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& WASHINGTON ADVERTISER
VOL. VIIL HVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM, AA7IOAAL INTE LLIG ENCER, Report cf the Secretary ofthe Trea sury on roads and canuls. In inviting the public attention to this report, SO eminently calculated to excite seasonable reflections and exertions, we discharge one of the most pleasant duties, which has ever fallen to our lot. Having been always of opinion that the highest obligations of government consisted in extending the benefits of education and in pro moting internal improvements, we have, for many years past, lost no occasion to awaken the nation to the importance of these objects, and to excite a zeal towards their accomplish ment by exposing the readiness with which they might be effected. Our j readers may judge, from this ciroum stance, of the interest with which we have beheld this first step taken by the general government in the at tainment of objects, which it alone can accomplish. This performance is in every re spect masterly. It carries on the lace of it the usual simplicity and j p< rtpicuity of its author, and without i either splendor of diction, or parade of learning, takes those views of the subject which are, perhaps, the most likely to impress conviction on the mmci of the reader. It commences with the following concise general tiew of the subject: »' The general utility of artificial roads and canals, is at this time so universally admitted, as hardly to re quire any additional proofs. It is suf ficiently evident that, whenever the annual expence of transportation on a iin route in its natural state, ex ceeds ihe interest on the capital em ployed in improving the communica tion, and the annual expense of trans portation (exclusively of the tolls,) by the improved route ; the difference ' is an annual additional income to the j nation. Not does in that case the J general result vary, although the tolls , may not have been fixed at a rate suf- j fic.iei.i to pay to the undertakers the ; interest on the capital laid out. They indeed, when that happens, lose ; but the community is nevertheless be nefitted by the undertaking. The \ general gain is not confined to the dif ference between the expenses of the transportation of those artkles which had been formerly r< nvcyed by that route, but many which were bn to market by other channels, will then j find a new and more advantageous di- . rection ; and those which on account of their distance or weit;rt could not ! be*, transported in any manner whale- J ver, will acquire a value, and become ; a clear addition to the national Wealth. 1 Those and many oilier advtihl have become so obvious, that in coun- j dies possessed of a large capital, j where property is sufficiently secure ; to Induce individuals to lay out that i capital on permanent undertakings, I and where a compact population ere- j ates an extensive commercial inter- j course, within short distances, those improvements may often, in ordinary , cases, be left to individual exertion, j without any direct aid from govern- ! ment. " There arc however sorrc circum- I stances, which, whilst they render j the facility of communication throughout the United States an ob ject of primary importance, naturally check the application of private capi tal ami enterprize, to improvements on a large scale. ¥ The price of labor is no* consi dered as a formidable obstacle, be cause whatever it may be, it equally affects the expense of transportation, which is saved by the improvement, and that of effecting the Improvement itself. The want of practical know ledge is no longer felt ; and the occa sional influence of mistaken local in terests, in sometimes thwarting or giving an improper direction to pub lic improvements, arises from the nature of man, end is common to all countries. The great demand for capital in the U. States, and the ex tent of territory compared with th • population, are, it is believed, the true causes which prevent new* under takings, and render those already ac complished, less profitable than had been expected. « L Notwithstanding the great in crease of capital during the last fif teen years, the objects for which it is re quj iouc to be more mime- I rou», and its application is generally more profitable than in Europe. A I "WASHINGTON CITY, PRINI'KD BY SAMUEL HARRISON SMITH, PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE. small portion therefore is applied to objects which offer only the prospect of remote and moderate profit. And it also happens that a less sum being subscribed at first, than is actually requisite for completing the work, ibis proceeds slowly ; the capital ap plied remains unproductive for a much longer time than was necessa ry, and the interest accruing during that period, becomes in factum injuri ous addition to the real expense of the undertaking. " 2. The present population of the: U. States, compared with the extent of territory over which il is spread, not, except in the vicinity of the sea ports, admit that extensive commerci al intercourse within short distances, which, in England and sonic other countries, forms the principal support of artificial roads and canals. **'ithu few exceptions, canals particularly, cannot in America be undertaken with a.view solely to the intercourse be tween the two extremes of, and along the intermediate ground which they occupy. It is necessary, in order to ibe productive, that the canal should j open a communication with a natural ! extensive navigation which will flow j through that new channel. It follows that whenever that navigation re quires to be improved, or when ll might at some distance be connected by another canal to another navigation the first canal will remain compara tively unproductive, until the other improvements are effected, until the other canal is also completed. Thus the intended canal between the Che sapeake and Delaware, will be depri ved of the additional benefit arising from the intercourse between New York and the Chesapeake, until an inland navigation, shall have been o pened between the Delaware and j New York. Thus the expensive ca '> nals completed around the falls of Po tomac, will become more and more I productive In proportion to the im ! provement, fnsi of the navigation of the upper branches of the river, and then of its communication with the western water*. Some works alrea dy executed are unprofitable, many more remain imailempted, because their ultimate productiveness depends ; on either improvements, too extensive or too distant to be embraced by the same individuals. v Tbe general government can a lone remove these obstacles. " With resources amply sufficient 1 for the completion of, every praclica ! ble improvement, it will always sup i ply the inpital wanted for any work! j which it may undertake, as fast as the| work itself can progress, avoiding' thereby the ruinous loss of interest! •on a dormant capital, and reducing, I the real expense to its lowest rate. I "With these resources, and em (bracing the whole union, it will com-! i plete on any given line all the im-, provements, however distant, which j ! may be necessary to render the whole j I productive, ami eminently beneficial., " The early and efficient aid of the I Ifederal government is recommended I by still more important considerations.! ! The inconvcnicncics, complaints, and , perhaps dangers, which may result; ! from a vast extent of territory, can no ' ! otherwise be radically removed, or j ! prevented, than by opening speedy j J and easy communications through all j j its parts, flood roads and canals, will ( shorten distances, facilitate commer-j cial and personal intercourse, and u nite by a still more intimats commu nity of interests, the most remote' quarters "f the U. States. No other! single operation, within the power of J government, can more effectually | lend to strengthen and perpetuate that I union, which secures external inde pendence, domestic peace, and inter nal liberty. » \Vith that view of the subject, the facts respecting canals, which have been collected in pursuance of' the resolution of the Senate, have been arranged under the following neads :— " 1. Great canals, from north to! south, along the Atlantic sea coast. v 2. Communications between the Atlantic and western waters. " 3. Communications between the Alantic waters, and those ofthe great lakes, and river St. Lawrence. " 4. Interior canals. We call upon thi* reader before he proceeds further, to pause and serious ly to reflect on the sentiments, thus unequivocally expressed by Mr. Gal latin, who has been deservedly consi- MONDAY, JUNE 13, (808. dered a circumspect statesman, more apt to err on the side "f caution than enterprise, and whose political preju dices, if he have any, are hostile to an enlargement of the powers of the general government. Such senti ments, embraced by such a man, must be i.ie result of an honest and dispas sionate conviction of their justness and importance. " The general govern ment," says he, " can alone remove these obstacles." It is added that their resources are " amply suflicicient for ihe completion of every practicable • improvement**—•Further, •' The early and efficient aid ofthe federal govern ment is recommended by still more important considerations" —" No other single operation, srithin the power of government, can more effectually tend to strengthen and perpetuate that union, which secures external inde pendence, domestic peace, St internal liberty." This is the conviction, to which the mind of Mr. Gallatin has become so willing a captive, that we earnestly hope to see pervading the union, lt is only by the universal impression that these objects arc cardinal, that they are inseparably connected with the prosperity, and perhaps the peace of the country, that we can expect their seasonable accomplishment. Thanks to the intelligence and libera lity of a man placed in a high and res ponsible situation, who thus unequi vocally declares his own convictions. The Secretary proceeds— " Great Canals, along the Atlantic sea I coast. " The map of the United States will shew that they possess a tide-wa ter inland navigation, secure from storms and enemies, and which, from Massachusetts to the southern extre mity of Georgia, is principally, if not solely, interrupted by four necks of land.— These are the isthmus of Barnstable ; that part of New-Jersey, \ which extends from the Rariton to the Delaware ; the peninsula between the Delaware and the Chesapeake ; and that low and marshy tract which divides the Chesapeake from Albe marle sound: It is ascertained that a navigation for sea vessels, drawing eight feet of water, may be effected across the three last ; and a canal is also believed to be practicable, not \ perhaps a .toss the Isthmus of Barn- : stable, but from the harbor of Boston J to that of Rhode Island. The Massa- , clnisetts canal would be about 26, the j New Jersey about 28, and each ofthe J i two southern about 22 miles in length, I making altogether less than 100 j miles. " Should this great work, the ex pence of which, a-s will hereafter be ' shewn, is estimated at about three J millions of dollars, be accomplished, i a sea vessel enteiing the first canal in 1 the harbor of Boston, would through : the bay of Rhode Island, Long Island 1 sound, and the harbor of New York, 1 reach Brunswick on the Rariton; : thence pass through the second canal ;to Trenton on the Delaware, down that river to Christiana or Newcastle, , and through the third canal to Elk 1 river, and the Chesapeake ; whence i sailing down that bay, and up Eliza ; beth river, it would, through the : fourth canal, enter the Albemarle ! sound, and by Pamptico, Core and j Bogue sounds, rich Beaufort and j Swansborotigh, in N.Carolina. From j the last mentioned place, the inland I navigation, through Stumpy Sc Toom j er's sounds, is continued with a dimi i nished draft of water, and by cutting ' two low and narrow necks, not exceecl j ing three miles together, to cape Eear river; and thence, by an open j but short and direct run along the j coast, is reached that chain of islands ! between which and the main, the inland , navigation is continued to St. Mary's, | along tbe coast of S. Carolina, and I Georgia. It is unnecessary to add I any comments on the utility of the work, in peace or War, for the trans portation of merchandise, or the con | veyance of persons." Mr. Gallatin proceeds t 0 state in detail the mode in which these four canals, denominated the Massachu setts canal, the New Jersey canal, the Delaware and Chesapeake canal, and the Chesapeake and Albemarle canal, may be made, with the expences, and the progress already made towards ibeir accomplishment. The practicabi lity of these several canals appears to have been fully ascertained by survey, and the expence is indicated by the following tabic : j 1 QOO'OSO'S St? 86 T^OX 000'OSC Or SS •*«_ ooo'osz Bti es «* ra oi..u_n_uiK) l ?u ? MM p a 000 c OOB 001 85 *uoju__j, oi 3pg_UMM_is| 4 _osa_f a\3j^ OOOOS&M oys 9_ J_o-jun_£ -s}i3smp_sse|.\-; '131i_Xa I '_OV_OOT -_DNVXSia Ix__._._____ sl ' iX ' J The two last canals appear to have | • been partially effected by incorporated ■ companies. The Delaware and Che ■ sapeake canal Company have already . obtained a supply of water drawn from j Elk river, by a feeder six miles in ; length, A'iiich is itself a boat canal, j 1 ' three and a half feet deep, united by a lock of ten feet lift with the main ! 1 canal, and is calculated io fill daily 144 \ ' locks. On this canal 100,000 dollars have been expended. The Chesapeake and Albemarle canal company, have openeel a canal of 22 miles in length, 24 feet wide, > and 6 deep, only navigated by flc*ts, 40 feet long and 6 feet wide. One » hundred thousand dollars have been ' expended. 1 It is proposed by the Secretary that i all these canals should be of me di -1 mensions, contemplated by Mr. La ■ trobe for the Delaware _ Chesapeake • canal, which are to be as lol ", lows : 1 " The canal 26 feet wide at the • bottom, and 50 at the top on the wa- ; ■ ; ter line, being dug at the depth of 8 • i feet, is intended for vessels of forty j i! to seventy tons drawing 7 1-2 feet \ i water: but the banks twenty feet j 1 j wide for towing paths, and one of j j which may be converted into a turn- j » i pike road, being raised three feet j 1 above the level of the water, will, by | encreasing the height _f the lock j gates one foot, admit a depth of j 9 feet of water in the canal ; to which i depth it would perhaps be eligible to i dig at once. The locks 80 feet long, I 18 feet wide, and 8 (or 9) feet deep \ over the gate-sills, containing each J 11,500 to 13,000 cubic leet of water, | and with a lift of 8 to 9 feet each, j will be constructed of hewn stone laid . in tarras." | It is computed that the receipts of j tolls by the Delaware and Chesapeake j company would yield a nett annual j income of 55,000 dollars on an expen diture of 850,000 dollars. This will enable the reader to judge ofthe little eventual expence of accomplish ing these object to the general govern ment, to whom 6 percent, would be an ample remuneration. Indeed, from the great increase of communication, it is probable that canal stock which yielded five per cent, would stand at par. In this instance the dividend would be about 6 8c 1-2 percent. The next point that engages the attention of the Secretary is the j " Communications between the Atlantic and Western waters." i " The Apalachian mountains, to use an ancient generic denomina tion, extend in a direction west of south, from the 42d to the 34th de gree of north latitude, approaching the sea, and even washed by the tide in the state of New York, and thence in their southerly course, gradually receding from the sea shore. Viewed as a v. hole, their breadth may be estimated at ITO miles, and they consist of a succes sion of parallel ridges, following near ly the direction of the sea coast, irregularly intersected by rivers Sc di vided by narrow rallies. The ridge, which divides the Atlantic river*. from the western waters generally known by the name of Allegheny. preserves throughout v nearly equal PAID IN ADVANCE. distance of 250 miles from the Atlantic ocean, and a nearly uniform elevation of 3,000 feet above the level of the sea. " Those mountains may, however, be perhaps considered as consisting of two principal chains : between these lies ihe fertile lime-stone val ley, which although occasionally in terrupted by transversa) ri.lges, and in one place, by the dividing or Alleg heny ridge, may be traced from Ncwburgh and Esopus, on the Hud son river, tO Knoxville on the Ten nessee. * The eastern and narrowest chain i_ ♦he Blue Bulge of Virginia, which in its north east course travel sc s under vari ous names, the. states of alary land, Pennsylvania, & N. Jersey, forms the highland! broken at West point by the tide of the Hudson, and then uniting with the Green mountain , assumes a northerly direction and divides the waters of the Hudson, and of lake Champlain, from those of Connecticut river. On the borders of irginia ahd North Carolina, the Blue Ridge is united by an inferior mountain, with the great western chain, and thence to its southern ex tremity, becomes the principal or dividing mountain, dine barging eas..-' wardly the rivers Roanake- fV,,ee, j Santee, and Savannah, into the Atlan i tic ocean; SwUthwardly the Chata r 1 houcbee, and the Alabama into (he i j gulph of Mexicd, and westward!/ ( ] the New river and the Tennessee. | The New river, taking a northwardly | j course, breaks through ..II the i irfges jof the great Western chain, and at a ! short distance beyond it, unites under ( : the name of Kanh-Wa, with the O ,i<>. The Tennessee pursues, at fi •§*, a south wesi direction be.ween the t\\j I chains, ur.iil baling rear tied',-ahd in' a westwardly course turned the sourthci'ii extremity ofthe great wes tern eh..in, it,- ..ssii es _ northward ly di rcctioii, and joins its water, with these of the Ohio, a few n ilea abi .c the confluence of thai river with the Mississippi. " '1 be western chain, much brOadefv ; and generally m >re <. -. ,i- A is I known under ihe nai es cf ( un b< r !.(■ (i.uly mountain , from is , soutl _ru exiien.i 1 }. near i ' b'*n <f be '1 en. ssee river- in ti. coims in Virginia, the princi] il mountain. 'I hem c i i northerly course, towards tin iof New York, i( ciisrhai es Wi it „ • | ly the Green Briar river, a jits junction withthe'New rive *f_i J the Kaiilniwa, and the rivers Mi gahela and Aiicgbrt- , w | their confluence at Piti.btuj-h •j some the name of Ohio. Ens'v. i -v |it pours into the Atlantic c. i James river, the Potomac and | Susquehanna. From the. notlu m j most and less elevated spurs Ofthe i chain, the Gencssee flows into the j lake Ontario; and in that quarter ' the northerly branches of the Sugque ' hanna seem to take their source, from ! amongst inferior ridges, and m th.-.ii* ■j course to the Chesapeake, to break through all the mountains; From J the Susquehannah, the principal chain assumes a more eastwardlv direction, and washed on the north by the later.d valley of the river Mohawk, whilst it gives rise southwardly to the Dela • ware, it terminates under the name of Catskill mountain, in view of the; tide water of tbe Hudson. ■• This description has been intro duced for the double purpose, of point ing out all the rivers which Can afl'nd the means of means of Commui I tion, and of shewing the impractica bility, in the present sbttes of science, ofeifecting a canal navigation across the mountains. " The most elevated lock canal of which a correct description has been given, is that of J_angucdoc, and ihe highest ground over whhTr it is car ried, is only six 1 hundred feet above the sea. It is not oelievccl that any canal hee been undertaken, Or at h completed in England, of an eleva tion exceeding 430 feet above tho waters united by it. The Allegheny mountain is go »ci ihv, and from ob servations made in several places a'ont 5,000 ieei above the level of the sea. \ be precise height ol the dividing ridge was assertalned6y'fhe commis sioners, "Who laid out the United) States road from Cumberland on the Potomac to B.ownsviile on the Mr-* nongahela, at 2,260 above the first, and at 2.150 feet above the las t-jv.t. Cumberland, from the levels kken by NO. 1196.