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California's Great Oil Fields. ffILLIFORNIA'S oil fields are an other magnet drawing the at tention of eastern states to the greatness of the big coast state. The possibilities of these fields are just beginning to be appre ciated. Since the discovery of gold in 1849 the history of California has been one of constant discoveries of treasures. Ever since the pioneers fifty years ago crossed the plains to find a cure for the gold fever •within its borders it has been the Mecca of health seekers. Her scenery is the wonder of the traveler and the fruits and wines of California are the delight of the lumber. In her forests are millions of feet of lumber. Now, as the trade of the United States is advancing in the orient, Cali fornia again comes forward with an in dustry capable of aimost unlimited de velopment. It is said by scientific men that the production of petroleum in that state will before long exceed the produc tion of any of the known oil fields on this continent. The explored oil territory is now being worked at intervals only, over a distance of 400 miles. One of the Three lirrat Product*. The fame of the Pennsylvania oil fields has so overshadowed that of other oil producing areas of the I'nited States that many people are not aware that one of the three great products of California is oil. But ii is only of late years that the importance of the petroleum interests of California have been recognized. First Efforts at Kenning;. From time immemorial the Indians of California have used the mineral asphal tum for waterproofing their tepees and canoes, and the Catholic fathers protected their mission roofs with the same mate rial. It is probable that the first refining of crude oil was accomplished by Andreas Pico in 1855 in Los Angeles county. Dur ing the next five years many attempts to produce illuminating oil were made, but without success. The first scientific report of petroleum In California was made in 1865. Professor B. Silliman spoke favorably of the pros pect of obtaining petroleum in remunera tive quantities in the state, and in the next year many companies were formed. Their indifferent success was^due to the fact that there was no drilling'machinery adapted to California conditions to be had, also to the fact that imperfect knowledge of the conditions led to operations simi lar to those in the east, which proved al most futile. The great excitement which followed the discoveries at Oil City, Pa., directed at tention again to the many indications of oil in California. The boom in oil stocks in the east reached the coast and soon the chief news in the California papers was that of oil finds. The craze began to cool off in 1865. It is interesting to note now that many of the successful oil wells of to-day are in ground explored without avail prior to 1865. The First Successes. The first successful refining was done by the California Star Oil company at almost the identical spot where it was first attempted by Andreas Pico in 1855. The new discovery of oil fields, due to a clearer knowledge of the peculiar condi tions in California, the improvement in machinery for drilling and pumping, the increase in transportation facilities and a resulting market for petroleum, the dis covery that the deposits of coal in the state are inadequate to the steadily in creasing demands for fuel, the introduc tion of fresh eastern capital to develop the business are all factors in the present eminence of the oil industry in California, despite the bursted booms of early days. In ISB7 there were only four companies engaged in petroleum mining. Now there are organizations innumerable, and eleven petroleum refineries, not to mention the asphaltum refineries at all. Up to the year 1876 the estimated annual production of oil in California was 175,000 barrels; in 18S6, 377,}45 barrels; in 1596. 1,252,777 bar rels; in 1899, 2,292,123 barrels, and in 1900 the estimated product was about 5,000,000 barrels. Problem* Yet to Solve. With these hard facts about the growth of Ahe industry in California, there are Btlll many problems to solve. No two oil districts furnish exact conditions. Ex perts familiar with one district may have to learn everything over again in another. This accounts for the fact that even sci entific and experienced men have oc casionally sunk large sums in dry wells. The Great Belt. The belt wihich yields in some places RISE AND FALL OF A NORTH DAKOTAN How the McKinley Sweep and a Rosy-Cheeked Boy Buried Ed Fox, the Original Officeholder. (Prank Basil Tracy in Boston Transcript) "I have just received some very inter esting news from Dakota," observed the westerner as he pushed his chair back from the dinner table and beamed upon the other boarders with an air of satisfaction In the story he was about to tell. There was no restraining the Dakotan, and his fellow diners awaited his tale with forti tude. He began: "Ed Fox has been de feated by a beardless youth for superin tendent of schools in Cavalier county, and gambling has been abolished from. Bis marck." Ed Fox, as a name, meant nothing to the audience, a^id that the prevalent anti vice epidemic had attacked another city iv ra3 not surprising. The narrator was not daunted by the evidently poor impression of the preamble, but went cheerily on: "You may ask: Who is Ed Fox? He was the original, pioneer office holder of the county, the Only Thing for months. He has held to the office ever since, and the idea that the McKinley sweep would bury him never entered even my enthusiastic republican head. How are the mighty fallen! "If you will look at the map of North I Dakota you will see that its northeastern county Is Penrbina. The county seat of the same name, was first settled by the Hudson Bay company's men over one, hundred years ago, almost a half century' before some of the older states to the south saw a whit© man's village. Growth of population in *the frozen region was clow, and when at last Pembina county was organized, the Pembina Indian reser vation had been opened to settlers, the land having been purchased by the gov ernment, and the tract embraced in the county reached back from the Red River of the North, westward about 175 miles. Most of the Indians had removed to the Turtle mountain country, or had gone to their new land in Nebraska, but many still remained in their old haunts and some are there yet It took nervy, hardy men to break the raw prairie of the un organized section of that county, for it lay much higher than that of the valley of the Red, and because of that fact, which argued greater cold and the absence of the drainage of the river, the soil was thought to be inferior if not actually unfruitful. Xew County Organized. MPat McHugh of Bathgate, however, was an enthusiastic expansionist, and be lieved that every foot of Dakota was good for farming. Possibly, too, he saw that the bars were up against ,his political advancement in Pembina. At any rate, he began to agitate the organization of the western half, and Its separation from LOS ANUELES OIL PIEX.DS, NEAR BELMONT AVENUE. coal and in others gas or oil, begins in some unknown spot in Mexico and extends along the Pacific coast to Alaska. Ec^gar P. Howe of the Ix>s Angeles Herald, who has personally inspected nearly every oil producing district of the state, says: It is true that in many localities there is neither oil nor coal in considerable quantities in evidence, but the formaation: in which bitumens are found is continuous, and the absence of all oil is due to the fact that there was so provision, for its retention in fir ' Afi I4SI *^9X^^^9V^l life"/ i''^jHy ■ i '"ig"''' i' r^ JUg Wmß ' «@ |iW e^s 'SI P.. ■■■'■.. __ .JbL—-JU WHITE OIL GUSHER, NEWHALIi DISTRICT. Pembina. Elected a member of the legis lature, he secured the passage of a law making of that section west of the three organized western ranges a new county, called Cavalier, improperly spelled be-, cause named in honor of Charles Cavilier, the noted French Canadian pioneer, who is still living, I believe, somewhere in that part of the state. In 1885 the or ganization was -completed at an election in which a full set of counjty officials was chosen. Most of the votiiig was done by the residents of the extreme eastern part of the new county, and some farmers liv ing not far from the center did not for months know that they were no longer in Pembina county. A courthouse was built that summer, but no other habitation, on i a lonesome spot, on top of the 'second mountain,' counting from the river, which spot they called Langdon, the new county seat. The newly elected officials did not relish the idea of removing to Langdon that winter, so they united in asking Ed J. Pox, who had just come on from Canada, to represent them. Fox accepted, and took up his duties with zeal. One glance at the huge courthouse was enough for him, and he built a claim shack, fif teen by twenty feet in size, snd in this he lived and reigned. He was deputy clerk of the courts, county judge, treas urer, auditor and register of deeds. The sheriff lived somewhere in the 'country' (as distinguished from Langdon, the metropolis), and the superintendent of schools dwelt placidly in her majesty's dominions, just across the line in Mani toba. The sheriff did not serve out his term, for he was put in jail for shooting a man in a fight. "Pox lived alone, not a soul within two miles, and did his own cooking, ex cept bread-making, which was done by a woman three miles away. Langdon, al though a county seat, had but one resi dent, no railroad, not even a postofflce. The postmaster at Olga, on the first mountain, in the extreme eastern part, I sent to Langdon once or twice a week a package containing letters and papers addressed to people whom he knew lived near Langdon, and Fox would give them their mail when they called. How Fox Spent the Winter. "That winter was unusually severe, stormy and cold, and at night Fox used to lie awake listening to the roar of the bliz zard, the howls of wolves or the plaintive tones of a lost antelope, and wonder what the future would hold. There was not one settler directly west of forty miles, but forty or fifty miles to the northwest there were several. Some of the homesteaders used to drive from great distances to file THE MINNEAPOLIS JOURNAL. the rocks. As there must be natural reser voirs, in the form of sandstone overlaid with shale, it is evident that oil could not be expected to be present in all places where the formation Is favorable; and thus it is that the great belt reaching through the state is not uniformly rich in oil, which is found only in small belts or pools. • The coast range is not composed of granite like the Sierra Nevadas, but is composed of the three principal factors of oil bearing foriaaticas everywhere in the on a claim or prove up, and were compelled to pass the night with Fox. He had to serve meals, too, and was thus a landlord in addition to bis other duties. Strangely enough, no attempt was ever made to rob or injure him in any way. He had no time to be lonesome,for there were many filings, registering of mortgages and even of a few deeds and other transfers. All this for an inexperienced, careful young man required a lot of hard work. Two or three men a day came to see him on business, but he had almost no loafers, in spite of the solitude of the life there. He seldom saw a woman. Most of the settlers were bachelors who went back to Ontario for their wives, as did Fox himself. "Everyone was poor, and yet there was genuine enthusiasm, contentment and en joyment, in spite of the terrible cold and the great distances, often seventy-five miles, which they had to haul their wheat to market. The present was to them se cure. The soil they had found to be fabu lously rich, their little "patch," as they called the vast quarter section of free land, was their own or soon to become so, and they knew that in only a short time comforts and luxuries would come. Surprise for the Pooh Bah. "When winter at last broke away, Mc-t Hugh and Mooney, his partner, came up with their families, and life and compan ionship began. Other settlers came in, the railroad pushed through the following year, and the one-man rule was at an end. In the distribution of offices, Fox chose ! the humble one of county superintendent of schools, and year after year he has been elected by huge majorities. The county, perhaps because organized under Cleve land's administration, was from the first democratic. In 1892 the republicans had only about twenty-five per cent, and last year, banking on the heavy immigration from lowa and Minnesota, they talked of carrying the county, although no one really believed it could be done. Fox received his usual renomination and anticipated his usual re-election. "But the republicans nominated a rosy cheeked boy, named Neil McDonald, who was then teaching school in an adjoining county. He had been brought up in Cava lier county, and was well liked, but had no thought of the nomination, and it was not expected that he would leave his school to make the race. But he came up to Langdon, looked over the field, and in the enthusiasm of youth decided to enter the contest, secured a substitute for his school. Jim is not by profession a flat thing known as 'the canvass.' Now it happened that he had as a boy 'done chores' for Jim McPbail while, going to school. Jim is not by pyrofession a flat terer, quite the reverse; but he has, tight ly hidden beneath his gruff exterior, a lot of real love for ambitious, hard-working | youth, and although an ardent democrat he pulled off Ms coat for his chore boy. MePhail is the best political worker as well as one of the best business men I ever saw. In every campaign he picks out his man and never fails to land him a winner. There was. nothing to say againsc Fox, except perhaps the old complaint against Aristides, and the good argument that he had had office long enough. He was fair, straight and competent, and he had a certain line of political pull which seemed to me to make him invulnerable. "But McKinley carried every county in the state, and in Cavalier the majority was over 100, while McDonald beat Fox over 200. There are" now only two of the old county seat gang left, and their pluralities this year crept down to almost the van ishing point. Times have changed in Cavalier!" ■ .-.'. ■ ': I .'■ =..■* . - ■'.-,, ■■■■ ;,. .» , ■ • - • ....'. ■ i "^'"'j " ';■' ■"' '-"-"■-'- - - r j 1.^.1 in., ji j ,1.,.! ... ii , i..., ... .^|T rim ii . . i ii. ni i M | -■ - ' _ world, shale, sandstone and fossilifer ous conglomerate. Thus the oil belt which enters California in San Diego county, passing by Elsinure, Riverside and Los Angeles, and extending beyond the confines of the state is of great extent. It is richest as far as known in Southern California where the reservoir conditions are most abundant. With San Francisco as the northern end it has a length of about 600 miles, an average width of sev enty miles, and an area of 42,000 square miles. Ventura County. Oil was first produced in Cali fornia in paying quantities in Ven tura county. There have been about 525 wells drilled in this county alone. The Union Oil company put down about 300. There are over 300 producing wells at present. The output of the county is about 50,000 barrels per month. The wells start at the rate of 25 to 125 barrels per day, withi nthree months drop off one-half, continue at this flow for about four years and then decrease. The south half of Ventura county is lioneyeombed with wells. It has been shipping crude oil .constantly for fifteen years. In the north end within three months over a million of acres of oil claims have been located. The Rancho Tennescal in the Piru district was re cently sold for $750,000. The Ojai ranch on which was erected the first refinery in the county was recently purchased from Senator Bard by the Bard Oil and Asphalt company for $350,000. Mr. Bard began the development of oil in this county in 1860. Minneapolis Men Interested. One of the companies operating in this district is the newly organized California- Paoific Oil company of Los 'Angeles. The first vice president and manager is George R. Whitcomb, who lived in the twin cities for twenty years and last September went to California to engage in the oil business. Mr. Whitcomb is connected with the Northern Shade Cloth company at St. Anthony park. He issues "The Booklet" an oil publication of Los Angeles. This company owns property in the Coalinga, Newhall and Sespe districts, and last Sep tember entered the new Cuyama Valley district in which the California Pacific and the Cuyama Oil companies are pio ueers as oil land prospectors. The former company owns 12,000 acres of oil lands here. In regard to this new district W. W. Young of the Globe Asphalt company says: "I do not know of any better pros pective oil lands in the state." The district is fifty-five miles southwest of Bakersfield. 1..0s Angeles a Center. Los Angeles county stands at the head of the state in oil production. It gave at one time three-fourths of California's out put. The city leads the county. The orig inal paying well there was sunk in 1892 and now portions of the city are forests of derricks. It would seem that the own ers must encroach on one another's ter ritory, at least underground. It is esti mated that a well will drain a circumfer ence of 150 feet. In July, 1900, there were WEIRD JOURNEYS ON SUBTERRANEAN RIVERS We were underground an estimated three ! miles from daylight, crawling through a tunnel just large enough to admit the body of a man flat or in a crawling po sition. As I "inched" along, almost smothered by the smoke from the flambeau of the guide who led the crawling party, I realized that the gravel beneath us was moist. "Is this not an old water course?" I asked during a brief rest. "Yes," was the reply; "it fills up during very heavy rains." '"Then if it should rain now we would be liable to be drowned like rats in a pit?" I suggested. The guide said nothing, but I imagined him shrugging his shoulders in acquiescence. Later I learned that my father, when a young man, had struggled with others through the uncanny tunnel when the water was at his chin. The locality was the bed of an ancient river which in some past age flowed be neath the surface in Schoharie county, N. V., about forty miles from the city of Albany. It was discovered, so the story goes, by Lester Howe, who in fox hunting chased one of these animals into a crevice, and in following his hounds entered what appeared to be a tunnel, water-worn and dripping with moisture. Obtaining lights he made a careful investigation, and found that he had entered what was at one time a subterranean river. All the stones and pebbles were water-worn; the sides in many places were polished as though by the constant action of running water, and finally, far in the interior, the explorer found the last of this ancient river—a dark, murky sheet of water of unknown depth, the remains of what had once been a stream bounding along, a river to all intents and purposes many hundreds of feet from the surface from whfrch it origi nally came. We entered the old river bed where a tunnel or large opening had been cut into the limy formation, and progress was easy j for half a mile, the stones and debris hav ing been removed; but beyond this the way was every now and then stopped by ob stacles in the form of great columns, brok en from the wall above, large bowlders which, seemingly, had been swept down by irresistible force and lodged in the tun nel, almost barring passage. One such of struction was evidently a gigantic column or pillar, which had once supported the j wall of the subterranean river bed; some j thing served to dislodge it. and the en tire mass, weighing hundreds of tons, had' been hurled down, almost blocking the way, and to pass we were obliged to crawl through a passage which the waters had worn beneath. The action of water and subsequent deposition of stalactites and stalagmites was illustrated in a remarkable manner along this ancient stream Tied in a suc cession of rooms and chambers, some of great size and interest; aow glistening with deposits of lime, but once filled with swirling and rushing waters. Some of the rooms are 100 feet in height, and from such an one the passage to the next may be a narrow cleft. In one room the echo is so remarkable that the falling of a plank goe3 reverberating away for sev eral moments, then apparently comes back from an eternity of passages, con veying a decidedly musical sound. Deep er and deeper into the earth we-go, when suddenly the sound of water is heard. Can it be possible that the old river bed is filling up again? Louder comes the roar, and pushing on we enter a room through which a stream is flowing, a gentle fall being the cause of the sound, which I*. OIL SEEPAGE, OJAI VALLEY. 829 wells in Los Angeles city, owned by 150 companies. It is a nearly correct es timate to say that the field had produced 7,182,000 barrels up to Sept. 1, 1900. A Famous Well. The most famous well in the world is in the Newhall district of Los Angeles county. It has produced more than 1,500, --000 barrels since it was opened in 1876 and to-day it shows no sign of giving out. The Green Mountain Oil company of which Mr. Whlfcomb is president and man ager has nroperty and wells on Rock wood street in Los Angeles. This was the first of all California companies to issue pre ferred stock. It has been successful from the start, now having two producing wells with three more to be finished, before July Ist. Many successful Minneapolis business men have interests in the company. The same company owns a half a section of land near the Senator Bard trect, Ventura county. Some Unique Districts. Santa Barbara county possesses the odd est oil field in the world. At Summerland is the only place where the drill is sunk through the waters of the ocean. The oil may thus be shipped without even the cost of transportation to the wharf. In May, 1899, oil was discovered in Kern county ebout six miles from Bakersfield. The first well was completed in Septem ber, and now there is no place in Cali fornia where the indications for oil are so favorable as in this section. Kern county is as large as the state of Con necticut and it is probable that it will become the greatest oil producing county in California. The best oil fields are four miles east of Bakersfield, the metropolis of the county. It is 314 miles north to San Francisco and 168 south to Los Angeles. The published freight rate on oil from Bakersfield to Los Angeles is 42 cents a barrel and from Bakersfield to San Francisco 52 cents— fP fir * B*nPl ' ffi" f • ■KflßH* "" * -~* : IjVv l&l ■ ...-■■■ nf&j I GREEN MOUNTAIN OIL COMPAN Y'S PROPERTY, LOS ANGELES. NO. 7. tossed back and forth In a marvelous manner. We are now over a mile from daylight, and here the most interesting feature of the old river bed awaits us. We pass into a lofty chamber, emerge from it to see by the dim light of the flambeau a veritable Styx—a deep, black stretch of water, so ominous, gloomy and alto gether mysterious that we can well im agine many who enter here draw the line at this point, and refuse to embark. A small flat-bottomed boat floats silently by the damp and glistening shore, but there is no Charon to row us across, so the guide volunteers. Nothing can be seen ahead, and progress is made by hugging the wall and following its undulations. How deep the water is no one can sur mise; how far it extends is equally a mystery; but it is cold as ice, as black as ink, "and is not influenced by freshet or drought in the outside world. It is the ancient river, now a degenerate, a part of the stream that once played havoc here and ran riot through the crust, cutting and wearing strange channels in every di rection, and creating chambers that now stand as monuments to its power. A Wierd Sensation. To float on such a stream and listen in vain for the slightest noise is to experi ence a sensation that cannot be termed pleasing. There was something weird and oppressing about it; so much so that the guide said visitors often begged to be tak en back at this point. The intense black ness of the.place, the strange reverbera tions when a word was spoken, tended to arouse the nervous tension of the voyagers, and it was with relief that the opposite shore was reached. Here the old channel grew narrower and more like a tunnel, and after winding in and out, creeping beneath huge rocks which had fallen from the ceiling, we entered the narrow passage referred to in the begin ning of this paper—an old waterway, so small that progress could only be made by lying perfectly flat and keeping the arms straight out ahead, moving like worms in their tunnels. We traversed perhaps fifty feet, coming out into the first channel of this remarkable under ground river bed; a well 15 feet across and 300 feet in height; the elevation hav ing been tested by rockets gauged to that height. The floor of "this room was water worn gravel; what the condition must have been when this waterway was full can only be imagined. Another on Santa. Cruz. On the island of the Santa Cruz, off the Southern California coast, there is a re markable subterranean waterway which, according to local authorities, extends some distance into the heart of the island, and was in early geological times the bed of an underground stream. Be this so or not, the series of caves are among the natural curiosities of the west coast. The entrance is a grand arch about fifty feet in height, a little north of Point Diablo on the island named. A high mountain rises above It, and the arch and series of caves appear to lead directly into It There was a heavy sea on in the channel when I visited the place, and though the entrance was several hundred feet in, the sea rolling into it, and the strange thun dering reverberations could be distinctly heard dying away far in the distance. The crew of our yacht had so positive » disinclination to enter that our party manned the cutter and rowed in without them. The outer room was very large and SATUEDAY EVENING, MAKCH 9, 1901. Millions in them. The story of their devel ment —Los Angeles a great oil city. Forests of derricks there. Minneapolis men interested in some of the rich districts. although large shippers get a 45-cent rate. Practically Los Angeles makes the price in oil. If it is one dollar at Los Angeles it is a dollar plus the freight from Los An-geles at San Francisco. Some of the heaviest consumers of Cali fornia oil are the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific railroads, the street car and gas companies, the city water works and the electric light and power companies in Los Angelea and San Francisco and the elec tric light and smelter companies and great mining companies of Arizona. Question of Transportation. The transportation problem has of course figured largely in the development of the California oil fields. For fifteen years oil has been hauled in tank cars to Los Angeles and from Los Angeles to San Francisco it has been conveyed in tank ships. Pipe lines have also been established from the wells to the cities. There are many of these lines ranging from three to forty-four miles in length, with from 200 to 1,900 feet head. Still the trans portation question is a big one when the Southern Pacific railway, although it is rapidly building tank cars, cannot haul all the oil it needs for its own uses. The Fuel Problem. With the discovery that California pe troleum was even more valuable for fuel than for refining commenced the profit able production of oil. In the west it is found that oil is a cheaper fuel than coal. Coal is always expensive in California and at $1 a barrel, oil is equivalent to $4.50 a ton for coal, which in reality costs $7.50. As a result locomotives and other engines are being fitted with oil con sumers and the oil industry is going for ward by bounds. The western sugar re finery in a year's consumption of oil at $1.30 per barrel saved $46,012.15. The greatest future for the use of crude oil, however, will be in metallurgical work where the degree of heat has to be ad- lofty, the ceilings beautifully tinted with all the colors of the rainbow. From this an arch led to another and smaller room, for perhaps 200 feet, the passage growing smaller until we were confronted with a narrow opening not much larger than the boat. Up to this point the water was about ten feet deep, and in Its conforma tion the series of chambers resembled the bed of the subterranean stream previous ly described, assuming that it was half filled with waiter. Every roller that came in nearly filled the opening to the next room, and it was evident that at high tide it was closed and Impassable during a storm. A Vast Underground Room. We knew that a large chamber was just beyond, so, watching the seas, the boat was shot through the opening between them and floated in a room of unknown dimensions, an estimated eighth of a mile from the outside world. It was almost" perfect darkness, a great eye of light appearing occasionally—the gate way—closing every time a sea came in, producing an uncanny effect, as the room was a veritable sounding board and filled with wierd noises and reverberations. An oar struck upon the water produced a loud concussion, echoes leaping from side to side with marvelous rapidity, then making their way into other rooms or channels in the direction of the cen ter of the island, dying away in the re mote distance. To add to this, a herd of sea lions had taken up its residence here, and their barking and roaring com pleted the pandemonium. The rollers came surging in, lifting the boat and tossing her about uneasily, so that it was somewhat difficult to light the flam beaux; but when they blazed out the roof could hot be seen, nor could the bot tom be found with the appliances at hand, and the size of the strange chamber re mained a inys^ery. Around the north edge there was. a. shelf, out upon which I stepped. It had evidently been the resting place of the sea lions. From here the water could be heard rushing through other passages, from which moans, cries of sea lions and other weird noises issued, snowing that the old .river, way, if such it was, led far beneath the island moun tain. Subterranean Rooms in Kentucky. In the states of Kentucky and Georgia are several well-known subterranean rivers, which flow long distances and have been traced several miles. One comes to the surface at various points, and the so called springs are famous fishing places, the subterranean stream .being well stocked with trout, perch, $ass and cat fish, identical with the fishes caught in neighboring streams. If a section of the crust of the earth could be made for half a mile, or even a mile, it would become evident that it is permeated with rivers and streams, some of which, especially in limestone regions, descend to a great depth. This is shown by the depth of some wells which tap streams and rivers in the greater depths and the well-known "lost" rivers of various countries, which flow along at the surface and suddenly disappear. In some of the caves of In diana and Kentucky the underground rivers have high falls. In the subcar boniferous limestone of Kentucky it is estimated that there are 100.000 miles of subterranean river beds, and thousands of miles in Indiana. The famous cave of Adelsberg, near Trieste, is merely the mouth of a subterranean river, which pours out at this point, and in the Jura mountains there are many large rivers which flow directly from their subter- justed with great nicety. Many ores have not been worked in California on account of the high price of fuel. This objection is now overcome in the use of petroleum. If the Southern Pacific company used oil only for fuel in its locomotives and stationary engines in California alone, it is aald that it would consume over 4,500,000 barrels of oil per year, nearly the entire output of the state at present. " What the Stuff Look* Like. : California oil is a green-black crude pe troleum with an asphaltum base. : The product of parts of Ventura county and of the Newhall.district in Los Angeles coun ty is a notable exception. These are the only places in -the world where the oil' is white. It looks like refined kerosene; and at the well for two years has brought $4.50 a barrel. The addition of this oil to the other dark product gives in refining an il luminating oil of 20 per cent better qual ity." Hence it is sold for mixing. It can be used for either engine or illuminating purposes, without refining. California oil burns/better than the Pennsylvania prod- Flows of Itself. Any oil in California or in other place* flows of itself. When the oil stratum is first' punctured, . the pressure lof the gas ■ ■'.■ forces the oil out, but this is quickly ex- f£* hausted and the oil must then be pumped. * The flow from the Beaumont; Texas, gush er, which was struck Jan. 9, blew 500 feet into the air and the derrick and all ma chinery was thrown down.. On the 14th, it was under control and capped. This oil cannot be refined now as there is sul- | phur in it. When the process of prepar- '•' ing it for the market is discovered and it is uncapped, the well may flow for two months. In California oil is found at all depths from the seepage on the surface to 4,000 feet in Adams canyon, Ventura 1 county, where is the deepest well west of the Rocky mountains. The first well in Kern county was only sixty feet deep, while the I deepest wells are itf Ventura and, range from 2,000 to 2,500 feet in depth. District of Gushers. The Coalinga field in Freano county, is a district of gushers. The gushers are in termittent, flowing every twenty minutes when first struck, but after a time they cease to flow. The most productive wells are 1,000 or more feet in depth. The oldest wells in the state have been pumped for twenty years, and it is be lieved that the average wells, although they are not as deep as those of Penn sylvania, which have produced for thirty five years, will average longer. The Cost of Wells. The cost of wells for the first depth of 130 feet is about $300. In some dis tricts the cost ranges from $500 to $3,000 for sinking the entire well. The most expensive well cost $35,000 owing to the character of the boring. As a general rule oil lands in California are good for nothing else. There are plenty of wild cat companies, of course, with no real oil territory to build on or no satisfactory geological evi dence that oil strata exist under their lands. Most mining enterprises ■which have for their object the development of new territory, especially when opera tions are conducted at a distance from any known oil field, are "wild cat" propo sitions. A Woman's Company. One of the peculiarities in the Califor nia oil business is the "Women's Pacific Coast Oil company," organized, launched into business and successfully managed by women. Another interesting item to the people of Minneapolis is the fact that James Xeill, the favorite of the matinee girls at the Metropolitan two summers ago, is the president of the James Neill Oil company, which has properties in the Newhall and Piru districts. A great deal of California oil Is used in the manufacture of medicines and , in sprinkling dusty roads. Much of it is consumed for lubricating, some of it being almost pure in its lubricating qual ities. Asphaltum is also a valuable prod uct. Although it is often said that illuminat ing oil must be imported by California and that native oil cannot be properly re fined for illuminating purposes, the Standard Oil company has accepted the product of the two refineries in San Fran cisco and of that at Chino, and has paid a good price for one of the refineries at San Francisco. \ ranean courses. The borers at Grenelle, Paris, found water at half-a-mlle from the surface. There is a subterranean river in Westphalia, Germany, two-thirds of a mile deep, and at St. Louis borers sank a well 3,843 feet, their last 250 feet being through granite, then entering a vast body of water, a subterranean lake or river. In this instance the entire Palaeozoic age of the region was passed and water found beyond it. They Are Inhabited. One of the Interesting features of sub terranean rivers and streams is the fact that in many instances they are inhabited, and often by animals particularly adapted to them. Thus in some of the subter ranean streams of Kentucky are found fishes and crustaceans, which, in many years of life in total darkness, have lost their organs of sight, the eye being re duced to a mere spot, covered by the skin. A number of species have been discov ered in the underground streams of Ken tucky, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, Alaba ma and Cuba. If perfect silence is main tained the fishes will rise, and can easily be taken, as they are completely blind, but their sense of touch is remarkably developed, and at the slightest sound they dart away. They are pure white, with flat heads, and appear in the black water like veritable ghosts. They undoubtedly once lived in the upper regions and had eyes, but ages of disuse in the deep caves of the earth has resulted in the complete degeneracy of these organs. BSEHD HO MONEYrHS af Jtlnns spoils. Return this ad, and we- will send you the steel range you may select e^ by freight C.0.D., subject to examina w vion. You can examine It at your ■ freight depot, and If you find It per il fectly satisfactory, exactly as repre ■ aented, the most wonderful value you || ever saw or heard of, equal to ranges I that sell at double the money .pay th« ■ railroad agent our special price and freight charges. If the range is not entlr«l> satisfac tory. If you do not consider It one of the handsomest, best' grade ranges made at the price, you need not ac cept It, and it will be returned to us at oar own expense of freight charges both ways. - - OUR FREE EXAMINATION OFFER V^t •who has an idea, of buying a big steel range- to b» con vinced of the money we can save them on these our steel ranges, we make this liberal free examination offer. "ADfltlT TUC CDC I CUT The freight will average AOUUI IHt rntloHl about for 600 miles, greater or leaser di&tances in proportion. The freight amounts to really nothing compared to the war saTtß* in price. Special Stove Catalogue Free.' • ' •' We uauc cm n thanall other dealers combined. t HAVt OULU than all other dealeraoombtaeil. ■ The reason for this is that we sell THE BEST KANOE sold In Minneapolis, as we can get thousand* of people using it to testify, and sell it for less money tnan other dealers ask for an inferior make of range. These ranges are no experiment with us.as we have gold this one make for more than 10 years and our customers »ho have used them the longest are the loudest in their praise. We Will Guarantee Them in every manner,»hape and form: we do not auk for any loophole; If they do not work perfectly we .will take them back and refund pur chase price. Hotel Ranges a Specialty. ■ No. 121 —thole Range,oven 12x1g.. :.........(19.Q7 No. I«V—t-hol» Kange, oven ..-........'.... - 14. IO So. 135—t-hole Range, ovenUxaO, high shelf... ; | 7 66 No. «-hols Range, oven 14x20, high closet.. i 0.00 No. 134—6-liole Range, oven 20x20, plain t0p.... 19 75 No. 184—6-hole Range, oven 20x20, high shelf... JJ | .75 No. IS*—ft-hole Range, oven £ox2o, high closet.. 23.78 No. 143—*-hole Range, reservoir, plain top 24 75 No. «-hole Range, reservoir, high shelf .... ■ 75 So. «-hole Kaiiije. reservoir, high closet... • 30-00 DON'T FORGET THIS— A large Kioje U a«r« •caaoJat enl than ».ai»ll oat, and one of our ranges will Us* yon • life-tin*, so order a Rood sized one. ;:-. ; . T. M. ROBERTS' SfPFLY HOtISE, MIXXEVPOUS. MIJTJf. Twentieth Century Medicine. Cascarets Candy Cathartic are ;tf far ahead of ancient pill poisons an liquid physic as the electric light of the tallow candle. ,! Genuine stamped C. C. C. Never ; sold in bulk. Aft druggists, ioc. '•': : •* '