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THE JOURNAL LUCIAN SWIFT, J. S. McLAIN, MANAGER. EDITOR. Tli E JOC 11 A L ia published every evening, except Sunday, at 47—it) Fourth Street South, Journal Building, Miuneapolii, Minn. ;.. . C J. Bliiaott, Manager Eastern Adver tising. NEW YORK OFFICE—B6, 87, 88 Tribune building. A CHICAGO OFFICE—3OB Stock Exchange building. ~~ SUBSCRIPTION Ti;iOlS Payable to The Journal Printing Co. Delivered by mail. On© copy, one month $0.35 One copy, three months 1.00 One copy, six months 2.00 One copy, one year........ 4.00 Saturday Eve. edition. 20 to 26 pages. 1.50 Delivered by carrier. One copy, one week 8 cents One copy, one month.... ....35 cents Single copy • 2 cents CHANGES OF AUURUSS Subscribers ordering addresses of their papers changed must always give their former as well as present address. COXTINLKD All papers are continued until an ex plicit order is received for discontinuance, uud until all arrearages are paid. COMPLAINTS Subacribera will pleaae notify the office In every cane that their paper la not delivered promptly or the collections not properly made. The Journal la on sale at the newa eiauJa of the following hotels: Fittsburg. Pa.—Du (^uesue. Salt Lake City, Utah—The Knutsford. Umaha, Neb. —Paxion Hotel. Los Angeles, Cal. —Hotel Van Nuys. San Francisco, Cal.—Palace Hotel. Denver. Col.- -Brown's Palace Hotel. 3C Louis. 3io.—Planters' Hotel, Southern Hotel. Kansas City, Mo. —Coates House. Boston. Mass.—Young's Hotel. United Slates, Touraine. Cleveland, Ohio—Hollenden House, "Weddell House. Cincinnati, Ohio—Grand Hotel. Detroit, Mich.—Russell House, Cadillac. Washington. D. C—Arlington Hotel. Ra leigh. Chicago, 111.—Auditorium Annex, Great Northern. New York City—lmperial, Holland, Murray Hill, Waldorf. Spokane, Wash.—Spokane Hotel. Tacoma, Wash.—Tacoma Hotel. Seattle, Wash.—Butler Hotel. Portland, Oregon—Portland Hotel, Perkins Hotel. The Course of Business This has been rather a dull week so far as new developments are concerned, but the volume of trade holds encouragingly, bank clearings for the week showing 37 per cent Increase over last year. The steel combination has not been perfected as yet Bndtherearereports that all is not smooth sailing, opposition having developed; but whether this opposition is simply a trick on the part of some dissatisfied stockhold ers In properties scheduled for the con solidation, in the hope of securing a better bid for properties, or whether it is genu ine competition it not yet made clear. There has been more talk during the week about a combination between the Great Northern, the Northern Pacific and the Union Pacific to control the Burling ton. The Burlington securities have ad vanced sharply as a result of this gossip. Mr. Hill is now in the east, presumably on an errand connected with this proposed working together of interests for a com mon cause. It is not unlikely that some thing definite will be announced before the month is over, but for the present the pub lic will have to be content with gossip, which may or may not have foundation. Ther© is a good deal of general gossip in circulation about rail consolidations. The Baltimore & Ohio is affected and like wise the Chesapeake & Ohio. There is a feeling that the Pennsylvania is about to extend its management over these lines. Then there are Whispers that the Laeka wanna has an eye on the Wabash. All of these reports give added interest to the market for securities and the bond trade in all these properties has been large. Tlie iron trade is showing some tendency to overproduction. The domestic demand is not up to the output and the foreign de mand Is smaller than of late. Still the feeling is good and prices on the whole are steady. In the cotton lines there is dullness and cotton has had decline. The expectation is that the yield of cotton this year •will be large, hence buyers are hold ing off and the market for raw cotton is feeling this sharply. The price of cotton 1b lower to-day than It has been for a year with one exception, but it is 67 per Cent higher than the low price of 1898. The wheat market drags and the long an ticipated advance in the price has not yet been realized and there are a good many doubters in the field. The receipts of wheat in the northwest have been far in excess of all estimates except the esti mate made by The Journal, which is being confirmed in full. The wheat visible Is nearly sixty millions, and at this late day It will take something radical to push prices up much with that supply and new wheat aboup to offer from the southern hemisphere. In general business condi tions are favorable. The Isthmian Canal The Journal's Washington dispatches indicate a more hopeful outlook for the interoceanic canal construction. The Hay- Pauncefote treaty, which expired by lim itation on Monday, is to be the subject of new negotiations looking to an adjustment of the differences embodied in the amend ments made by the senate, and the gov ernment will also consider proposals by the United States of Colombia for the ac quisition of the Panama canal. Our treaty with New Grenada (now the United States of Colombia) in 1846 accords us the rights and privileges of canal construction across the isthmus and if it should prove more economical and practically advantageous to buy the Panama canal so far as com pleted by the company now engaged in the "work, there is no good reason why the United States should cling to the Nicara gua route, which presents more serious engineering difficulties than does the Pan ama route and is by far the longest of the various routes which have had any serious consideration. The Walker commission, which examined • all the available routes, has reported fa vorably to the Nicaragua route at a cost of $200,000,000, chiefly on the ground that the Panama route lies much farther south and it would take vessels a little longer to reach Asiatic ports. But the passage of vessels through the Nicaragua canal would take two or three days or more by reason of the many locks required and the long distance from Greytown to Brito by the San Juan river, Lake Nicaragua and thence by fourteen more locks to the Pa cific By the Panama route the distance is about forty miles and the only serious en gineering problem is found In the dispo sition of the Chagres river, which like all tropical rivers swells enormously in the rainy season, rising sometimes sixty feet in a few hours. The Clayton-Bulwer treaty applies to the Panama route just as it does to the Nica ragua canal, as will be seen by reference to the eighth article which covers any ca nal across the isthmus which connects North and South America. The adminis tration properly negotiated the Hay- Pauncefote treaty, which removed the Clayton-Bulw<?r handicap, because it did not wish to violate our treaty obligations as do the chauvinists in the senate, who seem to regard the canal as an instrument for war instead of peace. It is to be hoped that the senate will see fit, in the future consideration of the subject, whether the Panama or the Nicaragua route is chosen, to remove the obstacles embodied in the treaty of 1850 in the proper and honorable way. Even Mr. Blame, with all his chauvinism and Anglo phobi&m, recognized the validity of the old treaty and in his correspondence with Lord Granville he asked for "modifica tions." The primary elements of international law must be respected by every self-re specting nation. The integrity of con tract must be maintained. Treaties can 'be terminated in two ways, by mutual as sent or by the sword, unless it is specified that either party may withdraw and term inate the contract after due notice. If we go about ■ this canal business in a strictly business way, the whole question may be satisfactorily settled by the time congress takes its Christmas holiday and work on the canal can be commenced next year at an early date. The San Juan Riot No doubt the schoolgirl incident at San Juan is giving the anti-administration folk a deal of pleasure. They have not had anything to please them for a good while except the foreign relations trouble in Cuba, where they are apparently very anxious to promote an uprising of the rad ical element against law and order. The Philippine situation yields no comfort to these professional malcontents, for the commission is well received wherever it goes to take the initial steps in establish ing civil government and the insurgent forces have dwindled to an insignificant and scattered force of guerillas; schools are establishing and the business of the archipelago is picking up strongly and the new tariff will greatly improve the situa tion. But this San Juan riot comes to cheer the antis. They shut their eyes to the rapidly improving situation in the Phil ippines and pause in their denunciation of the president as about to enslave the Cubans, and are getting ready to go into hysterics over the reprimand of a 10-year otd schoolgirl at San Juan by the school superintendent, who no doubt did his duty. The girl ran home and told her mother that her teacher had beaten her, which was no doubt a lie, but a lot of boys and street loafers (the latter always swarm in San Juan), without any knowledge of the facts, started a riot and yelled, "Down with the Americans," as they used to yell, "Down with the Spaniards!" These street loafers would yell, "Down!" about any govern ment under which they might live, even a full-fledged Porto Rican native admin istration. But the incident pleases the antis in this country, who are delighted when they hear of any rumored discontent with American administration in Pofto Rico or in the Philippines, and are ready to do all they can to create dissatisfaction and give our government trouble. The San Juan schoolgirl will probably be regarded by them as a second Joan of Arc and the loafers of San Juan will be exalted to the ranks of the most patriotic heroes. It is not pleasant to think that there are Americans who delight in all embar rassments of their government and would like to see its army vanquished and its flag dishonored. It is a queer kind of patriotism which sympathizes with the enemies of our government and does all it can to defeat its philanthropic and liberty- Bpreading purposes and prophesies disaster continually. As the president said in his inaugural: "The prophets of evil -were not the builder* of this republic, nor in its crises have they saved or served it." A Successful Primary The republicans of Lincoln, Neb., are congratulating themselves on the suc cessful result of their primary election. The Nebraska State Journal says: The nominees were selected by the direct vote of the rank and file of the members of the party, and an absolutely unassailable ticket has been put in the field in conse quence. In the old days when men were al lowed to name delegations from their own wards, with tfie understanding that they might trade them in any way they wished, the party was humiliated hy some of the nominations made by aynost every conven- The Lincoln system has shown itself to be the cleanest and best means yet devised for selecting the nominees of a political party. It has revolutionized the municipal government of this city in less thau five years. It has driven out boesism and installed the indi vidual citizen and taxpayer in his rightful position as dictator of the management of the party. The Lincoln system is now firmly intrenched in the city, for it would be a bold wa.rd politician to even suggest a return to the convention plan. If the members of the county central committee wish to assist in the growth of the party, they may do so by. providing for the extension of the Lincoln system to the entire county. This testimony goes to show again that the general primary election ideal is all right, and that it will work well under ordinary conditions. The situation last fall in Minneapolis, as repeatedly pointed out, was extraor dinary, but there is every indication now that, at the next primary election, when the voters can get at the polls and ex press their feelings, the very machinery that brought about some unsatisfactory results at the first trial of this plan will be found most effective in correcting the mistakes then made. If thte result of the next state election should prove particularly unsatisfactory to the republican party it will not be neces sary to look far for the reasons. The repub lican state senate is still supplying am munition to the opposition as it did two years ago, with this difference, that the next election must be conducted strictly on state issues without the aid of a na tional campaign to snatch victory from impending defeat. The proper thing now is for Minneapolis and Hennepin county to test the reappor tionment bill in the courts. The rest of the state seems to have concluded in this matter, as it has in other connections, that it makes no difference what Hennepin THE MINNEAPOLIS JOLTKNAE. county wants or is entitled to —it must take whet is flung to it and be satisfied. The reapportionment bill is not defended by anybody as a fair measure; it cannot be. It would only be a proper assertion of the self-respect on the part of the re publicans of this county to 'appeal to the courts, where the probabilities are that the bill passed yesterdey would be Bet aside. The True When Sarah Bernhardt r . reached New Orleans she strenuous* went out uuntlng along thl . ness. gulf and bayous. She had a glorious time. She de scribes It in her own inimitable style thus: I am no longer Bernhardt the actress, but Beruhardt the huntress. 1 leave the smell of gas, the musty play books, the dust and noise of theaters, the excitement, the preoccupation —the —how do you call —streuuousuesi —I go out under the sky, the breeze in my face, the spray dashing upon me, the whirr and buzz of live creatures about me. I driuk from the great chalice of nature's energies. It restored me, makes me young, strong, passionate. Twenty-four hours of this life, the life of birds and bugs and nshes and wild things, Is more, recuperating than twenty-four nights of artificial rest In your beds —bah! 1 hate your beds. 1 would like to sleep always upon the grass, tinder the moon, with the forces of na ture whirring about me. Sarah Is a grandma, but she never allows this happy fact to interfere with her youth fulness. There is a whole lot of life and joy In the world, and the aetressjis right in the game. Vive la Sarah! A baf la grandmere! J} Stir The Medical Dial, to which ditor tho some obscure and witless joker KJVer xne referred as the Medical Die-all, Oy'Ster. has seen a great shadow of dis ease impending over the land in the simple person of the oyster. The Dial things the oyster is too serious a matter to be swallowed whole without further investiga tion. The Dial says: Something new. There is no more propri ety in swallowing an oyster whole, minus his shell, than there would be in eating a calf or lamb, only denuded of their skins, if that were possible. Let the oyster be opened and washed clean of its inward contents of salt mud, decaying wood and vegetable matter, typhoid germs and other microbes that it is trying to digest, then make your soup, fry, escallop, or bake the dainty patty, and you will have dishes free from dangerous poisons, palatable delicious. Perhaps there is something in this. Our fathers did eat of the oyster and are dead. We propose a legislative measure for a medi cal board to sit on each oyster and give him a certificate of good health. You don't know what you are doing when you eat the uncer tified oyster without an operation on him for appendicitis. Jerome A. Hart, editor of the San Francisco Argonaut, has been investigating the Latin "carnivals" held so frequently in South American cities. He claims that the spirit of the masquerade is largely alcoholic, and says that the jokers throw "hard plaster confetti." resulting in murder and much police activity of various kinds. Mr. Hart deprecates the adoption of that kind of violence 1n North America. Admiral Dewey has drawn his prize money for the destruction of Moutejo's fleet. He found $9,570 awaiting him at the treasury window. This sounds easy, but when he was steaming into Manila harbor with the chances of torpedoes on every side, there was at least $10,000 worth of responsibility on his shoul ders. The admiral earned his money. The Indiana senate has passed a bill pro viding that no marriages shall be celebrated in the state unless the contracting parties have been passed by a board of physical examiners consisting of two mothers, two physicians and an attorney. If Love laughs at locksmiths, he is likely to smile a trifle at two mothers, two physicians and an attorney. A Le Roy, Minn., saloonkeeper as a joke invited Mrs. Nation to come up with her ax. To his horror she replied that she thought she would accept a little later on, and now when anybody slams the joint door he jumps a foot. Do not clip off pieces of dynamite with a tack hammer. A colored man at Athens, Ga., slept with his mouth open and a mouse ran down his throat. Pending the arrival of a doctor with an emetic the colored man hollered like a steam whistle at C p. m. Keep your mouth shut unless you know what you are doing. What will the kaiser catch for his "third"? Accidents go in bunches for some people, and the kaiser has been run into by a street car and wounded by a chunk of iron thrown by an epileptic. His majesty now carries his fingers crossed. The legislature of Hawaii started out with a little tangle of authorities that the Great Father at Washington will have to settle. The president of the United States is now dictator of the islands of the sea. The Montana legislature electrified Paris Gibson yesterday by electing him a United States senator. Mr. Gibson not only offsets Mr. Clarke in the senate, but leaves the state a little to the good. There was a riot in San Juan, Porto Rico, but nobody seemed to know just why except that the American superintendent of schools reprimanded a-girl and nearly started a South American revolution. A Colprado man knocked out his grip with four quarts of hot whisky in which he had dissolved a teaspoonful of water. Why this lavish expenditure of water? Bathhouse John, the Chicago alderman of the riotous vest, has written a new song called "Perhaps." Perhaps, but we wager not. If the robin "pipes his lay" up this way, he will have to put his pipes below the frost line. Miss Maud Gonne has her hatchet out and does not object to a little bloodshed in Ire land's behalf. The. latest French duel resulted in a suspi cion of death. One of the parties lied. The Delaware legislature plugged the meter of J. Edward Addicks. Delaware again blew out the gas on Mr. Addicks. COST OF WARS In a paper on "The Cost of War" in the Review of the Republic, T. E. Willson shows that the war debts of Europe created since 1800, with interest charges added, exceed $70, --000,000,000. The military and naval establish ments on a peace footing for 1900 exceeded 11,200,000,000. France's national debt is now 16,400,000,000, with an interest charge of near ly $260,000,000. It was created chiefly through the wars of Napoleon 111. and the colonizing wars of the present French republic. Mexico and the Spanish-American republics have spent during the century $3,000,000,000 fight ing for independence and in civil wars after they became independent. Mr. Wilison fig ures that the United Slates, during the last century, has spent $18,772,000,000 for war, in cluding cash expenditures of $17,772,000,000 in the civil war and pensions. In the civil ■war the census reveals a property loss of $30,000,000,000. Spain has lost all her former wealth by continuous wars. The cost of maintaining troops in the field is only part of the cost of war. The loss of war material, destruction of private and public property, loss of business, etc., have to be considered. The cost of the major European wars of. the last century is put at $11,220,000,000. This in cludes the Xapoelonic wars, 1793 to 1815, which cost $6,250,000,000. Not a Wild Gueit. Springfield State Register. It is understood that the Joint committee on district apportionment, which turned out the new congressional map of Illinois, had the aid of a lady who is an expert in the produc tion of crazy auiits. Thankful for What We've Mimed. Baltimore Herald. Perhaps the strongest indorsement which can be bestowed upon congress is that it made an extra session unnecessary. Where Angela Fear to Tread. Washington Star. Mrs. Nation now wants to run a newspa per. This may be accepted as proof that her indifference to trouble is absolutely genuine. New York Daily Letter. BUREAU OP THE JOURNAL, No. 21 Park Row, A 25-Story Building. March 9.—A twenty-flve-story skyscraper will soon mark the center of the city. Ar rangements have been made for such a struc ture at the Twenty-third street "flatiron," which will tost, for land and building, about $4,000,000. A syndicate composed of Phila delphia, Boston, Chicago and New York cap italists is responsible for this big real estate deal. The location Is one of the finest In New York, forming an equilateral triangle with Fifth avenue and Broadway as the two sides, Twenty-second street the base and Twenty-third street at the apex. The syndi cate interested in this big office building proj ect has paid $3,<HM),000 for the land, this being at about $200 a square foot. Such a price for land beats all records for real estate sales north of the financial district. Prior to this time the triangle has been owned by different interests and estates, but real estate men re gard the accumulation of the previous hold ings into one plot as having already estab lished the value of the land at fully $250 a square foot. On this estimate the broker in charge of the deal has already made $">oo, --000 for his client. Architects from several sections of the country are here In consulta tion over plans for the proposed building. Already applications have been made to the syndicate by prospective tenants of the build- Ing ior offi.-?s and store space amounting to over $150,000 a year in rentals. Because of the advantages of location the new building will enjoy It is almost certain that every bit of space in It will be rented long before it is complete for occupancy. The Oriental (lnb. Even the orientals in this city have the dinner organization habit. The most progres sive and intelligent Chines* here long ago founded the Oriental Club for the social and Intellectual advancement of the members. The club has just held its annual banquet and it was a highly interesting affair in many ways. The food was partaken of at the restaurant of Mon Lee Won, 24 Pell street, with about one hundred members present. The little hall was beautifully decorated with rare Chinese lilies, and with the Chinese national flag and oth->r oriental emblems. The menu, which consisted of twelve Chinese courses, was written in Chinese, and was as mystify ing to the .American guests as the dishes themselves. There were present Chow Tsz- Chi, the Chinese consul, a man of impressive appearance and high culture; Lock Wing, the vice consul, v.-ho is a Yale graduate and an eloquent speaker and linguist, and Wu Cho Pel, the secretary of the consulate. There were, besides, the big Chinese merchants of the quarter. All spoke English fluently. Ben HiiHsan Thrown Down. A sleight of hand artist has just discovered it to be an exceedingly unwise proceeding to undertake indiscriminately to extract money from the pockets or belongings of ma terialists. It so happened that one of these operators about New York bar rooms, a man known as Ben Hassan Ramidio, is shy a little matter of five dollars because of bis too great dexterity. The magician is known as' "The Wonderful Turk," and operates along Third avenu 1, earning nickels, dimes and oc casional quarters from the men to whom he furnishes amusement. A few nights ago Ramidio was in the saloon at Thirty-fourth street and Third avenue, and started in with bis tricks. Alongside the bar was a gruff Irishman possessed of a great deal of humor and no change. Ramidio wished to take a ?5 bill from the Irishman's pocket, or from the bundle o:' clothes which the latter car ried under hio arm. Incredulous, the Irish man said he could go ahead and if he found five dollars there he would do more than any one el3e could. After a couple of passes the trickster succeeded in drawing five dol lars from the bundle. Then the Irishman claimed the mcney and started to prove pos session by pointing to the spot from which the money had been removed. While the c'iscussion was on the Irishman grabbed the bill and started for the Thirty-fourth street ferry to Long Island City. The ferry house was near and the Irishman got on board the boat just as the gates closed, playfully wav ing the bill at the frantic Turk on the dock. Ben Hassan Ramidio is considering whether it be more advisable to go out of business or go about with a bodyguard. Jockles' Salaries. Although jockles have joined the. general exodus to England a number of American iockles have signed to ride here this season, and at fancy prices, to say nothing of The "extras" al #ay 6 secured. William C. Whit ney has engaged T. Burns at a salary of $12, --000 for the season; August Belmont has signed Owen Mounce at $7,000; T. Henry is under contract to James R. Knene for S3O.- C 00: T. Bullrnan to Senator P. H. McCarren for $10,000; W. O'Connor to A. Featherstone for $8,000; George Odom to Clarence Mackey for $12,000, and J. Cochran to J. J. McCafferty for $10,000, with many others for only slightly smaller sums. Tips That Are Worth Fortune*. A new style of tips for hotel and restaurant waiters has been devised. The late Collis P. Huntington and the pfesent Charles M. Schwab are held responsible for it. If re ports are true the system has proved a most acceptable one to Adam Brunner, now and for several years head waiter of the Holland House. Brunner is reported to have made £160,000 within the last few months on stock market tips fi rnlshed him by Mr. Huntington and later by Mr. Schwab. Neither of those two gentlemen at the time they handed out their information to the head waiter believed he was an operator on an extensive scale. They simply thought he was a man who would take a flyer occasionally In the mar ket, relying possibly on their judgment for ten or twenty-share lots. It is said that Mr. Schwab first gained knowledge of the ex tensive operations of Brunner by finding that the head trotter whom he saw on his frequent trips to New York city was dealing in thou sand share .'ots of American Bridge stock. The shock of finding this out was a great or>e to the prospective president of the billion dollar, steel trust. Mr. Schwab is reported to have said that Brunner got in the American Bridge company on the ground floor, anf much lower than several capitalists did. Brunner stlH retains his position at the Hol land House, apparently not In the least in flated by hl3 good fortune. —N. N. A. MAKING SACRED FIRE Professor TUelbach, in the March Open Court, tells some interesting things about the sacred domestic hearth fire among the Slavic races of the Balkan peninsula. The fire on the hearth Is never allowed to go out, as it is regarded as the eternal sacred fire of the peasant's home. If it goes out, the peasant regards calamity as imminent. The sacred fire is obtained by rubbing two pieces of wood together until they ignite; by rotating a cyl indrical piece of wood whose ends are in serted in holes made in the upper extremities of two slabs of wood driven In the ground, and by other forme of friction. In the event of an epidemic, there are professional makers of sacred fire, who, with many odd ceremo nies and after ordering all fires extinguished in the peasant's homes, supply them with glowing coals to rekindle the hearth fires. This is supposed to remove all forms of mis fortune from a village. The fire must never be started by blowing with the mouth, and a bride, upon entering her new home, has to be led three times round the hearth by the groomsman, stir the fire with a poker and say: "As many as the spark 3 that fly, so many may the cattle be and so many the male offspring that shall bless our new home!" Chicago: The Open Court Publishing company. The I'hnhluk of Little Willie. Baltimore Sun. A Baltimorean who has been collecting queer epitaphs from the old graveyards of the state recently made some unique additions from a cemetery on the banks of the Little Choptank in Dorchester. The cemetery is connected with a church known as the Old Trinity, and both the church and many of the graves are well over 100 years old. .One of the epitaphs taken from an ancient tdmb is: "Little Willie was a darlln*; Little thought we he would pass Through the holy gates of heaven When he ate that apple sass." ] The Mam' Club. Sioux Falls Argus Leader. That editor at Waterloo, lowa, who got up the Pat \ Crowe , interview has \ been t jumped several numbers over the head of the Bone steel, S. D., correspondent, and now presi dentF for life ,of' the New York Liars' Club. But there :is still chance • for the Bonesteel artist. ■ as '■ the .number of presidents Is * not limited . .'- "! '•' '", -" •'" ' ' •■••- The Release of No. 201 BY DAVID H. TALMADOE. Copyright, 1901, by D. H. lalmadgc. The accommodation train—No 201 of the schedule—on the branch road was stuck in the anow, and there seemed to be no relief for It. No provision had been made for such a contingency, because the branch, sheltered by trees and bluffs, had been con sidered proof against such misfortune. The engineer, who had been on the run for twenty years, was too astonished for words when the small locomotive failed to cut the drift into which it had plunged so confidently, and he sat on his seat staling dumbly at the conductor, who t,wore shockingly and gesti culated with his arras. In the coach were two passengers, both young men. One was the type of commercial salesman sent out by small jobbing houses, well dressed, self-assertive, crudely philo sophic; the other, by appearance, plainly a farmer. He wore a baggy, shiny black suit, and his white collar was attached to a ging ham shirt by a white bone button, sewed with black thread. His appearance was enhanced by .a carefully trimmed shock of hair and whiskers. The commercial salesman had arisen when the train stepped and had walked to the door "I guess," he remarked, after a minute, "that we're stalled " He whistled a popular melody as he walked down the aisle, and noted wi*h some amuse ment that the other man was clutching the back of a seat, his eyes filled with con sternation. '■Provoking, isn't it?" the drummer said, as he lighted a cigar and drew a paper-cov ered book from his grip. "Y-yes—by—cat:" the other stammered. "Say, do you mean that we're stuck?" '"That's It exactly. Here's the conductor now." The conductor slammed the dcor viciously and shook tbe snow from his cap. "We're up against it, gentlemen," he an nounced in disgust. "The confounded tea kettle is dying with a jick pig out there in a drift no bigger'n a washtub. We're two miles from Dilkport, and the snow's so thick you can't see your hand before your face. Lucky we've been to supper." "Then we won't get out to-n!ght?" asked the farmer anxiously, looking at his watch. "That's the size of it. As we're up here on this peavine the section men won't learn what's the matter with us till to-morrow. \Ve've got plenty of coal. It might be worse." "Yes." said the farmer, "I s'pose it might; but I don't see how it could be much worse for me." He picked up an overshoe. "You see," he explained, fastening the buckle, "I've got a particular engagement to night up at Dilkport, and if the train ain't going I've got to Iroof it." He put on the other shoe, and rose, reach-' ing for the wolfskin coat which dangled from one end of the parcel holder. The conductor and the salesman contemplated him in aston ishment. "But, man, you can't do it possibly," said the conductor. "You'll fall through a bridge or something, and then you'll freeze to death." "1 reckon 'tis a bit risky," admitted the farmer; "but 1 ain't at all sure it wouldn't be riskier not to. You see, my wife's at Dilkport, and she's sick. She may be dying. I've got to go to her." An expression of sympathy came upon the conductor's face, and that of the salesman took on a sudden gravity. "There are certain circumstances," the farmer continued, in explanation, "which make it more important that 1 should see her than you might naturally think from the plain fact of her being sick. I haven't treated her just right, to tell the truth. I've been stupid and unreasonable. We were married only a year ago. i won her away from three or four other fellows. Any one of them would have made her a better husband than me. Funny how such things go, ain't it?" "It's a blooming nueer old world," said the conductor, nodding his head sagely. "And the queerest things in it are girls," added the salesman in the tone of an au thorty. "We were married at Dilkport, where she was raised, and we went to my farm to live. We were happy as could be for maybe six months, and then 1 noticed that something was wrong with her. A sort of a cloud come over her. It was nothing but homesick ness, I s'pose, but I couldn't see it any other way than that she was sorry she'd married me. And one day I happened to find a sheet of paper—a part of a letter she'd been writ ing—that had dropped from her portfolio, and I read it. There weren't many words on the sheet. The first one was 'disappointed,' end ing a sentence she'd begun on the sheet that went before. And then it said: 'It is not as I had pictured it. I wish to go home—" And right there it ended. I said nothing to her. O didn't think it was necessary to have a scene, as they call it. But I was hurt— hurt clean to the core, and in trying to cover up my feelings I s'pose I was unkind—maybe cruel. After two or three days of brooding I got into a regular bad state. I told her she'd better go home to her folks; that I'd de cided we weren't made for each other. When she tried to put her arms about my neck I wouldn't let her. When she asked for my reasons I told her she knew well enough, and turned my back. I was a damned, unnatural, unreasonable brute." "Correct," said the conductor, frankly. "Well, she went. For four months IVe been baching it on the farm, growing crab bider every day. And this morning I hap pened to meet a young chap in the store at Pepperdook that knows my wife's folks. He lives at Dilkport when he isn't traveling around the country selling things. ■" 'I s'pose you've heard from your wife this morning?' he asked me. 'No,' said I, with a snap, 'I hain't.' 'Well, I've just come from home,' said he, "and there was a report on the street when I left that she was liable Ito die. The kid's all right, though.' " 'Hush. said 1. startled to death, 'the kid!' 'Yes,' said he, looking at me in a sort of a peculiar way; 'didn't you know there was a kid born yestrday?' 'Why, yes, of course," 1 said, shamed into the lie. I was that dazed 1 didn't know my name for a minute. " 'Your wife's a fine woman,' the young rhap went on, me listening like one in a dream. '1 sent her a patent dish-washer about six months ago on trial. It didn't suit her, but she didn't <3o as most women would have done; she wrote me a real nice letter, telling me that it had disappointed her; that it wasn't what she'd pictured it. She said she wished to go home to Dilkport for a visit in a short time, and that when she come she'd bring it up with her, saving me the express charges. I tell you, a fellow In this agency 1 business learns to appreciate little things like that.' "And then, In a flash, I saw it all. The letter I'd seen was the one she was writing about that dish-washer. I bolted home with out getting the things I'd come to town after. I hustled around and spruced up a little and eot somebody to care for the stock, and— and I'm going to get to Dilkport to-night in spite of blazes, that's all there is to It." He left the coach, followed by the con ductor and the salesman, who felt impelled by sympathy to see him off on his perilous trip. They climbed over the freight cars through the blinding storm towards the loco motive. "Look out for the next car/ called the conductor; "It's loaded with oil barrels. Bet ter let me go ahead with the lantern." The farmer stopped. "All right," he said. "Is there any oil In the barrels?" "They are full of it. Why?" "I was just thinking that once I bought a barrel of oil, and on the way home the sled tipped over in a drift and the bung come out of the barrel and the oil run on to the snow. It was a pitch dark night, and I didn't have a lantern. I was in bad shape. But I gathered together a pile of straw that had been in the sled box and lit it with a match, and the first thing I knew that oil-soaked drift was melting." "By the holy green light!" exclaimed the ronductor, as the other's Idea became clear to him; "do you suppose we could do it?" "I'd be willing to stand the expense of three barrels of oil towards trying It." The conductor jumped into the cab and laid the plan before the engineer, who had stub bornly refused to leave the engine until com pelled by the cold. ■'It might work," said the engineer after a few minutes' deliberation. " 'Taint like as if we were buried. We're just tangled up a lit tle, that's all. Jim"—addressing the fireman with sudden energy—"coal up! Make her hum!" The conductor called the two brakemen and ihe express messenger, and with the assist ance of the two passengers three barrels of kerosene were rolled from the car and car ried to the l'rcmt end of the train. The heads SATURDAY EVENING, MARCH 9, 1901. MINNEAPOLIS JOURNAL'S CURRENT TOPICS SERIES (Copyright, 1901, by Victor F. Lawson.) PAPERS BY EXPERTS AND SPECIALISTS OF NATIONAL REPUTATION. WHAT THE GOVERNMENT DOES FOR THE PEOPLE IV.—TAKING THE CENSUS (By Dr. Frederick H. Wines, Assistant Direc tor of the Census.) The foundation of census-taking is geo graphical. It consists of the division of the territory to be canvassed into districts of proper size, having regard both to area and to population. The number of enumeration districts iv the present census was about 53,000, and the population enumerated was 7e,304,799, so that the average number in each district was approximately l,f>oo, al though there were great differences in de tail, according to the varying density of sparseness of population. In general the boundaries of the districts correspond to those of politteal divisions, beginning with the states and descending to those of town ships or of voting precincts, according to locality. The determination of these boun daries in advance necessitates a vast amount of examination of maps and of statutes, to gether with much official correspondence, and is a troublesome undertaking/ A description of the district was pasted in each portfolio for the enumerator's information; also, wher ever practicable, a map showing at least its outline. This detail was new and service able. The only innovation of importance in this branch of the work was the requirement that the enumerator in a city should return the population of each block separately. A more striking novelty was the use of "street books," in which not only the popu lation, but the dwellings and other buildings, or even the vacant lots, were entered In de tail. This system served as a valuable check upoi> frauds in the enumeration, besides in suring a thorough canvass or the district arvl furnishing a record which enabled a vigilant supervisor to keep track of "call-backs," where houses had to be revisited on account of the absence of families on the occasion of the first visit. In addition to the street books, in certain largo cities lists of the houses and of the vacant lots, by street numbers, in each enu meration district, were prepared in advance for the enumerators' use by the aid of the fire underwriters' maps. These were in the nature of a notification of the character and amount of work to be done by each of them, and enabled the supervisor to satisfy himself that no occupied dwelling had been over looked In the house-to-house visitation. ChooNing a Date for the Enumer ation. There is no satisfactory date in the entire year at which to take the census. If the date is too early, the northernmost portions of the country are inaccessible on account of the continuance of the winter season. At a some what later date the farmers in rural districts are busily engaged in the preparation of the ground and planting. By June 1 many resi dents of cities have left their homes for the summer and are temporarily absent. There are objections to a date In the autumn also which need not here be mentioned. The fact that there are so many absentees in cities at the time of enumeration is the occasion of much dissatisfaction and com plaint. There is probably not a growing town in the United States of any size which does not cherish illusions with reference to its population. In many of them the exagger ated Ideas entertained as to the actual num ber of inhabitants are based upon the more or less fictitious estimates given out by the publishers of directories, who multiply the number of names contained In each of them by some assumed number. This number is in variably too large. But in the twelfth cen sus, taken last year, an attempt was made to include absentees in the enumeration as- far as possible. Elaborate arrangements were devised with this end in view, including in certain cities postal cards left at each house, in advance of the summer exodus, inquiring whether the family there residing anticipated leaving the city and, if so, what would be their probable address on June 1. Much cor respondence was had with absentees whose addresses could be procured from any source, and they were afforded the opportunity to fill and return by mail a special blank giving replies to the questions upon the population schedule. Large additions to the population were thus secured, and the result must have been a certain amount of duplication of names, which was not a serious error in view of the unavoidable omissions on the other hand. A perfectly accurate enumeration Is of course impossible. By the combination of the methods and devices here described a more perfect and accurate enumeration of the population was secured than in any previous census. The amount of criticism in the press has been surprisingly small, and but few attempts have been made to secure a recount of any city. Statistics Prom Farms and Factories The agricultural and industrial census pre sent difficulties peculiar to each, quite dif ferent from those encountered in the listing of inhabitants. The number of farms to be enumerated approximated 6,000,000, and of manufacturing establishments it was very nearly 650,000. Each of these was reported on a special schedule. Few farmers keep books or accounts. This is true of many small mechanics. The larger firms and cor porations are often most reluctant to dis close their business, even to the government. Much tact and patience and some slight show of authority are necessary in order to secure the desired information, and part of that secured is only an estimate after all. The manufacturing statistics were chiefly col letted by special agents, the schedules hav ing been withdrawn in all manufacturing cen ters from the enumerators. The number of special agents was more than 2,500, and the cost of field work in this division of the census exceeded 1460,000. The number of agents and cost of service in the agricul tural division was far less because the farm statistics were gathered by the enumerators. Getting- Plgnren on the Death Rate. The government attempts to secure a state ment of the number of deaths which occurred during the year prior to the census. Could it do so this would furnish one of the elements needed in order to formulate the law of the growth of population. It grows by births and by immigration, but diminishes through the operation of emigration and death. The aggregate change noted from one decade to another is due to the differences in the rates at which these two groups of antagonistic influences operate. The minor changes noted are due, on the other hand, to removals from place to place within the territory of the United States. Experience has shown that no accurate re turn of deaths can be secured through the enumerators. In the present cenusus addi tional information has been obtained from the records in the offices of the state and city boards of health, so that a more probable es timate of the death rate in particular locali ties in the country at large can be deduced from such figures as are available. The re turns of the population in cities by blocks will no doubt be of much benefit by enabling city health oflicers to locate with greater ac curacy than ever before the precise plague spots which need watching and juriflcation. Preparing for the Inhalation*. Let us now suppose that all the census data have been collected, and that the material to be worked up into statistical tables is in the vaults and on the shelves of the office at Washington. What happens next? The first effect of the completion of the of the barrels were broken in and the oil was scattered upon the snow by pailful and shovelful. Then when no more regained the conductor lighted a great handful of greasy waste and threw it upon the drift. It sput tered a moment—flickered—all but went out The farmer rolled one of the empty oil soaked barrels within reach of the burning waste. "It's no g—" There was a blinding glare, followed by a sizzling, hissing roar. The drift melted as If by magic. The flames licked the drivewheels of the locomotive, and reached almost to to* cab. "Coal her Coal her!" shouted the engiaeer to the fireman, The conductor jumped up and down ex citedly, waving his lantern. "AU-1-1 aboar-r-rd!" he yelled. Half an hour later the train pulled into Dilkport The conductor received a. note the next day. It read: "Everything's all right. She's beea field work is the sudden and enormous growth of the office force. What a task this involve* in the way of quick organization and painful training of raw recruits can scarcely be imagined. There are no camps of instruc tion for this army like those established at Chickamauga and elsewhere in the early days of the Spanish war. * The force, including both officers and em ployes, grew from 20 in March, 1899, to 238 in December of that year, and to 701 In April, 1900. In June, two months later, it was 2,251; in July 3,248, and it reached its maximum in October, when it was 3,476. Since then it has somewhat declined on account of the dis charges of the clerks temporarily employed in card punching. It still numbers, however, between 2,500 and 8,000. The total cost of the clerical service to date has been in round numbers $2,000,000. But what of the count to be made by these clerks in a limited time, since the act orders the publication of the final volumes by July 1, First, as to the population. The population schedules are arranged in alphabetical order by states, and in numerical order by super visors' and enumerators' districts and placed in an immense fireproof vault built for their especial accommodation. Before they can be used they require more or less editing to sup ply palpable omissions, correct obvious errors, and to see that the population of incorporated towns and villages is clearly differentiated from that of purely rural districts. Then begins the labor of transcribing all this information upon punched cards. There is a card for every man, woman and child enumerated, and these cards if placed in a pile one on top of another would reach to a distance of ten miles above the earth. The. answers to the Inquiries contained in the pop ulation schedule are indicated by the respec tive positions of the holes punched. One thousand clerks were employed in this par ticular work, and were able after acquiring facility to punch 1,600,000 cards, more or Ice.-., in a day. The punching was completed in, practically four months. Each card is so marked as to admit of identification and com parison with the original schedule from which the recorded fa«ts were taken. (omitiiiK by Electricity. The counting of the entries of each de scription is dene by a most ingenious elec trical machine invented by Hermann Holl erith, himself an employe of the census office in 188 U. The essential parts of this machine are: (1) a pinbox. with fine needle points set on delicate spiral springs in such manner that all or any number of them can be shoved back into the box when brought down, by the aid of a hand lever, upon the upper sur face of a card; (2) as many sets of dials and automatic counters as are required for a sin gle run of the cards: (3) the necessary relays and electrical connections. Each card Is suc cessively placed in position beneath the pin box, the lever is pulled by the operator, the box Is brought down and wherever there is no hole the needle is shoved back and there is no count; but wherever a needle is directly over a hole in the card and passes through it an electrical contact ensues and the current, passing over the proper wire or wires, is conducted to the proper counter or counters and the pointers affected make a sudden jump on the face of their respective dials. The advantages of this method are that it Is rapid; it is automatic and Involves no waste of brain energy on the part of the operator; it is certain: it allows of counting several sets of replies to questions at one time, and, above all, it admits of counting these replies not singly, but in combination. Thus, for example, instead of counting sepa rately the number of males, that of whites and that of persons over voting age, -we are enabled to count at one operation the num ber of males who are also white and also of voting age. Without this machine the tabulation of complex results would be too difficult and too expensive to be made at all. The scope of the scientific work of the cen sus is thus immeasurably enlarged. Detecting Errors by Machinery. The machine count is divided into what are known as "rune," of which five or six ar« required in order to complete it. At each run a different group of tacts is counted. The first of these is known as the "verification run." Its primary aim is to discover errors in the punching, of which nine-tenths can be detected by the machine, which ceases to operate whenever a card is placed under the pinbox that is inconsistent with itself or con tains any one of certain inherent inconsisten cies ■which the machine is wired to throw out. The rejected cards are compared with the original schedules, and new ones made to take their place. At this preliminary run a count is made of the native and foreign pop ulation, the negroes and whites, and the males and females. The dates for the published census bulletins showing the population of the several states and territories by minor civil divisions were thus obtained. Each "run" consumes nearly or quite three months. The number of machines in operation is 150, for the use of which a heavy royalty is paid; but the saving in the cost of clerical labor is great, as well as in time, and a higher de gree of accuracy in the result is insured. The Hollerith machines are used in the di vision of agriculture also, but there they are of a different type. The record made on the punched cards, of which there are two sorts —farm and crop cards —is one almost exclu sively of figures, so that a different punching device is required, and the machine for counting out the result is an electric adding machine of marvelous capacity, both in re spect of the volume of work accomplished and the rate of speed at which it eats up the cards. As soon as the count for any subdivision of territory is completed the result is copied from the dials upon "result slips," which are handed to the clerks engaged in tabulation, by whom the copy for the printer Is pre pared. Triumph of the Twelfth Census. From this brief account of the work of the census office it will be seen that it is partly a scientific bureau, partly a manufacturing establishment and partly, a publishing house. Its operations are upon a scale so vast, and are in themselves of such interest, that a number of representatives of foreign govern ments have closely observed them, with a view to the improvement of their own sta tistical methods. The great success of the twelfth census is another triumph of Ameri can inventive genius and practical talent. When the four principal reports shall have been given to the world in.the form of final volumes, congress has authorized the director to take up a list of specified topics formerly included in the census, but which can be in vestigated without the aid of enumerators, by correspondence and by special agents. Thes» investigations will be published in certain supplemental reports. Instead of dismissing the entire force, as heretofore, the best of them will l>e retainer!, and a nucleus of ex perts will be on hand when the time for tak ing the thirteenth census arrives; ?o that more and better thought will be given in ad vance to Ha organization, and the heads 08 subordinate branches of the work will not be. to so large an extent, novices without ex perience in their duties or special training for them. This is a consummation devoutly to be wished, and public opluiou is rapidly crystallising in favor of a permanent census office. (^^^^^^^ getting better from the minute I got here. I wanted to go down to the station to see you, but I can't seem to tear myself aw^y from her and the baby. Send me bill for the oiL" To which the conductor replied: "Glad to hear you're O. K. We all of us want to shake hands with you. The company pays lor Lh« oil." ,- Ink: 'Enough ;:.\Xo Dough. ; • *'^rK! r ; Pierre (S. D.) Free Press. \ -7. I The '.Minneapolis papers:: have commence*,; 1 their semi-occasional discussion and advocacy,'; of • a railroad from • Pierre to - the j Hills. The barrels lof " ink they have- used [on • this sub ject would almost ; construct the grade. :': '. ■ " '';J Metaphysics. '. ", ' ' . "The Percolation., of '. Foreverneas"' la »the £ caption of the leading article: in the last is sue of Printer's Ink. '■>} That disease has not yet :percolated this far west, ; but the per- % tinacity of the neverness is epidemic among delinquent subscribers:'^ Vs^ i .»/* ' :.v" 7" £". .v .- ■-■...,■■,■■... ■ . . " ■■'---.