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The national intelligencer and Washington advertiser. [volume] (Washington City [D.C.]) 1800-1810, September 11, 1805, Image 1

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Vol. V.
Of the Weft Indies :
A WORK, in the content, of which every
..* 1 citizen of America rr.uft be interfiled,
Whether devoted to l.ufinefs. <>r defirou* of [n
h rmation through the medium of amufc*
A new & rcvi/Vd sdition nf Mr. Fdwar ds*B
J Unory of the Weft Indtee, with a thirn vol
rm<*, (completed by irsa-r.hble author a fhort j
pYcVicut to ii« dersf.h) has latel) been |
publifhel Is London. 'This tl-ird volume
Cont«mstheifltercUutg and important hiftory,
With a larte Map of the Tilind. of St. Doniiu- (
i:n, v.r ifpaniola, at ilfo th*: of Tobago ; ;
Ukrwifka hhlory oftnc war in the Weft In
Cic» from its eemrreucetncDt in J773, and a
tenrff ir William Yeans through fevera
cf the lflvnds It is accompanied by a highly
finifhid portrait of Mr. Edward*, a hi'Uiry
if hit Hie written by himf-if, and a prefatory
adtMtifcmenc I r ••ir, V. ulum Young, Ba
-101) t. ;,. P F P.. 3. &c. under whole edi
te>«Tnip it ha» been given to the public.
The r uh r rrihk;r, impreffed with a frnfe of
she great importance a genera: knowledge of
t-ic ' 'iftory, civil and commercial, of the
Weft Indr«", mult be to every ci"z:n of
Anvrtca, aed of the great ceUbrity of the
shove fork, propofea to piint it by fubferip
tiort, ar-d rcfptUlfully offers the following for
public patronage ani encouragement.
Prppafals for Printing,
Fre>m the Londsn copy, 3 vonme* quarto,
Of the British Colonies in the West
Containing, with a variety tf other
Wetter : —
A political and topographical furvey of the
fugar ifl.ii.ls.
A cpmpreheafive account of the ancient
and prcf:n< inhabitants, ; griculttire, produc
tiom, I-wf, government, conftitution and
An hiftorkal review of the flave trade ; in
eluding ohfcrvationj on the character, genius,
difpofition», and fkuations of the enflaved Af
An hiftorlctj review of $t. Damingo, com
prehending an account of the former govern
aient of the French part of that ifland, it*
political flute, populations, productions, and
exports ; » narrative of the calamities which
havettefolated the ifland ever fince the year
1789 ; and a detail of tho tranfa&ion* of the
Dritifh army in that ifland.
Alfo, a rour through the ifland* of Barba
dos, Kt. Vincent, Antigua, Tobago and Gre
nada, by Sir William Young, Baronet, &c
A hid ry of the war in the Weft Indies
from its commencement in r793, &c. flee
It wM be printed in four volumes, large oc
tavo, on a perfj&ly new and beautiful type*
and on a handfonie large medium paper,,
agreeable to ? Tpccnien, whic!* may be had
1u the fu! iber'f Book Smre
lhe price to fub.'criScr* to be three dollars
the volume, in boa/ds ; eich volume to be
|>iiH for on delivery.
W.'.h the '?ft volume will be given an AT-
I. iS, (win <*uc any additional price) contiin
ing the following niapo, vi*
l a large /foe *l map of the Wcfi Indie*.
% Map of Jamaica.
3 -vloe*.
4 Grenada.
5 St V ncent*.
6 Dominica
-7 St. Chriftophersi ,
$ Ne v U
9 Antigua.
10 Virgin iflmds.f
11 St. Domingo, or Hifpaniola.
i» Tob»sr>.
To prevent difappointment or complaint,
it is now pr«mif'*d, that on the publication of
the fecomt volume the 'übfeription price will
be advanced to ilo!frn and a half the
volume, and 011 the publication of the laft
volmre the price will be again enhanc
with fhe hft volume, bcGdeu the Atlas,
will he given >v elcgrnt engraving of the cc
lebrated author. Abo a lift of the fubferibers
Jhe London copy of th« foregoing work
in three volumes cannot be foli in America,
in boards, u/idcr Gxty dollar.
ffi Suhfcriprion* are received by faid
lTu;.iphre7* at his hook-ft&rc tbe corner of
Second and Walnut ftrteo:, and by the prinei
pa! i ookfellers through the Union.
Philadelpbia, July 15 —
*: HE SuVfcriber tahes this method ol
thinking his friend* and tbe public for their
favors whilft on the Capitol Hcruare ant
latve to acquaint thctn thut having purchif
ed and now occupying the tavern, late Tun
mclifTs hotel; which he has commenced en
Urging and improving-—he foli
eita a continuance of the of hie
frlead* and the' public , aiuiring them
that 'tis his full 'determination to fit up hi*
prefent hotel, and fo to contlutit it, as to
merit, ho hopes, the preference: of the public
travelling, as well a,* thole comin;; to the per
nuinKnt feat ot the Government of our Land
m Liberty.
Wellington City, March aj~»tf
.'/ summary Historical and Political
Review of the Revolution, Constitu
tion and Government of the United
States ; an ORATION, delivered at
Sheffield, July ith, 1305.
Tn k original scnti'iie:iits of the Ame
rican people were strongly opposed to
the hereditary, and attached to the
nvocratit s\ stem. The first js.teptowafd«
a change i*i the principle of our govern
ment was to turn the current of popular
opinion. The power of fashion was
thought supreme on political, as well as
other subjects. In England, by annex
ing ridicule to the name, it had rendered
the character and politics of a republi
can odious. A similar process was at
tempted here. Hereditary authority
was palliated by fashionable epi
Instead of monarchical or aristocratic, it
was plausibly termed energetic, inrlcpcn
eient anel permanent. Its friends as-
Surtled the popular denomination ef fe
deralists, and continued to appropriate
it, until, from an apparent consciousness
of the declining popularity of thai per
verted name, they have ! Fi cted
to style? themselves republicans. in
the mean time natural liberty end equa
lity, and right* of men, the very first
tloctrines asserted in the eleclaration of
independence, and in cur constitutional
eleclaration of rights, wei .tical
ly ridiculed. The sovereign people
were contemned. Those, eiepartments
ot our government, farthest removed
from their iramedi itc control, were dis
tinguished with comparative praises.
From the perversion of the French re- ;
volution an inference was drawn unfavo
rable to the eventual issue of ours. The
practicability of the elective system was
It re. doubted, and then denied ; and the
necessity cfa more energetic and 6table
form was lamented, but inculcated.
Popular elections were decried. De
mocrats were reproachfully stigmatised;
and democracy, the essential principle
of our national and state constitutions, 1
was charged with all the crimes of anar- J
chy and atheism. Hundreds and thou- 1
sands of real republicans unsuspectingly
followed this political fashion, as they j
conform to the prevailing mode of il
till observationiaiighi them its tendency j
and warned them of the consequences. ■
An over-ruling Providence brings rood |
out of evil. The discussions, which j
grew out of such a radical division of J
sentiments, and which have agitated our I
citizens for a number of years, although j
accompanied with much acrimony anel !
abuse, have upon the whole, proeluced
salutary effects. The nature of govern
ment has been more thoroughly examin
ed. Our political rights anel duties are \
better understood, Popular errors 1
been corrected. The public mind, after :
partial and temporary aberrations, is !
brought back to first principles. The ;
American revolution has revived in po- 1
pular esteem. The French revolution- j
arv attempt lias, in some measure, lost j
its power tobc-wilder and discourage the j
friends of freedom. The practicability j
of republicanism is more generally ad- j
mitteel. The necessity of making our |
government more permanent by heredi
tary authorities, ot increasing its en
by a military establishment, and attach
ing a powerful monicd interest to its
support by means of a funded debt, is
exploded. Democracy is no longer con
sidered criminal ; and a democrat is by
no means felt to be a term of re
proach. Party slahder is so justly con
demned, that it injures its authors more
than the objects aimed at. Perio
elections are more highly valued and
more punctually attended. The pi
are generally treated with rcspert.
Their constitutional sovereignty is felt;
Their elective decisions are acquiesce!
in ; and their rights and interest
regarded. Their conduct, at the
time, evinces an increasing sense* of the
importance of supporting the constituted
authorities, elected by a niajerity of
their own suffrages, and of oi
executing the laws, const itutioiriliy
enacted by a majority < f tlvir own repre
sentatives ; and thus practically refuting
objections of their auti-democratic
enemies, and confirming the repuh
.maxim, that re tive democrac*
is in reality the strongest, as well as the
in est of human governments.
The progress of political reformation
haS extended to m is well as
•ants. One of the sins, which
easily beset modern governments,
extension of executive patronage,
'itiplication of offices, the
mentation of taxes and the accumulation
;ts. In each of these particulars,
Great Britain exhibits an awful exam
ple. Her list ofoflic.es, civil, cccl
tical, military, naval end fiscal, has been
multiplied to an extent, which would
startle ah American. Taxes, direct and
indirect, are there loaded upon every
article of property and every conveni
ence and nec< Bsaryof life ; and year af
ter year increases the weighi of their
load. The art of taxation, which seems
to be r i ion for the
ministry* is carried to such refinement, i
that they now raise, by annual taxes,
twenty times as much :vs the U. States ;
and yet their expenditures so far ex
ceed their income, that they annually
add to their national debt, by loans more
than the whole amount of Our.-,. Their
debt already exceeds two thousand mil
lions of dollars, and is progressing ad
infinitum. No man, in bis senses, now
heiieves that, any part of it will ever be
mcd. All this accumulation of
burthens is.the effect of the anti-demo
cratt of government, in the
cues.- of ;i little more than a century.
At the era ot the revolution 1688, the
English national debt was loss than h id
a million sterling, their a.mual revenue
t »ro millions, and their expences within
the revenue.
Bolingbrokk, in his " State of the
Nation," explaining the funding fyftemj
which was then introduced obferves,
•• It was faid that a new government,
eftablifhed againft the ancient principles,
and a ftual engagements of many, could
not be fo effectually fecured any way,
as it would be if the private fortunes of '
; numbers W( re made to depend on
the nrefervat ion ol it ; St that this could
not be done, unlcfs they were induced
tn lend their money to the public, and ,
accept fecurities under the prefent efia
blifhment. Tims the method of fund
ing and the trade of Hock-jobbing be
gan." He might have .added, that the ■
policy was fatally fmcefsful. It creat
ed an influential monied intereft, and at
tached the holders of the funded Hocks
to the admin Hration, who had affifttd
them to their fortune, by advantageous
loans'. Thus ton, the fiockholders of the |
United States, with a very few except
tions, have been politically attached to
; the party, who Avere the authors of our j
funding fyftei**..
On the fubjeet of offices, taxes and
d'tbt*, our own hiftory, though fhort. is .
full of inflruction. A few facts only i
will be felected on the prefent occa- •
Under the former adminifiration we
had Minifters reftdent at the Courts of
j England, France, Spain, Pruffia, Portu- j
gal and Holland. At prefent we have J
them only at London, Paris, and Mad- '
I rid. . ;
Near the clofe of the former admi- i
niftration, the federal judiciary then con- j
lifting of fix judges of the fupreme j
court, and one diHrift judge in each dif- ,
j trict, was nearly doubled by the crea I
I tion of an additional grade of circuit j
There is a cbmfe in the Conftitution
: that no Senator or Reprefentative fliall
;be appointed to any civil office created
during bis term. The members of that '
I Congrefs, therefore, could not be direct- ;
:ly accommodated with the Hew official '
! births. But a .-umber of diftrict judges :
! and attorneys were advanced, and mem
■ bers f f the Senate and Horde appoint- '
ed to fucceed them, without the previ
bus acceptance or even knowledge of
I the promoted officers. That was not,
indeed, a violation of the letter of the ;
conftitutional prohibition ; but was it
! fairly reeoncileable with the fpirit of
the conHitution ? It csrtainly was at
tended with embarralfments. In one
cafe for infiancc a diftrict judge was
promoted to the circuit bench and a
Senator was commiflioned as his fuccef-
J for. But the former, when confulted
deemed his promotion, and the latter
there fore took nothing by bis appoint
ments : Judge Beb is ftill the diHrift
judge of South Carolina ; and Mr. Read
kith a commiffion in his pocket, appoint
ing him a judge during good behavior*
has yet no office to ferve in.
The firfl Congrefs, after the change
ot adminiHration, repealed the circuit
law, and reltoicd the old judiciary ella
blifbment, with fome improvements fug-
I gefted by experience.
No meafure of tba Republicans en
countered feveier oppofition than this.
I Both its conftitutionality and expedien
cy Were Controverted. It was once a
queftion for political difcuffion ; but we
are now viewing it in the light of bit- j
The (enure of judicial office, during
1 1). iiavior, was firfl introduced in
England, then cranfpfahted to fome of
our ftate conllitutions, and from thence
rafted into that of the United
States. Its object was to fectire jiidgct*
againft arbitrary'removals from exifting
offices ; but it bad no relation to
continuance or discontinuance of the
offices tbemi'elveSi 'I bus the office of
an fnglilb judge is, and always has
been repealable by an aft of the legifla- j
ture, although, in the technical lan-
I*e of thei: laws, be holds it during '
good behavior.
Tiie very aft, creating the circuit
courts, exprefsly abolifhcd pre-exi
courts. Yet it was afterwards contend
ed that the courts created by that aft
could not conftitittionally be aholifil
Gentlemen in Ma'flachufeetttj
had long adVOcat sd the IvboHtioii of a dif
ferent fyftem, without thd lealf doubt of
the conflitiirinnality of the meafure,
notwithstanding the judges of thofe
Courts liotd their offices during good be
havior, became converts to the i
doffcin-. tint the abolition of an Li
or court of the United States, without
the content of the judges; would in
fringe their ronHimtional tenure of of
i behaviour.
In Conne&icut, alio, gentlemen who
Hill defend their own- (late fyftem, by
j which the judges are not only'appointed
j annually by the legidaturc, but d
(dentdft them for the amount, of their
; falaries, and the continuance of I
I offices, and removeable by them at
pleafure, any day of any feffion,
j Beverthelefs alarmed, left the repeal of
the federal circuit courts iliouhl ruin the
/judiciary, that main pillar of the conlti
tution, by leaving- all the judges at the
mercy of the legiflature, and thus
dering them victims of political in-j
, tolerance, or tools ol the •
party. " j
Some of the late judges tbemfelyes
prOtCfted againft the repealing aft ;
. in a petition to Congrefs, they have fince
given notice that they Hill claim their
falaries during life, provided they be
have in fuch a maimer as to avoid a j
removal by the procefs of impeach
! Upon the point of expediency, it was
| aflerted, that the remaining- judges could
not poffibly accomplifh the judicial bu
finefs of the United States. But ex
perience has how refuted that affcrtion,
and I auctioned the dil'charge of thofe
Supernumerary judges.
| The federal Bankrupt aft fun-died a
multitude of offices, which were all
[ fwept away when that law was repealed ;
'and to fay the feaft, the morals of the
community have received no injury I
■ the repeal.
I The provifional army, which under
an idea of repelling an expected inva
! lion, had, for fome time, funiilhed many
offices and e-mpioyieents, was difoand
i ed, altera cl,arrg< ofadminiftrAtion had
! become morally certain; and a fubfequjent
, reduftion in the military etlablifhnient
| Hill left officers, as well as privates
1 enough to garrifon the forts and guard
| the frontiers.
The act for levying a federal dlreft
tax and for cllimating lards and houfes
for that purpolc, in addition to a hoH
of temporary officers, created about a
thoufand permanent offices $ one in
each auVfl'ment diHrift, fof the afcer
tainment of accruing varii*£*ous in the
Hate of buildings and rcgiltry oftranf
lers of real eftate, with a view to fuc
ceoding taxes. By the d»fcontu»uance
of direct taxation, thole office* are all
The Hamptax, and other eltifeiem- J
cd 467 officers, at an exp'ence cf
more ban two hundred tbou&nddollars
annually, as appears by the official re-1
turns for the .years 18•'(). With the
repeal of the excifes, thofe officer alfo ]
have ceaicd.
By a train of Republican meafure*, I
executive patronage has thus been ef
fentially rcftrained, and our annual
hendi ure diniinilhed more in amount than j
the whole present expences of the legil* ,
l.i'ive, executive and judiciary depart
ments added together.
National as well as prrfonal econo-'
my, not only relieves us from bur.
but enables us to pay our debts,
fame Congrefs which repealed the inter
nal taxes, made effectual proviimi
the extinguilliment of the national debt
by c permanent appropriation of I
millions three liunJrcti thoufand dollars
to which have fince been added |
hundred thoufand more, making in the
whole eight millions, of dollars a
The names of thofe who voted for
and againft this republican me
entered on the journal of C>oi*grefa, and
will be recorded in the faithful pages of
The effect of fuch a change of mea
fiuvs is already feen and felt ; in our re
lief from direct taxes, Hamps and all
other internal duties and more ieiffi
bly, perhaps, in the rapid reduction of
, the debt. In twe ye years it had r -
fen from about feventy to above <
mdlions of dol-ars. A considerable part
of the addition was made irredeemable
for a ftipu'ated time, and charged
eight per cent, iutcreft, payable quarter
ly. According to the policy the
vailing, fuch an augmentation, and on
\ Tun-* round number of /-■.,
No. DC
fuch terms, was c iveceflarr.
'1 be ratio of ittcreafe was nearly equa*
' to the progrefs ol debt,
during :Hi equal com
mencement af.er t'neir revolution. ':
ferio'ufly appreh a of
ceceflity would always continue, atnd
produce here, as it had in England, %
continuedand inextinguishable progref.
n of debt.
The new adminiftratidtt iV
March 4-th. ISO!. On the Grfttreafli
ry quarter day afrrwards, that is April
I Ift, (80 1, the balance, of cafli hi thi
' treafury was 1,794.044 dollar, and 83
On the 30th September laft, to
j which time the laf) annual ire tiut\ '
! ment reached the cafii in the iiraiury*
I amounted to 4,832,225 dollars and I I
; cents, an increaie of more than three
: millions j and, in the Intermediate period
of three years and a half, i
dollars and 15 cents, of the prihtipalj
had been redeemed, belides the payment
of the iotereft ae.d the current expences.
i No additional tax has been laid tin*
J der the prefent adhi'miftration except
ary addition of two and
I a half per cent upon certain arti. ies
I ofimpoft, eftimated to produce ? *» SQjkiQ
j the prelent year, conftkutihg the Me
diterranean fund, fp citdiy appropriated
to the. extraordinary expences of the
nival armament, am! limited to the dv
i ration of the Barbary V."
The permanent ordinary revenue' is
I 1,200,000 j which after deducting th«
appropriated eight millions, leaves tl.ivc
miilions two hundred thoufand dollai
ftrm fufficient for the ordinary expences
of government, which are now
within three mdiions a year, according
to the laft eftimatc. So that the. ap
propriation need not be difturbed.
The application of eight miilions
annually already reduces near 3,700
dollars of the principal This annual
reduction iuereafes in a compound ra
tio; and will if continued, dife/bargW
the whole of the old debt in the courf*
of the year 1817, and the remaining
13 millions of the price ofLouifiana, irt
1819. This is matuemaicallv certain.
Withig 15 therefore, the Uni'.ed
States will be freed from debt, provid
ed the prefent lyfrem of ceconomy and
peace lhall be maintained.
Thefe, feii-.iw-citizens, are fafts and
calculations, founded on the authentic
documents, which any perfjjn, who b.ii
leifure, and will take the trouble, can
examine for himfelf.
In the late re-election of President
Jefferson, by 162 of 176 electoral V
is a fair criterion ofpuhli «
than eleve uftlio nation alrea
dy approve the republican moa: Bros
now iii operation, i am
nave been Opposed with great .
:-e:>s» who, exported 'by ii
Le portion ofthe - thi*J
>m« other states. A •>art of tiie
•cc, whom 1 have the honor to ad
dross, are ,-f that nil
which they have I
tioui k
nation ; us it hai .
practice, een productive of
such bencnui -.1 effects, and, on reasqna
ble grounds' pr< ,- be
to hesi. *.c, to reexamine the fou
I tion >- : the sc
i ries <"
i of lr.^
riousl; e H g
| their oppraiiJon any further ? What
I rational motive can they i...w have for
; striving to reverse the pre r of
or even wish*
s v.-h:,»h
irdefl ? Wililcj the] , fv r
ice, revive the abolished circuit
court, after cm ci
them ta be unnecessary? Or would
gi ml the ex-judo's the salaries
they claim dvi n all the
there is ih*
for their
, citizens be gratified to ho f m-,*
■'•.s and alarms and the drums of
a pro\ Isioriafarrnj, I i < ur
r, to rt-cniist their sons and
tices, with mercenary •
and conricf, i r th< ir com
\\ cuiltl cm their
bread in the sweat of their brow, wel
come tlie r<
-on their houses and l«fn !, ? Are
ot* business desirous to have their
d agaivi with
stamps: Would it be mattei
our ti-ulers and mr
five hundred excise-men, dej i
the" pleasui ir ice, re
, planted all over theiriterior.of the coun's
• ith irjfqnisitoi'ial po*A efci to i
any dayj
- and are hour, tpinspect then- bosh
examme their dster
oafhs lurpdse oi
■ neral peace, in all S arid vie
■\ an c: ; ■■•: .'•' t-.vbatj p«i

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