. The principal outlines eif the American war are (till fielb in the memory of every 'me. On the 4th tj£ July, 1776, America declared herlelf independent, and Mr. Silas Dean was comniillioned to negociate a treaty at Paris, and to endeavour to i i the French to afford her fupport in li pute with the mother country. In tht autumn of the fame year, Dr. Franklin was lent by congrefs to Canada, to prevail if poffible, on the inhabitants to join in the common caufe, and to unite with the refl of the provinces in making off the Brrtim yoke. Having failed in this buiintfs, the doctor returned to Philadelphia, and as con grefs well knew tin- titeem in which he wa.-, held in France, and the reputation,he hat! acquired there by his difcoveries, he wa: difpatched thither for the purpofe of puttim he lafl Imnd to the negociation which Mr. Dean had been carrying on, but in a very private manner. Though now entered or liU feverttieth year, Dr. Franklin accented •his delicate and important conuiiiiHon, and arriving at Paris on the 16th pf December, forn, after took the.houfe which had bet n icctipied by Peril Stqrmont. " Never,' fays a French wiiter, " did 1 fee a man frj " pleafed and fo happy as Dr. Franklin " was on the d;,\ when Lord Stormont ■ k the Englifh Amhaffador, quitted Paris " on account of our rupture with thai it. We dined together, and the " Dotftor, who was generally very grave v and compofed, upon this' occ; lion ap " peared to be epiile another perfon." In ''cbruary, 1777, Dr. Franklin recei ved a regular appointment of pie ry from Congrefs to the Court of France and in 1783, had the pleafure of Rgning • treaty Of peace with the Englifh corrmis ftoners, and of feeing bis country, after ; hunr and tedious druggie, declared (V independent. To commemorate this happ> event, the Doctor caufed a medal to I ''ruck, on one fide of which is repiefcntei ules in his cradle, ftrangling two lei pents, whiles leopard, that feema ai at his (In ti ;th, and ready to fall opori him is rt—tilled by '.Vance, under the fe Minerva, who turns towards him herfhield in which there are three fleurs de lis. A' ittom, are the years 1777 and 17.51 ochs of the capitulations of tl mies of Burgoyne and CornWallis, repre ented by the tiu, f. rpents ; on tin fide, is Libi i< ally pourtraye by a fine woman ; and on the: exergue Libertaji American*., Dr. Franklin had for many years enjoyed ■ iLite- of health, though often troub led with periodical fits of the gout. In 1782 this diforder became exteniely violent,. accompanied by a very painful nephritic cholic, and it appears, that this was the origin of the It >nes with which he was af terwards attacked. Finding his maladies '•ncreafe, and having now acconiplifhed the higheff object of his ambition, lie longed to revifit that country which he had been (o inftruinental in rendering free. He iblicited Congrefs therefoie for leave to return, and Mr. Jefierfon being appointed in his Head, when that gentleman arrived, he en,huked at Havre, on t lie 24th of July, 178.5, landed the fame da) at Southampton, and after a flight refrefhment, proceeded to Cowes, where a vcfiel was ready to con vt y him to Philadelphia. \Y hen he arrived there, which was on the 1 sth of September, received with tears of joy, and ac companied to his houfe by the members of i'„ auiidit the acclimations of citi zen; of all ranks. A gentleman, who was prefent, fays be never faw fo affecting a All the people fhouted out " Liber ty !" He was addrefled by the general aflembly then fitting, and afterwards by all orders of men in Philadelphia, who con gratulated him on his return, and certified their approbation of his conduct by every mark of attention and refpeift. For three years following, after hi& return, Dr. Franklin was appointed prefi dent of the Hate of Pcnnfi lvania ; but his great age and incrcafing infirmities not permitting him to apply to public bufinefs,. lie requefted and obtained leave to retire, that lie might fpend the remainder of his days in philofophical cafe and tranquility. The Hone, with which he had been for fome time afflicted, foon after this period confined him almoft continually to his bed ;: and during the painful paroxyfms of that cruel difordei, he was obliged to fwallow laudanum to mitigate his tortures. In his moments of relief, however, he not only flill aimifed himfelf with reading and con ■ filing chet -i fully with his family and a few friends who vifited him, but be was often employed in tranfacYmg biifinefs of a public, as well as a private nature. On ■every occ:.iieii he difplayedthe utmoit readi nefs and difpofition to do good, and while he gave the cleared and fulleft evie of his being in poffeffion of all his mental faculties, he not unfrequently airufed thofe around him, by indulging in fallit s of plea- Pantry, and by relating entertaining anec dotes. About fixteen days before his Wath, he- was feizcd with a fevcrifh indil nolition, without any particular fymptoms attending it, till the third or fourth day, when he complained of a pain in liis le+'t which inccitftcl till it bee ame ex . acute, with a cough and laborious breathing. During this ftate, when the feverity of his pain fome im?s drew firth .1 groan of complaint, he would obferve, ;at he was afraid that he did not bear his.. affliftions as he might ; he acknowledged of the many bleffingS he 1 ad received f om the Supreme Being, who had railed h'.rn from a low beginning to high rank and consideration among men, .ml nvade no doubt that what he fuffered was kindly intended, to wean him from a. world in which be was no longer fit to aft. the part afligned him. In this frame of body and mind he continued until within V 8 of his death, when his pain and difficulty of breathing entirely left him, and his family were flattering themftlves with the hopes of his recovery, but an im i (lliume, which hail formed itfelf in his lungs, fucldenly burft. A calm lethargic date fiicceeded, and on the 17th of April, 790, about eleven o'clock at night, he ex pired in the eighty fifth year of his age, bus clofing a fife fj ent in long and ufcful labours. ( To be Continued.) ON TNE VANITY OF YOUTHFUL HOPES IN life's pay room, what vivid hues Adorn the atu'marin vi«ws, By flatcring fancy drawn i No florins with gloomy aipefl rife. To cloud the azure of rhe licit?, No mills dbfeure the dawn. With looks invariably gay, Young I xpcdai ion points the way To every hlifsf, 1 fliades, V here odor, fcent rhe brcnth of niorr\ Where rofes bloom without a thorn, And mufic fills the glades. Fnraptur'd wirh the diftant view, Youth thinks its fictions beauties true. Ami fpringi the prize to gain ; His gra/p the guy illufion Hi s : Experience rhus the- cheur celeries, And proves his hope:, wen vr.in> The path of life tho' flowers odijrn. Yet often will the rugged thorn, Ariiidft the flowers arili ; Fxpecl not then on earth to (hare, SmovmVnt unallay'd by .are, Ui/t leek it tr>. thi fltier*. ;