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Ufa DOLLARS VElt AhNUeii G () N G R E s s. HOUSE OF RHPRh.SENTATIvr.S. Wkunesbay, A run. 6. Debate on the j - of the bill for raising an additional military force. (continued. J Mb. G. WE CAMPBELL said, that notwithstanding the long time that hacl been spent in <he discussion of this bill, he felt it his duty to state to the House the reasons that would influence him to vole in favor of it ; and he deemed it the more necessary that he should do so, because attempts had been made to impress the public mind with an opinion, that those who were disposed to raise this army, had abandoned the principles they main tained in former times, when they had insisted that standing armies were dangerous lo liberty and the rights of man. and that the chief reliance for security and defence ought to be placed on the miiitia. 1 am, (said Mr. C.) and always ha\e been one of those who think we ought to rely on the militia 'as the main support and de- ; fence of our country in the day of ; 1 danger. I consider them as the great ; bulwark of our liberties, and believe ' we may repose the highest confidence < in their patriotism and courage. I ' am also, as 1 always have been, op- I | posed to standing armies. I have con- J' sidered them and still consider them M as the bane of freedom, as the instru- I* Ifaent in the hands of a despot, with a which to scourge the people, reduce c them to submission and deprive them I of their liberties. In this view 1 con- c sider large standing armies in times l of peace. But at the same time that v I entertain this opinion, I believe that * a regular force may in certain cases, ■ and under certain circumstances, be v necessary. I consider it as a End of ° necessary evil, which we cannot in j v those cases do without, and which j * may he essentially useful in repelling v invasions of our rights and territory, c and rendering more secure, while " kept within proper limits, our liberty S] and independence. I vvjsh it there- , lore to be distinctly understood, that n though 1 shall vote for the bill on your P table, 1 have lot changed my opinion "• with regard to the confidence we ought ° to repose in the militia, nor as to their cl efficiency in ordinary cases for the w defence of their country. I hate hi not, sir, altered my opinion on these ol points, and the only difference which |' c exists between myself and many | others on this subject, appears to be cl< that, I consider the present crisis to vv be such as requires us to prepare for a ll ' state ol war, while they seem to think °' there is no necessity for making such w preparations. I also believe (what I al presume lew if any deny) that in a D J state of war a regular force is neces. w sary to aid and support the militia. iv This seems to be admitted on all ai hands, and indeed liilie or no argu- at ment can be necessary to prove that & l there are certain services to which the vv ' militia arc not competent, and which tn ought not to be required of them. It m has been said that ill ordinal y times an they may be relied upon for every °\ purpose. Though this position may in wl the general he true, yet there arc some P' exceptions to it in the present situation ar of our coun ry, and I maybe permit- P 1 ted to state some s.rviees which are ta< important, and which ought not to be an imposed upon the militia. Among 3 e those may be mentioned the protection I 11; of the most exposed points on our sh extensive frontier—l will instance g ll New Orleans.—Should an attempt be a H made to invade your territory, no da: place is more exposed or seems to aII promise a greater prospect of success no to the invader than New Orleans, sli When danger threatens, what is there <"> to protect that city from a sudden at- ire tack by either of the belligerent pow- to ers. You have no effective miiitia hij there sufficiently numerous to defend tai it, and it is 7 or noo miles from Ihe cai body of the militia of ihe western frc country. Exhausted by so long a c march, is it lo be expected that the S ul militia would be willing to remain, for do months and perhaps years as a per >;i manent protection to that place ? the Suppose they would submit to any ■ ci burthens wnich you should impose ho; upon them, and lam confident they the will never shrink from any duty try which maybe assigned them by their un country, is it consistent with proprie- lav ty, is it honorable to the ii ition to in- ty, pose this task exclusively on the mi- l'y Huu of the western country ? Are yet II ati '6 ft al Stit tt r, &' WASHINGTON ADVERTISER. your militia to be called out and to re- » main out to protect the many ex > >sed j points from Detroit to New Orleans, J to repel the savages or a neighb cneiriy.,-should he meditate an attack for on that quarter? These duties would cc. be too arduous to impose upon the at. Their vast dittai.ee from the scene of id, action, and the sickliness of the cii ne mate to which they mighl be called, on would expose them to diseases afld ite which their constitutions dd would be incompetent to sustain, and t ; even bear down the strongest co:. ry tutions, k dam-p the most ardent dispo )is si.ion tosci velheireountry. I say tiiere tic fore that whether we ore-actually at ho war or threatened by it, it is inipoi ad to have an active disposable lcrce to be n- stationed at those places, to repel the a - (Est attacks, utitii your militia Can be re called out lo support them. of But it is said by gentlemen who ad or "lit (hat in time ol war a regular ?e force may be necessary, that they will | r. not raise a single man till they see me ( lemy. I would not have believed 1 ie that any gentleman would make such I c- an assertion, if I hall not heard it on this i of I lloor. If I hud not heard gentlemen ( at / say that though you arc surrounded t c by dangers, they will not vote io rai-e 8 ; L - a single regiment, no not a single - 1 I man to defend their coin.try. Can '■ S ). i gentlemen justify this conduct to tlie 11" i_ j nation? Are they willing to remain I n inactive and unprepared, with tiieir , s i_ arms folded up, until you are actually \ I h. I attacked, until the enemy is at your . ' c door, and then it will be too late q prepare to resist him ? Will this be ' ~ doing justice to the nation? Will Jii s this be acting like men ought to do, 't] lt who are appointed the guardians ofj* t the American people, and to whom j c kj are confided the protection of their' g c best rights, their liberty and indepen- i f deuce ? It wiil not, sir, the nation tl j will never sanction such conduct. > S1 , j But, sir, if the miiitia are su.'iicient |i' r Under ail circumstances to repel an ,' w t enemy, however formidable, in the i' i lirst instance, will there be any occa- 'o, 7 sion to raise a regular force lo support je< . thetil, alter thi y have withstood the |°' t Hist impulse and acquired mote ex- ! a , perience I I should presume not. I' si , have i lways understood thai one great j hi t object ot regular troops was to give * . discipline and energy to the militia •ol , when first called into service, and that i' l . after they had served some time, say pi , one or two years, they in fact became » regular troops, for all useful purposes. . si 'Though in the first instance consi- lii derabie inconvenience and difficulty *» were experienced with regard to •"> them, for want of system, for want pi of the habit of acting m concert, ior , ti' want of discipline—a regular force da also answers an important purpose,' lit by being distributed at those plates ' IE 1 where clanger is most to be appri bended, and serving as firm bauds, Ihi around which the niiliiia would rally cd at the call of their country. 'There- si; gularity and discipline of the former ed would give confidence and energy to the latter, while in turn tne latter (the xv militia) being their feilow citizens, sa , and fighting L>y their side in defence ■ a!! of their country, would add courage re with enthusiasm to the skill and disci- P° plineofthe regular troops. A regulai army is made acquainted with and to preserves the knowledge of military sit tactics, and is prepared to infuse it t ' l< among the miiitia when called into ul ' service. But that we should remain j inactive, and wait until our enemy en shall come to our doors before we be- sIL gin to prepare, when it is admitted on tm all bauds that we are threatened with w ' danger, appears to me extraordinary, i- 1 and is a line of conduct that 1 could I lj y not reconcile to myself, to my con- bu slilueuis, or to my country. Ido l ' u not feci disposed, like the gentleman' no from South Carolina (Mr. Williams) foi to express my resentment in terms so tlu nighly aggravated against Great Bri- w '" tain and France, as he has done. I frifl :an see no real benefit likeiy to result aci from calling them by hard names— 9U> el I do not mean to reprehend his 1 ' Itict in this respect, 1 have no cd doubt he expressed his real feelings, ''° and I believe, I view the conduct of fh< those nations with as much abhor- 1 i ence as any man in this House. But tiic how the gentle man can represent sl1 " tneiii both as so hostile* to this coun- lb try, tmd their measures towards it, so PI unjust, so contrary to all the known no laws of society, au.i even of humaui ty, a; to thdi '". him to call one the :( ' Tygc'r and E die Shark, and •" vet in tlr • ath refuse to make mi WASHINGTON CITY, HUNTED BY SAMUEL HARRISON SMITH, PENNS LVANIA AVENUE. MONDAY, . 9, I*oß. 'c- " any preparation to raise my force to ed j defend the nation againV. tiic ravages as, ;of those wild a id voracious animals', is to me beyond all comprehension. ck Can gentlemen be serious tvhea-hey ud aggravate and paint ii the! highest it. colors the atrocity of the conduct of of those nations, and yet tell you there :ii- is iii necessity to prepare for nana ;d, Surely, sir, when this nation is nd j threatened \E E lungers from .broad, ns from nine quarters than one, as has n<| been -.utod on ibis Boor, it is high • ti- a.ne to prepare for defence, to pre-j i'j- pare to resist those dangers, and our •c- preparations ought certainly to bear at some proportion to the dangers 'hat Dt threaten us, and be in a great degree be regplated by the disposition those :e powers have manifested in their acts, jc to bar rasa and destroy our commerce, Ite our rights, and murder our d- fellow citizens. ar Much has been said on this lloor, vi particularly by a, gentleman from N ie Carolina, (\lr Stanford) with reap ;d to the danger of a standing army—■ h and he stated tlie horror the people is felt, at tne beat of the drum in time n of recruiting soldiers—and I suppose d they must have felt the same horror c at the sound of the fife as it generally c accompanies the drum on those occa n,' sions I regret that the gentlieman c has represented his consututctits, so ■ n ; timid as to be alarmed even at the r r sounds that usually accompany war. ' yi 1 must however believe, that this ; t- timidity, this horror at the sound oi ' 0 the drum are confined to the grav< I c ' matrons, the fond mothers and tender l 11 ;' hearted sisters, of those in the gen- ( », ' tlemaii's district, who may be about lo x fi risk their lives in defence of their i j country, and do not affect the people t nerally in that quarter. I entertain B - a much more favorable • pinion of * 1 their patriotism and bravery. But * , I such arguments can have no weight l t (in regard to the present question,. 1 ! ; whatever plausibility they might claim j v l in relation to a standing army in time j - . of peace, they are entirely misappli- c tjcd in the present instance. In dme t * . j of war, or when threatened by war,] l .|a military spirit, a martial inthu-i ¥ [ ' siasm ought to be encouraged, ought to j i l: be cherished and excited among ItioiP : whole peopJe of this country—in times i: i' of peace this is unnecessary. There is ll ; little or no analogy between the force: proposed to be raised by this bill and \' a standing army in time of peace, xv such as the gentleman from N. Caro- v Una seems to have had in view, and- ° which is so terrific to his people. Al most every man in the House i_ op- tl posed lo a large standing army- in ( 1 j time of peace, such as could intimi- n ' date the ciy'U authority, or endanger " liberty—objections that are valid a- n - gainst such an army do not apply to Vl I the force intended to be raised by tlie ■ s; < bill, vtli'l h is a temporary force, rais- E cd on the emergency of the present di slate of our affairs, and lo be disband- bl cd whenever that emergency ceases. 1 Gentlemen have indeed brought io ll view our situation in 17J8, when they " say an army was unnecessarily raiscu. U1 and also that in 1805—6, when we refused to raise one, and on ihesc two cl points have insisted that there is no th ' more —nay, some have gone so far as j W 'to say that there is not as much occa- I m ' sion for this force now as there was at E : those respective times for raising an o[ ai my. I C< lt appears that the principal differ- th fence between us arises from two po- « silioiis which have been assumed by 'si the opponents to the bill, in both of |te which I conceive they arc mistaken, to The one E. that the force to be raised si jby the bill is a standing army of the cr kind hitherto SO much opposed—and j sr. the other, that the present crisis is ite not such as to require ns to prepare pi for a state of war. Willi regard to the fust position, notwithstanding! or what has been said by the gentleman ai from Connecticut (Mr. Dana) and his I cc acute knowledge of the graniatical in- as stitulcs and construction of language, l"i I must deny that the force to be ids- I cc' cd by this biil is intended as an addi- se don to the peace establishment or that (} the biil justifies such an inference The gentleman admitted tiic words ol in the bill would not support this con- pt struction, but he insisted according to art the spirit of the law it must be soui d. w, The bill propose! to raise an addi- cl: donal military force. Now, said the :E itleman, a,, military force and the ;1( icacc establishment must be ihe aine, la hu w military force but the peace establish- si to ment. The peace establish nent is ;es certainly a military eetablis i uv.mii , is but ai addition made to tlie >a .a. i,i. tabiiShmetit would be so exprease ;, ey aid .vni.d be different an I dis ;st fi'o i troops raised iow.urds a war es of t lO.isn.iienl, as these ..re. Tnis force re- it rais cl will oe as stated in tne oili, v r. an a.hii ion iv.me in service to the pre is sent military peace estao.ishnie.it ; ,d. but will not ior,n a part oi it. : o vie as Qnderstanuiag ol nine tenths ol .nis th I House is, that this 19 a specific lorce a-I to meet a crisis, which may pro,.•ab;y ii- occur in our public ud'.n s—a sate ol , tl . war—,nd it is distinctly unuerstooo at that they are to be diab ,i,ded v. Ie >h d crisis is over, or vie probadiaty i( - Ol war ceases. But, says a genue s, man, it may continue for ever ; 1 dd c, not think ii neceasar) io enter into ..n ir enquiry how long n .nay lie re jui Ale ' io keep these troops in service j it is i r, a sufficient answer to tlie geuueinaii a" from Connecticut, that this esXaUish :i ment is in the power.of the goiern _. mem and of tins House; -tttd so soon is the exigency ceases, it Cainiot be c supposed that mis branch of the go ;■ \ euimc.it Would ut,- disposed lo eonii n- nue them any longer in service, bo y long as continuing this army remains i exclusively in ihis House, there can n he no danger o| Es beilig retained any () longer than th-e crisis may require, c This House lias vie power io reiuse . t muklng appropriations to suppurt s Such army, aim when mat is reiusa j , it must be disb.un.led. 'Tnis i-> sup- . ' c posing an extreme case—,iat tne o- ' r iher House will not agree with you lo . discontinue it by repealing the law, ' 3 which can handy oe expected to occurl '<■ , With regard therefore to tne poai- c . tion that this is a standing army in the ■■ l 1 sense in winch it has beien slated, it is l I nol supported by the bin or by any 1 L fitir inference from it, and the mo- ' t ment it is examined, it will appear L j unfounded, and the grounds on which tf ,1 opposition is made to this bid by liie v • gentleman Iroin North-Carolina and r . j others, will thereupon entirely vanish. v . In the same manner the argument v t ■ that it will affect the morals oi tne v .J people mid endanger civil liberty, is c ( > lutiie ; fo"r the moment that the idea v ,J ol its being a standing army, such as f< , is lo continue in lime of peace, ceases, tl i j that.moment all possiuie iforci which ll I those argu.ncnls couiu gi\e lo the op- c position alio ceases and leaves tins o without being affected by them— i< we may therefore lay ihem entirely j n . out of ihe question. | d> ' The second posEion taken, viz: Ol that the jircseiit crisis docs noli*- w quire preparation for a state of war, 'di may require somewhat more particu- ti h.r notice. We are called upon to .C( review the scenes of '93, when our hi vessels itoere captured, and which was ,' di . said to be a time of greater danger J F than the present. At that time 1 it did nol pay much attention lo politics, di but according to the best information si 1 hay been enabled to obtain, our si- pa luation then was extremely diiiereiii. oi from what it is now. The govern- of ment of Erance was at that lime in struggling for existence against a pow - an , crlul coalition, in which were united 16 the great powers on ihe continent, as It i well as Great Britain. Her govern- ri; i ment was no firmly established; and w. it was not known how long she could sii oppose the powerful torrent of that gi | coalition. For this reason it was that ,sa ; those who opposed the regular force !je at that time said there was no ecca- S] sion for raising an army. It was con- ra I tended that Eunice had no land fores vc !to spare, nor had she a maritime oree St sufficient to transport them to this Wi country ; if even she had them lo th spare at home. It was therefore con- cl; i tended that war was not to be ex- th ! peeled. Hi I I understand it was then insisted up- be 'on by those who opposed the raising an oil 1 army, that the government ol this tn : country at that time appeared to act to as if they wished to court a war with foi Erance, and indeed it has been so slat- Wl led on this floor during the present na ion by the geiulema from N. C to (Mr. Macon) and because the then Sa minority (who are considi ra-d as hay- si. iir; become the present majority in a t\\' political sense) considered it impolitic wl and unjust to aggravate or provoke a tn war, and that the country was nol in bh danger of cither invasion or attack tw ,'ioni any quarter, they therefore Op- je. posed the raising an army. he 1 take ii for granted that thctic of re their reason* ; and were this a dc similar crisis, would oppose the bill cU PAID in Am a yen. * is Upon your tabie, and In doing sdj li nil act on the Very sanye priiici* pies as that on which 1 snail now act 3i, in voting or it. V, ith regard to our' let situation in )Sos —6, I can speak with c,- so iifewh-tmore precision, being here •cc at that ti ie, and having a much I ill, ter opp< rumdy of being acquainted c- with ( irctl n stances of our pu d ; affairs, and tne causes tiiat led to no tne then differences between us and ds Spain. cc There was indeed some appear' i;y anee of w,r on our _outh>w.esierrl 01 < : '' ifier ; out what were the causes of r«J i ■ Not such as to promise any sei-H tn ous Don t jUences. 1 will rot take ty u-p vie time of tne House in detailing c- the i.i.iere.H es wiiieti then took place t i : -> Wi en so in .'viuerii ans and certain ,n disorderly persons in the SpanEh ter te ritbry; the) are already known to is the House, aim when fairly examined in they, wiii clear]} prove that Spain had ii- no intention whatever oJ going io « li- with us at thai ,'n-. . v-\ . have had in all i!ic evidei.ee on this subject before. -.and there is no p; vol ol any serious j. hostile dispusjtion to '...ids us, on the i- pari of the Sp id me io circumstance gees Ln to prove mat ■ s ii" did noi intend io m Commit any act of hostility, or to vio y Etc our iertitory in mis transaction—< hich is, thai the Spanish troops c j mained on the:*- ow., side of I rt t ujiti . ions (tne Kempers) j w ,i.> ai ;,., v had procured to be taken* ~ ! were delivered to them on their own '- '• J some An t rlcan citizen* a ' « leai est proof that the'jr , were determined td avoid committing ostidty, or even entering i scan territory ; and though 2 | they may have used fraudulent meana s lo obtain theii object, nis clear they r had no authority from theii : . ment to [ n g i- between the two nations. \.:,t, re i K al;1 to the dit 'ccting our ; boundary west of th it I related to a small tract of Country un . inhabi cd, bordering on the 3ahin©r> L ver, ..no extending irom thai river to ; wards Natchhoclie. Whatever our i claims were and Still are, and however t well founded they may be to territory i Jar west ol die Sabine, ihe dispute at , that lime was confined io the small t tract above described. Tlie Spanish . commanders informed you they were , ordered to maintain Ihe most li ieuuiv , relations with the American govern ment and pecpic, were expressly or i tiercel not to a<t on the offensive, but only on the defensive ; but that they were directed M\d inougiit it their duty to occupy the territory in ques ; tion, because they believed it belong .cd to • ernment. v)u the othev ', hand our government c.aimed it un j der the treaty and convention with Erance for Louisiana, and considering it as our properly we deemed v our duty to lake possession of it, and not suffer it to be occupied by a foreign power. The dispute was therefore only co-extensive with that small tract of territory (on which there were no inhabitants,) for neither pal iy evinced disposition to extend its Claim forcibly at that time beyond its limits. It was merely a dispute about the real right t-o the territory in question, to which each party might honestly con sider his claim valid. This Wis the ground of difference, when at tlie , same lime negotiations on this sub hject were pending at the court of | Spain. It was at that time also g; I rally understood that Erance was ta | vorably disposed towards the United States in regard to this dispute. There was no apprehensions entertained that she would support Spain in her claim to the territory in question ; on the contrary there was reason to be lieve she would not. Whatever might be the opinion of France in regard to our claim to the Eioridas, under our treaty with her, there was no reason to believe from the documents laid fore us, and the best information tiiaC was possessed, that she would counte nance or sup ort the claim of Spain to the territory in question, on the Sabine, cl dined by us under the Eoui sia.na treaty, or her claim to any part of the country west of the Mississippi, which we claimed by virtue of thai treaty. There was not any reasona round to expect a coalition be tween Erance and Spam on this sub ject. Spain stood alone to sup her claim. She had only a handful of troops, not exceeding G or declared their intention to c , and who il NO. 1181.