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THE JOURNAL LUOIAN SWIFT, J. & MoLAIN, , MANAORR. V.* .. 1-'■** ".f' EDITOR : ■>.:. : THE] JOURNAL is published I every evening:, except 4 Bandar*; at ; 4T-4U . Fourth. Street Sooth, Journal Buildinv, Minneapolis, Minn. : .^ C. j. iniison, Manager Foreign Adver tising: Department.-". - ' : " '=- NEW YORK OFFICE—B6, 87, 88 Tribune building. ' . ' • ,: ■ '.;•■■■ • CHICAGO OFFICE—SO7,'3OB Stock Ex change building.. . ; ,1: SUBSCRIPTION ' TERMS .Payable to The Journal Printing; Co. Delivered by Mail. One copy, one month 10.35 One copy, three months ...1.00 : One copy, six months.*... 2.00 One copy, one year 4.00 Saturday Eva. edition, 20 to 26 pages.. 1.50 Delivered by Carrier. ; One copy, one week 8 cents ■ One copy, one month ......35 cents Single copy .....:,..... 2 cents HAS SERVED THE WHOLE STATE Alexandria Post-News. As the Post-News has often censured The Minneapolis Journal, it therefore is an es pecial pleasure to praise it now. The Journal, by its action during the present session of the legislature, has merited and won the greatest commendation. It has, in fact, been the republican standard bearer, the one city paper that has risen Above local interests, and been big enough to serve the whole state. On the Whole, a Good Record Every busy man —and that hits nearly every one in Minneapolis and Minnesota these days—should be interested in the review of the -work of the legislature •whloh The Journal lays before its readers to-day. This review is a labor-saving device. It will put any Intelligent reader in pos session of all the Important results of the session and give him an Intelligent idea of how they -were brought about. The mat ter is arranged and classified so that thoee particular things In which he is spe cially interested may be taken up with more cara if desired than -others of less interest to him. And this re-view is not dry stuff. It will be found exceedingly interesting. The session just closed was one of the most interesting in the history of the state. It is doubtful if any other legislature has ever left on record at one session as much important work as that which stands to the credit of the legislature which adjourns to-day. Certainly none have ac complished as much during the past fif teen or twenty years. It is not necessary to go into detail with regard to the work of the session in this column, since the results are set out so conveniently and yet so plainly in the review. This, however, seems to be a good time to say that this result is something of a surprise. At the be ginning of the session not very many im portant matters were prominent in the public mind as demanding the attention of the legislature. It was expected, of course, that they would elect two senators and re-apportion the state. Whether any thing further of importance would be accomplished was problematical, and only two or three other matters stood out prominently as calling for legislative ac tion. But not only have all these mat ters received attention, but many others have been disposed of in such a manner as to make the record of this session, on the whole, one of the best. Among the measures that failed, the most Important probably was that of the first step toward a constitutional convention. The defeat of this proposition is attributed to public service corporation influence, on the theory that a new constitution would be likely to contain provisions guarding the Interests of the public against cor porate aggression more closely than they *re now protected. The session has not been without its •candals, and, yet, it has probably been freer from what are commonly known as "leg-pulling" schemes than the average •ession. Some attempts of that kind were made, and in some instances, at least, they met with disaster. The charges of bribery In connection with the gross earn ings bill have left the impression very clearly denned in the public mind that im proper measures were employed against that bill. The passage of the bill, how ever, at tie demand of the sentiment of the state, has robbed the incident of much Of Its significance asd importance. In connection with the large amount of food work done, perhaps attention should fee called to the fact that this session is shorter—eleven days shorter—than the statutory limit, leaving the eleven days for an, extra session next year to receive and enact the revised tax laws from the tax revision commission. Men -with vivid imaginations which they lake with them into meetings of the city council are imagining reasons for pre venting the "Wisconsin Central from mak ing extensive improvements in this city for the handling of its business. Isthmian Canal Negotiations Senators who were responsible for the failure of the Hay-Pauncefote treaty will hardly be pleased with the negotiations ■with Great Britain by our government for a new treaty. But if they really want a canal constructed they will support the new negotiations and bring themselves to look more conservatively upon the proposition of the professional tail-twisters to abro gate the Glayton-Bulwer treaty without the consent of Great Britain. The fact that this nation is commited to the view that the treaty of 1850 can only be law fully abrogated by mutual consent is sure to strengthen the public sentiment against the self-stultification embodied in the ap peals of Senator Morgan and his group. It is understood that Great Britain lays stress upon the retention of the principle of neutrality embodied in Article 3 of the original Hay-Pauncefote treaty. This pro vision, indeed, was one of the strong fea tures of the original treaty which the sen ate butchered in compliance with the tail twisters' postulates. Reflecting people must see that the neutralization of the oanal is the very strongest guarantee of its safety from attack and obstruction, for the combined maritime powers of the world are bound by the principle. If the United States carries out the fortification principle as per the amendment to the Hay-Pauacefote treaty, it -will undertake a task, bordering on the impossible. It is not exaggerative to say that it would take a force of 80,000 to 100,000 men to defend the 180 miles of the Nicaragua canal from an enemy's attacks and an enemy's at tack's need not be made with, a navy, but email parties armed with high explosives could watch their chances and do their de structive -work on the canal at some points along the line. But the tail-twisters assert that neutral ization would be a surrender of the Mon roe doctrine by allowing foreign nations to take a hand in the management of the canal as insurers of neutralization. This is mere trilling. There i« no better au thority on international law than Wharton and he says that the guarantee of the maritime powers as to the neutralization of an Isthmian canal "is an application, not a contravention of the Monroe doc trine; such an agreement is not an ap proval of, but an exclusion of foreign in terposition." Which it manifestly is. The tail-twisters are way off from the truth in their position, and it would be well for them to reconsider their demand for a military caaal. Such a work would prove the most expensive investment the United States could make. The Jourpal is glad President Northrup declined the appointment to the all-American conference. Not that the position to which he was assigned was not a place of honor and dignity—quite as much'so perhaps as the Louisiana pur chase commission—but he is no office seeking politician to be propitiated with "something equally as good"; and after he had consented reluctantly to allow his name to be considered in connection with the Louisiana commission because the people of the northwest wanted him to, it was no favor to him to offer him some thing else in order that the place for which he was first proposed and which carries a salary might be given to one of Mr. Harina's "dead ducks." The incident does not reflect credit upon the basis upon, which the president makes selections for positions of dignity and consequence. Nor does the fact that another "dead duck" considered for the same place was disposed of with an appointment on the civil service commission, although an avowed opponent in congress of civil ser vice reform. The Persistent Boers The transfer of the Boer capital from Pietersburg to Leydsdorp, about eighty miles north of the Delagoa Bay railroad, Indicates that these pets latent fighters intend to try another campaign. Driven from one capital they set up another, and they are likely to hold out in northeastern Transvaal some time longer, as the coun try is mountainous and there is abundant grass in the valleys for stock. The re ports of negotiations by Botha looking to surrender have failed of verification, as has the report that Botha has abandoned De Wet and considers him demented and irresponsible. Meantime the British out lay for the war swells ominously. The "war expenses have swollen the expenditures to over $800,000,000, and, although the war has been reported ended several times, the Boers are still afield and making suc cessful raids. Such a journal as the Lon don Mail, which has all along taken an optimistic view of the war, and a few months ago looked for a successful con summation of the disastrous conflict, now admits that Britain must prepare for greater efforts and sacrifices and "rise to the danger as tvb rose of old," and it goes on to say: The enemy have recovered heart (if they ever lost it); they have not submitted; the pacification has not come. A sense of distrust and disillusionment has grown up. In Oc tober we were told that the war was over. Reinforcements, it is now known from Lord Roberts' dispatches, were urgently required at this very date. The whole of the Orange Col ony was bursting afresh into flame at the very moment when we were informed that the final pacification was at hand. And so men were not ready in England to go out. The mounted men who should have left last October are only leaving now, in March, five months later. Again the same mistake is being repeated. The cabinet have apparently concluded that 30,000 men will be a sufficient reinforcement. Further recruiting for South Africa has been stopped. Not once, but twenty times during the past fifteen months we have urged the government to raise and maintain at home a force of 50,000 men, ready and available at a moment's notice for South Africa. In war true wisdom lies in allow ing the most ample margins in all calcula tions. Too little spells defeat; too much only renders victory more certain. If we know the temper of the nation we shall not appeal to It In vain for the utmost vigor and energy. There is a disparing note in this. The Mall recognizes the fact that even if | negotiations are entered upon by Botha and consummated, his surrender only af fects Botha and his immediate command. D© Wet and other Boer generals are still afield. The South African war will have I lasted two years on October 14, and its unexpected continuance will necessitate new forms of taxation in Great Britain and some leading British statesmen admit that extensive tariff changes will be im peratively demanded. The experience is a bitter one, but it is perfectly evident that the troubles of the empire are due to a remarkable lack of prepared ness for the emergencies of war on the part of the government. They did not realize the always possible exigencies and began with the fatal mistake of under estimating the grit and preparedness of the Boers. The British government, in fact, does not seem yet to have profited much by the experience of the past year. Array reorganization lingers and the war expenses and taxation grow and the long suffering English people are likely to en ter vigorous protests against governmental incapacity. It has long been customary for the leg islature to vote a gratuity at the end of the session to the newspaper reporters engaged in reporting the proceedings of that body. The Times and Journal instructed their representatives some years ago that they would not be permitted to receive these gratuities any further, recognizing the fact that the gift is vicious in principle, dangerous to the integrity of the reports made and wholly unjustified by any rule of right. There is no reason whatever why the legislature should give presents out of the state treasury to the newspaper men. The appropriation was attempted this year in both houses, -covering, as we understand it, reporters of all the St. Paul papers and the Minneapolis Tribune, but when the matter came up for final vote at the close of the session not enough votes could be mustered in favor of it in either house to carry it through. This probably ends the "newspaper graft"; it is probably the last we shall hear of the giving of tips to newspaper men, a result which will cer tainly be appreciated by ali self-respecting newspaper workers who must recognize THE MINNEAPOLIS JOUENAE. the fact that the bestowal of such a gift Is not complimentary to them as indi viduals or creditable to the profession. "The,Neiver* convention that Ih « . . pected to reault in a state Lignt federation of Cbxi»tls.n ■chureh.es opened at Coluin bu« this week, attended by representatives of various denominations from all parts ot Ohio. An executive committee was named to consider plans for union work by the various churches. This co-operation is desired in evangelistic, sociological and all other forms of church activity. In particular, it is hoped that the proposed federation will mitigate the rigors of religious competition between de nominations, so that one small community or neighborhood which can support only one church shall not have half a dozen weak and struggling churches. The churches have seen that the children of this world have been wiser in their generation than the children of light, for they have been wise enough 10 see that co-operation rather than competition, friendly association rather than destructive warfare, are the secrets of success, both in business and in religious work. Say! This old world is moving down the ringing grooves of change in steeple post chase time. Even the brethren are loving one another and religious animosities are dying out. Did some-body say "millennium"? One of those arithmetical jugglers who de lights to tie his brain up in hard knots gives the following problem: lam half as old as my father. He is two years older than my mother. She is twenty three years older than my oldest sister, and my oldest sister is two years older than my youngest sister. My youngest sister is four years older than her oldest brother and my oldest brother is five years older than my youngest brother. The five children are seventeen years older than the father and mother together. How old is John and each of the children and father and mother? Having several other things to do to-day, we have not 'undertaken to find the answer, if there is one. Nebraska people are getting from "a Min nesota publishing house" a notice headed, "Every Sport Should Have One." It reads: On receipt of $1, we will send, prepaid, a cloth-bound book of over 400 pages, full of good things. This great book is prohibited in some countries, and is the most wonderful book ever written. Either in the French or English languages. We will send it securely enclosed and in the English language un less otherwise ordered. Several sports were caught, sent in their dollar and got a Bible. No remarks. The papa bird is hunting For building lote, my dear; On property that's high and dry. With alley in the rear. He does not ask for fifty feet Upon the elm tree's Mmb, But a corner lot next to the trunk Is good enough for him. The Stub Pen, the organ of the Minneapolis Authors' Club, has issued its second number, the lit'rary quality of -which is fully up to the first. It contains everything from tributes to Shakspere to accounts of the early days In Dakota. The club indorses both Shakspere and Dakota as very well in their way. Belgrade township has become very tired of dude hunters who leave farm gates open, trample on the crop® and shoot at everything alive, and has voted to impose a fine of $25 on all outsiders wtoo enter the township to hunt. The first scorcher of the season has contrib uted his $10 to the city, and is feeling very core at government and officialism generally. The legislator has not gone home a minute too soon. Seeding is going on and the stock need attention. Hay and Pauncefote are fooling over the canal again, and the big railroad magnates smile behind their hands. Now is the time of year to take some good spring medicine that is advertised to cure the Tropic of Cancer. . Aguinaldo, the cable says, is buying dia monds. Where did he get the money? Staking Headway. St. Louis Star. In view of the fact that illiteracy among the negroes of the south has decreased 50 per cent within the last twenty years, it would Beem there need be no great cause of uneasi ness touching the future of the colored race. Harrison and Hendrlcks. Indianapolis Journal. Indianapolis is the only city in the United States that has furnished a president and a vice president, and from which both have been buried. Not Likely to Be Forgotten, Boston Globe. What reward are the men who went with Punston going to get? They certainly de serve something, though they can hardly ex pect to be all made major generals. AMUSEMENTS Mrs. Le«lle Carter in "Zar.a" at the Metropolitan. "Zaza" is the story of a woman's heart. It Is more than that —it is the story of the re generation of a woman's heart by the power of love. An old topic? Yes, older than lite rature and yet never old. This is a woman who by birth, educa tion, by vocation and by environment is im pelled toward sin. The very atmosphere she I breathes is laden with the microbes of vice. The feverish temperature of the green room and the variety stage develops the naturally dominant animal side of her nature. Uncon scious of the woman's heart that beats with in her breast, she enjoys to the full that life j which stimulates and excites and burns out so soon. She is a splendid animal, feeding on enjoyment. Another splendid animal crosses her path—a man animal. True to her tendencies, she allures and then captivates him. And then the thing happens which neither foresaw—her merely physical love de velops into something stronger, more serious, more earnest, more unselfish. With thi3 .de velopment come storms of jealous passion as the suspicion thai the man has other and stronger ties deepens into certainty. And finally that tempest of the heart is quelled by an act of supreme self-sacrifice—an en nobling,purifying,saving self-abnegation. This is the triumph of woman's love thai it can thus Immolate Itself for the welfare and hap piness of the object of its idolatry. Nor birth, nor education, nor environment can thwart the supreme regenerative power of real love. Tha+ is the underlying thought in David Belasco's masterly drama of "Zaza." It is noteworthy that from the first to last the heart of Zaza herself is, so to speak, the theater of action. There the tragedy is' un folded, there the denouement takes place. We are given no insight into the real feelings of her lover except, such as we get through Zaza'a eyes. He, as well as all the others who surround her, merely serves to throw ligh* on the various phases of her charac ter, to show its development, and, of course, to figure in the action of the play. The bibulous aunt, who lives upon her bounty, re veals what the terrible childhood of Zaza must have been. The servant who attends and worships her testifies thus to the warm lovable side or her nature. The singing part ner, who "discovered" her and promoted her stage career, throws light on another and quite as admirable a phase of her character And so the story of the heart of Zaza is told no* only by the revelations she unconsciously makes herself, but by a study of how she im presses and affects those about her. Considered merely as a specimen of stage craft "Zaza" is a strong and well correlated work. Its action is swift, natural and climacteric. Its pictures are marvels of real ism. Its dialogue is vivid, direct and dra matic—never merely literary or 'smart. " There remains the much-mooted question of morality—whether the dramatist's art justi fies the introduction of audiences to the hec tic life to which Zaza moved. It is the old question of realism in art which will never be settled. Purpose, after all, is the touch stone which should be used to separate the good from the bad. Vice and sin exist If they are reproduced for their own sake and without good purpose, the play is bad. On the other hand, why should not the drama tist study their effect upon character or rather how can he avoid doing so? And is not "Zaza" ennobled by a purpose that more than justifies Hs realism? Mrs. Leslie Carter's wonderful Impersona- Ition of Zaza certainly deserves the praise Minneapolis Journal's Current Topics Series. Papers By Experts and Specialists of National Reputation. AMERICAN LIFE A CENTURY AGO. VUI—"FIRE! FHUi2" By Alice Morse Earle, Author of "Colonial Days in Old New York," "'Stage Coactt and Tavern Days," etc. (Copyright, 1901, by Victor F. Lawson.) As we walk quietly along the darkening streets in the winter twilight Of the year 1801, what Is that sudden clamor which rises? The sound comes closer. In' every house a "window or door opens and then the cry of "Fite! Fire!" issued forth with distinctness in a score of different voices. The clangor of every church bell in town soon is added, rung violently, but with no a^wnpt at sig naling by strokes or guiding to the burning spot. The good man of eaehr- household seizes his fire buckets and fire bag and issues forth with anxious haste, joining' tie crowd of men and boys harrying, mailing, all bawl ing "Fire! Fire!" along the streets toward the ascending smoke which Is the only guide as to the locality of the fire. If the house holder cannot go for a few moments himself, or if he cannot run, he throws his buckets and fire bag to some younger and more active soul who if hurrying past; but, then, he does not delay an unnecessary moment. The good wife sets a candle at her window pane to help to illuminate the streets; all are eager to help, with that eagerness that comes from a need of self-preservation. For there was intense dread of flre every where in 1801; "It had grown and been nour ished by rumor and suggestion, for four years, ever since the presidential election of 1796. While the excited people were impatiently awaiting at that time the tediously slow re turns of the votes from different states, there came to them instead in quick succession word of great fires in Baltimore, Philadel phia, New York, Savannah. The fire in Sa vannah destroyed 350 houses. Every one was horror-stricken. The newspapers began to circulate the charge of "pyrotechny" against the democrats. It was declared that the Ja cobins, the shouters of Ca ira, the admirers THE FIRE LINE—FIGHTING A FIRE IN 130 L of French ways—in short, the followers of Jeffersonhad applied the torch • in' all these stricken towns, and "many, foretold gloomily that French modes of public murder, the guillotine, would soon follow French flames. Guarding Against Fires. Timidity and excitement added to the fright. Men declared they, found plain traces of in- cendiarism —oiled rags In cellars, scorched side walls. Strange conversations were over heard; young men were attested on suspl- A Superior Barmaid. By Osborne O'Connor. Copyright, 1901, by T. C, McClure. I have lived for forty odd years without be ing caught in the net of matrimony, and I think you will agree with mo that I am not a sentimental or impressionable man. Love, no doubt, is a blissful thing while it lasts, and I do not deny that matrimony has its joys and benefits, but it seems that nature in tended me to walk iv other paths. I have tried on various occasions to fall in love, and I have often pictured to myself a happy little home with a cat purring on the hearth rug, but neither love nor the home nor the cat would come. I had about given up the idea of being anything different from what I am, when I started on my annual fishing excursion into the country. I had been told of a place about seventy miles from London where the fishing was good, the inn ail that could be desired, and the village free from old maids and marriage-able girls. I found everything as stated, and for three days I was as happy as the fish that escaped my hook. Then came something like a shadow. I had noticed In a general way that the barmaid was a good looking girl, but had given the matter no thought. It is a barmaid's business to be good looking. It was only after I had got settled that I discovered this barmaid of the Oak and Ivy had small hands, small feet, a. graceful form, a refined air, was educated and altogether superior to her class. The shadow came, because, as soon as I recognized this barmaid's superiority, I somehow felt it my duty to appreciate it and encourage her. The idea of falling in love with a barmaid, either common or superior, was absurd, but the idea of showing my appreciation of her mental and physical graces resolved itself kito a duty. I began my labors at once. It really was an effort on my part to natter and compli ment, but I was somewhat consoled on realiz ing that my work was not in vain. Ethel, Daily BUREAU 0F THE JOURNAL, No. 21 Park Row. The Flood of Book*. April 12.—800k lovers and critics are about ready to throw up their hands in despair of ever catching up with the flood of literature being put on the market this spring. The merest glance at the book reviews and the publishers' announcements is- sufficient to show the book industry is more prolific than ever before. During the first three months of the current year the output has been equal to about the first four months of the best pre vious year and the activity of the authors has been equal to that of the men who print and market the publications. The publishers' announcements are elaborate and the offer ings should satisfy the most omnivorous reader, the greediest devourer of books. One is compelled to wonder what becomes of all these books, for the time was when the publi cation of a new book was deemed a note worthy happening ar.d was heralded in a manner befitting so momentous an event. But to the present generation of readers the mere placing of a new book on the market la re garded as an inconsequential occurrence. This has come about through the remarkable ad vancement in the art of topography aad the that has everywhere been bestowed upon it. It is a stage portrait that ranks with the I best in the history of the English-speaking I stage, at least within recent memory. One readily believes that it has been wrought out with the greatest labor, for every little i detail that will make for truth has been ! cared for, and yet the effect is never strained I or unnatural and there are no marks of the shop. The character is a many-sided one, by turns gay, reckless, seductive, clinging, tear ful, stormy with passion, humbly propitia tory, broken with grief, self-abasing and finally tinged with the noble melancholy that follows renunciation. All these and many more notes in the gamut of human feeling Mrs. Carter strikes unerringly. In pure com edy she is wholesome and genuine, but she rises to her greatest heights in depicting emotion. That terrible fourth act, with its breakfast tete-a-tete, beneath which the vol cano is heaving, and with its concluding hur ricane of passion. Is a tremendous exhibition of dramatic power. Charles A. Stevenson gives a carpftrlly sub- ; clou. Rewards were offered for the detection of incendiaries; night watches were ordered by frightened town and city officers. Yoking men volunteered to serve on the companies of watches; but they soon turned the whole thing into a gay and riotous lark. The news papers were full of advice and warning. Citi zens were enjoined to keep their servants within doors; to have their chimneys cleaned; ".'... ■ --,; - . " '. ... ' '■■•"■. TH£ FIRST FIRE ENGINE USED IN BROOKLYN. (From an old print.) to look after their pumps. By the side of each man's house might be seen standing v silent, dumpy, portly sentinel with extended arm —the pump—muffled in old quilts and carpets to prevent it from freezing. Many threw salt down the necks of the pumps on (From an old print.) bitter nights. One duty of the night watch was to give a few turns to each pump handle as he passed it in order .that it might not "run down"; if It did, a3 every one knows, a tedious duty had to be gone through with of pouring in water, fetched from some one else's well, pumping vigorously the while till "the pump caught" and suction was es tablished. In case of sudden fire such a de lay might prove a factor in destruction. Our citizen was a fireman—as wa« every householder of that day. Perhaps he might as the young lady -was named, blushed in a delightful way and made no secret of the fact that she was pleased. She ought to have been. I was a good looking man, possessed of a longish purse, stood well with society and the world; and was In every sense a fair catch. Even though I had not the remot est Intention of letting the affair drift be yond paternal compliments, it was her duty to be thankful. There were yokels who stood ready to fall in love with Ethel, but I drove them away. There were two or three counter jumpers in town who were full of compliments, but they fled before me. In a week I had the field all to myself. Please understand me fully when I say that it was purely platonic and paternal on my part. Having found a superior bar maid in that little out-of-the-way village, I felt it my bounden duty to encourage her to better things. I smiled at her across the bar as I left the inn to work havoc among the fishes; I broadened thf smile when I re turned; we strolled together in the twilight; we sat together in the starlight. Some folk 3 might have called it a case of love, but we did not I had been at the Oak and Ivy two weeks, when, one night, being unable to sleep, I arose, dressed and left the inn for a stroll. Just why I was unable to sleep I could not say but I am sure that love had noth ing to do with it. I had probably overflshed during the day. I was leaning against a shade tree on the commons and wondering why this superior barmaid had not married a lord or duke long before, when a young man passed me and disappeared in the hotel grounds. He was short and slim, and had a bundle under his arm, and as the hour was past midnight I had a momentary curiosity. The next day I learned, that the shop of the village jeweler had been looted the previous night, but the news did not interest me. New York Letter. j& j& j& Improvements In book manufacture, until now there is not a day, not an hour in the day, probably, when a book of some kind is not born. So obviously impossible is It for the critic of to-day to even examdne one-tenth of the books issued, much less review them at length, that the field of the critic is not by any means what It once was. They now scarcely more than chronicle the advent of the new works, confining their descriptive and analytical powers for a' book or two taken as representing each of the various de partments in writing. The Story of "Elmmi Holden." One of the most remarkable of the present day successes In the book world is "Ebeo. Holden," which has already sold to close to the 300,000 mark. Irving Batcheller, the au thor, Is an example of the newspaper man who makes a success of literature, although as can be expected he did not make a success of both at the same time. For many years Mr. Bacheller was a broker in special articles and stories for magazines and papers, and then after an, interval did newspaper work in this city for a couple of years. It was during the interval between the two occupations, amounting in all to only one month, that dued and artistic portrait of Bernard. He is careful to subordinate the character to Zaza and to give it the meaning the dramatist in tended. Hl9 Bernard is self-contained, well poised and secretive of his real feelings. This enables the actor to give its true value to the explosive scene in the fourth act, when he is led to believe that Zaza has entered and broken up his home in pursuit of jealous revenge. He rises for the moment to the heights of passion, revealing as by a light ning flash to Zaza more of his heart than she had ever seen pefore. There are three other characters that stand out with photographic distinctness from the large number that appear in the cast. The best of these is the bibulous aunt of Maria Bates, a bit of characterization whose re pulsiveness is redeemed by its genuine and thoroughly unconscious comedy. Then there is the singing partner of Zaza, impersonated with surprising sympathy by Mark Smith, who finds much more in the character to denote than mere vulgarity and vanity. The third is the faithful, unquestioning serving i FRIDAY EVENING, APRIL 12, 1901. belong to an organized band of firemen.' But whether he did or not, he worked assiduously and unvaryingly at every fire as if that were bis only business. He owned a fire bag of canvas or duck, or oznabur&s, and wbleh must have a strong drawing etring. This could be packed with household" goods to be removed from th« burning house. Often he had a firehook to help pull down buildings. In Philadelphia he had a willow basket with two handles and a great clumsy fire syringe. In the sohoolhouse and meeting-house and other public buildings were fire ladders, and the citizens had two, or in some towns four, ______LLj y*' ' j^y, \J*!™f<'' -«w/ — ~^f9**^..j i ' AN OLD FIRE ENGINE. strong leather buckets. All these when in disuse were kept hanging in the front hall of his house or behind his shop door. These buckets had been the only regular means for conveyance of water since the ear liest colonial days. They were made of the best sole leather, and -were a matter of con siderable pride, being painted with the name of the owner and often some decorative de sign, such as a pious or moral motto, or even a coat of arms. They were deemed a very dignified mark and an emblem of house-own ing and responsibility. Many are preserved to our day, an old age of honored desuetude. When the citizen reached the fire he found Three nights later I was again seized with insomnia. I think the words of the landlord had something to do with it. He threw out a pretty strong hint that he had employed thifi superior barmaid to attract custom to his bar, and that my attentions to her had caused a great falling off In receipts. I should have argued the caae-w-ith him, giving him to un derstand my paternal interest, but as he was not remarkably intelligent, I passed him over a- sovereign to make good his losses and said nothing. It was 2 o'clock in the morning when I sat at an open window to smoke my pipe, and I had not been ruminating for more than a quarter of an hour when the young man I had seen three nights before came tiptoeing along the street under my window and made for the rear entrance of the hotel. My curiosity was considerably excited, but there was no way of satisfying it. The next day I learned that a residence had been robbed of quite a large sum in cash and jew elry by a porch climber. Officers were scur rying around after a clue, but the matter was of no moment to me. The next evening, as I walked with the su perior barmaid in the twilight, having flipped the landlord another sovereign to cover pros pective loss. I tried to make my position plain to her, and I quite succeeded. Indeed, it really surprised me to see how promptly she grasped the idea of my paternal position. She was willing to take all my good advice to heart and act on it, and she had not per mitted herself to build any castles because of my marked attentions. If I remember aright I was somewhat disappointed and cha grined, but a man who will not swallow his own philosophy has no business to complain. Four days more passed. I continued to be paternal, and the barmaid continued to be sensible. Then I -went out one night to spear fish by torchlight. The landlord had become so rapacious that It -was cheaper to go flfhing "EJben Holden" was created, and as a result Mr. Bacheller has made $100,000 from that one work. Originally the story ran for about 30,000 words under the title of "Uncle Eb." Periodical after periodical rejected the man uscript with startling ■unanimity. Dlsoour aged, Mr. Bacheller took up newspaper work, and for two years the story lay neglected. Then a new publishing house, the Lothrop company of Boston, asked him for something, and for them he gave up his newspaper work and enlarged "Uncle Eb" into nearly 100,000 words and made it "Eben Holden," the book which ranks as the success of the year. More Small Private Libraries*. An examination of the classified lists shows the spring books are strongest in the depart ment of biography and memoirs, general lit erature and history. Of late years the buying of books on the part of the general public has been becoming more and more of a craze, and even the Influences of Mr. Carnegie in establishing free libraries does not seem to check this general inclination. On the con trary the publishers believe the establishment of libraries will have the effect, and in fact is having the effect, of so whetting the appetite of the public for good reading that the pur- maid of Zaza, so cleverly pictured by Maria Davis. The other characters, numerous as they are, have been well bestowed, but their ap pearances are mostly episodic and not essen tial. Exception should perhaps be made in behalf of Harold Howard's good work as the noble roue who pursues Zaza only to earn her contempt and scorn. Little Theresa Berta, who appears as the child Toto in the touching scene wherein Zaza is turned from her pur pose, is a sweet child, but the scene is marred somewhat by her inability to make herself everywhere understood. The production is, of course, beautifully staged, and despite its extreme length one of the largest audiences of the Metropolitan sea son sat spellbound until the final curtain. Mrs. Carter was enthusiastically acclaimed at the end of each act. —W. B. C. Foyer Chat. Howard Gould will begin a short engage ment of four nights and a Wednesday matinee at the Metropolitan Sunday, presenting "Ru- two lines of faithful workers formed, reach ing to the nearest water supply, usually tba river side; sometimes it was only the towa pump.. There were strong men In one line passing to the flre from hand to hand buckets filled with water, while a line of "boys and even of women passed back the empty buck ets. Over.all stood.in charge a dignified flre warden, with his long, painted staff of office. No one could refuse to work on these fire lines. The slightest hesitancy in beginning to help would bring a deluge of water from many buckets over the offender, and he was lucky if he was not thrown into the river. Often the town had in the townhooise forty or fifty buckets. These were carried to tha fire by two men, who etrung the buckets on, poles. There was rarely a fire engine. When there was one was simply a great clumsy tank, surmounted by a pump. §It was dragged to the fire by a single rope and many willing hands, but made slow progress on Its cumber some wheels of solid wood. The tank was usually eight feet long and two or three feet deep and three or four feeet wide, and had to be supplied by a special "fire line" of buck ets. The pipe through which the water was thrown was *of what was known as the "goose-neck" shape, and it was claimed that when worked with a will water could be thrown sixty feet, which gave very good ser vice in. the days of two and three-story dwell ings. | ■ Some Early Fire Fighters. The first fire engine seen in Brooklyn was built in 1785, an-d was used for fifty years by Washington company, No, 1. The Columbian Centinel of April 2«, 1799, gives this item: In a late New York paper we notice the following article: "One of Brahms royal patent engines received here on the ship Sarah from Liverpool was yesterday shipped on board a vessel for Boston. We are in formed It is a present to the Boston Fire Insurance company." John Hancock gave a fire engine to tha (From a Friendly Society certificate, 1790.) town of Boston, and in accepting the gift with, gratitude It was announced that the donor's property would always be given preference iv using the engine in case of, a general confla gration. In 1794 a suction hose engine was made in Philadelphia, the wonder of its day. This pipe was of canvas, soaked in brine to pre vent its rotting, and k was varnished. It was many years before rubber bxJse was used. £>/#££. iM^iSt Goa£<L by torchlight than to sit with Ethel in the starlight after the bar had been closed. I did not return until after midnight, and once in bed I slept until 8 o'clock the next morn ing. I might have slept an hour longer had not a constable aroused me and placed me under arrest. A dapper young man had been seized as he was making off with plunder, and after escaping from the officer had been trailed to the Oak and Ivy. While the baffled constables were arousing the landlord and tumbling over each other, the fugitive had somehow got clear of the house, but had left surprising clues behind. The barmaid—the superior barmaid —was missing, but her fe male garments, or at least most of them, had been left behind, together with articles of apparel never worn save by the male sex. In fact, after several hours of study and in vestigation, the constables had decided that "Ethel" was a young man in disguise. If: not, she had assumed a full suit of male ap parel at night as she stole forth to plunder. In her haste enough of that plunder had been left behind to convict her. Was it not perfectly natural that my pater nal and platonic attitude toward the girl—o* boy—should cause me to be suspected of being her pal? Of course It was, and I was in Jail for ten days and in the clutches of the law for a month before I cleared myself of the im putation. Even then there were people who darkly hinted that I had bribed the judge and bought up the jury, and that I ought to hava received a five years' dose at the very least. As to the superior barmaid, was she a male or female? Do not ask me. I pressed her lips, held her hand and stroked her hair aa we sauntered in the dusk of evening—all In a paternal way—and when I reflect that she might have been a young man instead, the situation is not to my liking. When I was at last through with the case I voted myeelf a fool, and perhaps it is best that I make no change of opinion on that score. chasing of books goes on more merrily than ever. Monuments to Adam. Mark Twain's present position as the.cham pion of liberty and Irrespoauatbllity calls to mind the contribution he mad* seventeen, years ago to an album to be raffled for at the Bartholdi Pedestal Fund Art Loan exhibition. It really forms a curious commentary upon the evolution of Mr. Clemens' mind. Ha wrote: '"You know my weakness for Adam, and you know how I have struggled to get him a monument, and failed. Xow, It seems to me, here is my chance. What do we car» for a statue of Liberty, when we've got the thing Itself in Its wildest sublimity? What you want of a monument Is to keep you in. mind of something you haven't got—some thing you've lost." To-day the monument to Mark Twain's ancestor is probably as far off as ever; not so liberty. The fact that the gifted author is allowed to testify as an ex pert on most subjects of human endeavor or degeneracy, from copyright to osteopathy, shows great strides have been made since ISB3. Otherwise the successful humorist but unsuccessful writer on serious matters would long since have been suppressed —N. X. A. pert of Heatzau," the Anthony Hope sequel to "The Prisoner of Zenda." The attraction at the Metropolitan for the last haif of next week will be the Al G. Field Greater Minstrels. This is the largest min strel organization in the country at present and everything that is new and novel in tha minstrel field will be presented. Of the many farces which claim their birtb place in France, "Because She Loved Him So," which is being seen at the Bijou the current week, is one of the cleanest and most enjoyable ever gi-ven here. The final after noon performance of the engagement will oc cur to-morrow afternoon at 2:30. The Royal Lilliputians, an agregation of midgets with a giant or two thrown in by way of contrast, in their lively musical spec tacular comedy, "The Merry Tramps," in which they have scored a tremendous hit wherever they have appeared, will be seea at the Bijou the coining week.