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The Gross Earnings Bill
Our esteemed contemporary, the Times,
1b fearful to the extent of two-thirds of
a column, double measure, that a serious
mistake has been made in passing the
Jacobson gross earnings bill. The Times
has been industriously anxious on that
subject from the first, although before the
bill was finally disposed of it saw fit to
eupport the measure and urged its pas
sage. What it indulges in now is a state
ment of all the possibilities of delay and
complication which may arise before the
power of the state to increase the gross
earnings tax is finally determined in the
supreme court of the United States.
Whether the possible delays are near
ly as formidable as the Times supposes
they will be, it Is worth while to make
the effort; it is worth while to settle the
question and to determine once for all
whether the railroads in this state can
be required to pay their share of the
taxes. That they are not paying their
share to-day is not disputed, at least,
not by our contemporary. That they
should pay their share we think should
also be regarded as a reasonable proposi
tion. The question is whether the state
will undertake tc compel payment of an
approach to a fair share even at the ex
pense of some temporary inconvenience.
This much at least has been gafned in
the discussion of this question: That
nothing more is said about the danger of
the railroads escaping taxation by voidance
of the contract through the attempt to in
crease the rate. This seems to have been
conceded even by those who relied so con
fidently upon that argument in opposition
to the Jacobson bill; that if the railroad
companies resist the payment of an in
creased ta,x they must stand upon and
by the continuance of the contract as it
now stands. They cannot, on the one
hand, urge the persistence of this con
tract as a defense against an increased
rate and then seek to avoid payment of
taxes as they are rated to-day on the
ground that the contract has been vio
lated and Is null and void. The two
propositions will not work together.
Either the railroads must pay the in
creased rate or the present rate, and
after having tried the experiment, if it
can be called an experiment, of increas
ing the rate, we shall be no worse off
iv case oi failure than we are now.
American and British Iron Men
At the annual meeting of the Iron and
Steel Institute in London, yesterday, an
interesting incident was the appearance
oL American iron and steel men on the
floor, explaining to the sturdy British
men of metal the reason of their failure
to keep up with the American procession,
and giving them avuncular counsel in an
impressive manner. Andrew Carnegie
was there, the keynote of his address
being: ''Get right at home and do not
worry about things abroad." In other
■words, he intimated that, if they adopted
American methods they would be suc
There is no doubt that the* British iron
and steel men need some comfortable and
comforting words. The London Mail, in
an article upon the Glasgow, exhibition,
where British machinery is supposed to be
shown to the best advantage, says that
'"America and Germany are only too well
represented by individual exhibitors,
especially in the machinery hall. Every
kind of engine or machine can be exhib
ited under perfect conditions, but the
Americans and the Germans take the
most conspicuous advantage of the oppor
tunity. -Xhere are magnificent English
machine* in position, solid and powerful
and imjiyssive. But the newest, the
most imaginative and ingenious, are
American. Even now, when hundreds of
cases are as yet unpacked, it is clear
that the exhibition, will give British pro
ducers a most valuable but most painful,.
This is a suggestive admission, and one
powerful reason for British decadence
was given yesterday to the Iron and Steel
Institute by Mr. Garrett of Cleveland,
who told the British iron men that In ten
years they did not spend as much money
on improvements as Mr. Carnegie spent
in two years. This is undoubtedly true.
The introduction of improvements in ma
chinery is opposed by the British labor
unions. They labor under the hallucina
tion .that a restricted output is a very
good .v.thing .lor the workman, and they
have ua liking "for labor-saving ma
cWnery. Hence, if such machinery is in
troduced, they devise meana to restrict
Its efficiency by doing less than a fair
day's work for a day's pay, and insisting
that each machine shall have a minder
to watch it in operation whether there is
anything for him to do or not, and ,the
minder is not allowed to do anything
else and is practically an idler. If the
minder is sick for a day, the machine is
stopped and the attendants have a holi
day until he returns.
It is by such means as this that British
industries are handicapped in efficiency,
and it was under the consciousness of such
material defects in the system that the
president of the Iron and Steel Institute
declared yesterday that Great Britain
would be compelled to adopt American
methods. This is a deserved compliment
to American efficiency and economy of
production. We have attained a very
illustrious industrial leadership, but to
hold it involves a mighty and continuous
struggle against our competitors, who
are all disposed to adopt our methods
and fight us with our own weapons.
While there is more bluster than sub
stance in the European talk of a close
combination to wage a commercial war
against the United States, we may looki
for the most strenuous attempts to ob
struct our progress by hostile tariffs. Even
if Europe should combine to fight us com
mercially, such an alliance would not last
very long for the reason that the mem
bers would soon quarrel among them
selves. As to our position, the practical
wisdom which has brought us as a nation
to our present exalted position in trade
and industry, ought to bring about the
conviction that while we maintain our
protective policy it will be necessary to
negotiate reciprocity treaties of a special
character to maintain and strengthen our
commercial standing in the old and In
the new worlds.
The Battle of Wall Street
Following the exciting scenes on Wall
street this morning, still more sensational
than yesterday, when Northern Pacific
stock opened at 170 and jumped rapidly
to a thousand dollars a share, the most
important development of the day at this
writing, is the apparent disposition on the
part of both sides to Be satisfied with
the punishment given and received. The
week will be memorable, however, as a
time when perhaps the greatest financial
battle ever fought in this country was 1
waged between two interests more power
ful than were ever before brought to
gether on each side and set one against,
While the full meaning of this struggle
for Northern Pacific contral is probably
not yet fully understood, it is clearly
enough a contest between the Vander
bilt-Rockefeller-Standard Oil millions on
the one side, and Morgan-Hill millions on
the other. It is a millionaires' fight and
a contest in which small men have no
place. A member of the Harriman crowd,
which is the Vanderbilt -Rockefeller com
bination, intimates that the Morgan-Hill
people were trying to wrest from them the
control of. the Union Pacific, and also to
damage that property and its associated
interests through control of the Burling
ton. The menace against the Union
Pacific from control of the Bur
lington by the same interests which con
trol the Northern Pacific and Great
Northern was recognized, and the Union
Pacific people insisted on an interest ia
the Burlington property and a share in its
control. This, however, was not only re
fused, but a still more threatening atti
tude was assumed toward the Union Pa
cific and the plans of the men who con
This seems^to have led to a determina
tion on the part of the men interested
in the Union Pacific to fight back by
wresting from the Morgan-Hill people the
control of the Northern Pacific, and over
this property the fight has been waged.
Both sides are claiming control. But
both sides are apparently somewhat
doubtful about their ability to make good
their boast. At any rate, there appears
to be a prospect for success on the part
of those who are seeking to harmonize
these rival interests and bring about
peace in the interests of general business
stability. While the fight thus far over
Northern Pacific has produced no serious
results elsewhere, it has had a depressing
tendency, produced general apprehension,
has resulted in something of a decline in
other stocks, and might, if persisted in,
produce disastrous results all along the
line. The expectation Is, however, that
the rival interests will be harmonized and
c more peaceable attitude restored be
tween the great Napoleons of finance.
James Hamilton Lewis, ex-congress
man of Washington state, is in Washing
ton city telling the correspondents that
the new emigrants coming into his state
in such large numbers are pretty sure to
make It permanently republican. He says
nine-tenths of them are republicans.
Lewis is a popocrat with the emphasis o*"
both ends of the word, and recognizes his
termination in very philosophic fashion.
He is credited with a purpose to retire
from'politics till he can take a seat in the
cabinet of a democratic president. That
will enable Mr. Lewis to make very
elaborate plans for a permanent occupa
Takine One °^ c est ways t0 cloud
* with gloom the brow of an al-
Jrlleged. leged humorist is to take his
Humor r°o' remarks seriously. Not
_ . . many years ago, when there
seriously was a change of administra
tions at the local postoffice, there was a
statement made in this paper that the new
postmaster was advertising a clearance sale
of damaged and ebopworn stamps at half
price for three days only. Several ladies
annoyed the man at the stamp window for
some days thereafter by demanding damaged
stamps at half price. When he demurred,
they triumphantly produced the paper as
proof to him that he didn't know bis busi
Not long ago there was printed in this col
umn an alleged literary controversy between
Elbert Hubbard's Philistine and the Con
gressional Record. A well-known lawyer re
marked to the writer that he was astonished
that the Congressional Record should take
notice of Mr. Hubbard's eccentricities.
The man who first made the joke about the
little pug dog having his tail curled up so
tight that he couldn't get his hind feet on the
floor was given a serious half-hour by a
mathematician who came in to prove to him
by figures and diagrams that the statement
was a mathematical impossibility.
This Anglo-American alliance idea seems
to be going a little too far. We are getting
a little too English, you know, in our appre
ciation of humor. Or, perhaps the humor is
deteriorating. Perhaps it really isn pt funny
any more. Wouldn't that be a shame!
The Rochester, If. V., Advertiser has dis
covered the weak spot in the armor of Mr.
Fairbanks of Indiana. It says:
Senator Fairbanks of Indiana, who if
talked . of as ' a possible republican ; candidate
for ; the presidency; in 1904, is : not •a , suitable
mac. The > American ■ people.' don't ■ want . a
president who > parts bis : hair down near his
THE MINNEAPOLIS JOUKNAL.
left ear and spreads it up over a bald spot
eleven inches wide.
While Uiis is a decided setback to Mr.
Fairbanks, if true, it must be remembered
that eleven inches of baldness means sever*
cerebral wear and tear underneath. This
country wants a brainy president.
An attempt to quote Scripture in this col
umn yesterday met with the disapproval of
the proofreader. The verse, "lie ye trans
formed by the renewal of your minds," was
rendered 'be ye transformed by the removal
of your minds." This is an operation that
might be successfully performed, but the
patient could hardly be expected to recover.
At least we have known cased where the op
eration was not even claimed to be a success.
The Chicago Journal tells about a "loath
some den of Indescribable iniquity culled the
Slide." The Chicago chief of police vtatted
it, but told the reporters that he could see
in it "nothing offensive." This probably wan
because the Slide saw him first.
Mrs. Carrie X. Mullah, otherwise know" as
Mad Mullah, has her hatchet out in Arabia.
Just why he is mad the cables do not state,
but the probabilities are that the neighbors'
camels have been running loose on his 'des
ert and scratching up the saud.
Cincinnati scored the first baseball riot,
the St. Louis players trying to kill oft a few
of their opponents in the eleventh inning,
when excitement and the umpire were run
ning high. The police and the bleachery
mixed in and quieted matters.
Chicago shows a disposition to violate its
traditions by flushing its streets with water
from the hydrants. There ought to be enough
of it in Lake Michigan to clean even Chicago.
Stories telling how the janitor took a day
off and, witii his small savings oX JY.f>'J,
bought a few railroad shares and made ?3L',000
iv one d^y, are beginning to come in.
The wire tells how "Muggsy Mt-Graw played
rowdy ball" at Philadelphia and was or
dered out of the game. The crowd is get
ting its moneys worth this year.
The foreign ministers have decided finally
to accept $273,000,000 from China, and the lat
ter country now sings "Listen to My Tael of
San Francisco is trying to do away with
the bill board excrescence. Yet it is the only
high art that most of our wealthy men Bus
The Northern Pacific choo-choos »me in
and go out just as if they didn't care who
■Mark Hanna says "there isn't a-going to
be no panic." Uncle Mark is still "long."
Say, how's the "strorbry shortcake"? mo
ther small piece, if you please! ■ •
Jacksonville was built out of "fat pine"
largely, aud it acted that way.
Who's got the Northern Pacific road? You
may search i:s!
THE STATE AUDITORSHIP
The Iverson boom far auditor is taking well
at home, in spite of Langum's protest that
Fillmore county has no claim on the deputy
auditor. All the other papers of Fillmore
county indorse the candidacy of Iverson, and
his friends claim that he will not only have
the county, but the solid first district be
hind him. The Chatfleld Democrat, one of
the oldest republican papers of that section,
indorses Iverson in strong terms. The Chat
field News says:
Samuel G. Iverson, formerly of Rushford,
this county, but lately deputy state auditor,
has announced himself as a candidate for
the nomination of state auditor in 1902. He
says he announces his candidacy early so
that all in the state may know of his inten
tions. It would be nice to have a Fillmore
county resident hold such an important office.
The Lanesboro Journal puts it a little
Convention days are a long way off, and
many things may happen before the people
are again called on to select state officers;
but old Fillmore county, when the time
comes, ought to stand solidly for the success
of Mr. Iverson s candMacy.
The Rushford Star says:
With the exception of the Preston Times,
every paper in the county expresses a kindly
feeling for Mr. Iverson, and, in fact, the
only objection offered by the Times was that
Mr. Iverson should claim residence in Fill
more county. We do not think ac makes
any such claim, nor does he need to. He
is simply a native Minnesotan, born at Rush
ford, Fillmore county, and the people among
whom he grew to manhood have had good
reason to feel proud of his record. Public
opinion generally heartily indorses Mr. Iver
son, and at this stage of the game his can
didacy has a very roseate hue.
Senator Roverud in the Caledonia Journal
objects to having Iverson charged to the first
district, and claims that he worked against
first district interests, to wit, Langum, in the
last state convention. The Albert Lea Enter
prise dismisses it by saying:
Sam Iverson does not need locality to en
title him to the republican nomination, as he
has state-wide acquaintance and numbers his
friends by the thousands.
The Taylors Falls Journal remarks:
Sam Iverson is receiving some very com
plimentary notices in the state press for
auditor. If the primary law had included
state officers, there is no doubt Iverson
would have been sure of tjie place. He de
serves better treatment than can be expected
from the politicians.
Schmahl indorses the Iverson boom as fol
lows in the Redwood Gazette:
S. G. Iverson, of Rushford, at present
deputy state auditor, will be a candidate for
state auditor next year, to succeed Robert
C. Dunn. Mr. Iverson is thoroughly ac
quainted with every detail of the state audi
tor's office, and during his tenure as deputy
he has made a host of friends who will rally
to support his candidacy for the more impor
Halden is beginning to get considerable
attention. A Chisago county editor gives him
the following puff In the North Branch Re
The office requires a man who knows every
kink in the tax laws. There's one man in
the state who does, and he is Odin Halden,
the present auditor of St. Louis county. If
there is one man in the state who will ad
minister the tax laws without fear or Tavor,
it is this same Odin, and his record as
auditor of St. Louis county is all that is
necessary to convince any voter that he
would be the right man for state auditor.
—C. B. C.
"Wh« We Were Twenty-one" is being pre
sented at the Metropolitan by George Clarke
and his company in an admirable manner.
The play requires the most deHcate shading
and artistic atmosphere. An ordinary com
pany would fall to bring out the subtleties of
Mr. Esmond's delicious writing. The play
runs through the week with matinee on Sat
"The Village Parson," which will be pre
sented at the Metropolitan for the week com
mencing Sunday, is.a play of intense heart
interest with many strong situations. In act
first, where husband and wife separate, the
scene is one of heartfelt interest, and brings
tears to the eyes of the auditors. In the
third act there is another, strong scene, in
which Little Myrtle, the blind child, does
some very clever work and holds the closest
attention of the audience.
When the matinee audience assembles at
the Bijou next Sunday afternoon, they will
find that cozy and popular playhouse hand
somely decorated with c profusion of Swed
ish and American flags, which will doubtless
form a pleasing environment to the premier
Minneapolis production of that much herald
ed Swedish-American comedy-drama, "Carl
Carlson." Arthur Donaldson, the w«ll-known
singing comedian, who essays the name part
Is pleasantly remembered as the possessor of
a high barytone voice of magnetic and pleas
Large-sized 'audiences- were rin j attendance
at the Bijou yesterday afternoon and evening
to • witness, the * performance of Walter Fess
ler's melodrama, "The Great : . White X Dia
mond.". -.This: play seems; to ; have caught on
In a decided manner with local theater goers."
Frank; Uennlg in the',leading • role :of Robert
Thome la. seen to excellent advantage. ;He is
ably supported \by John Martin, John "' Bren
ton.i. Miss Alice Qilmor» and rMis's: Florence
Minneapolis Journal's Current Topic Series.
Papers by Experts and Specialists of National Reputation.
THE ART OF
LIVING A HUNDRED YEARS.
XII—DBVEfcOFMK.vr OK THK CIIII.I>
(By Dr. Walter S. Christopher, professor of
the diseases of children, medical school of
the University of Illinois.)
(Copyright, 1901, by Victor F. Lawson.)
At birth the average mule infant weigh 3
~.h pounds and is 20.6 inches long. The av
erage mail o" 25 has a stature of GS.;i inches
uuJ a weight of US pounds. Thus in the
twenty-live years the stature become about
three and one-third and the weight aboat
twenty times the corresponding measure
ments at birth. These figures indicate :he
enormous changes which o<vtir during the
period of growth and development of,the in
dividual. Krstrictiug figures to averages, it
is found that during the first yeur the" boy
gains in height 5.4 inches and in weight 13
pounds, or, expressed in percentage, the gain
vi height Is 41 per cent and in weight Hi par
cent. Xot only tire these percentages uf an
nual increase never again even approximated
in the growing period of the individual, but
the actual increase is never again reached !n
any one year.
While the actual figures differ somewhat in
the other sex, the results in general are the
During the second year of life the rate of
change slackens rapidly, and while growth
and development still proceed, the processes
go on at a wry moderate rate compared "with
that of the first year.
Ffrll of the First Ye«r of Life.
These simple facts indicate the importance
of the first year of life in the development
of the Individual. It is the year of .greatest
internal activity, or metabolism, as it is tech
nically called. It is the year of greatest plas
ticity. It is the year of greatest adjustment
of the individual to his environment. In con
sequence of these facts it is also the year'of
greatest mortality. The mortality in this
year of life, as shown by English statistics,
Is about 15 per cent—a rate not again reached
until the age of 80. In many cities infant
mortality reaches a much higher figure. It
is also important to note that much of the
mortality of infancy occurs in the early part
of this first year. Thus Julius Eross, who
studied the statistics of sixteen large Euro
pean cities, and whose study include^ over
1,400,000 children, found that 10 per cent of
the children born alive died within the first
four weeks of life. The mortality of the first
year of life is about double that of typhoid
fever, sp that it is no exaggeration to say
that to be an infant under 1 year of age is
twice as dangerous as to have typhoid fever,
although the danger decreases with each week
After the second year growth proceeds In
a fairly even way until the age of about 11
or 12 years is reached, when an acceleration
occurs lasting from three to five years.
Irregularity of Growth,
Thus the growth of the individual as a
wrole proceeds irregularly. Irregularity in
growth is true also of the several organs of
the body. An additional fact of prime impor
tance regarding the different structures is
their varying growth with relation to each
other and the consequent change of relation
ships which they come to bear. Thus at
tlrth the eye constitutes about one-fourth of
1 per cent of the entire weight of tbe body,
while in the adult it is only one-tenth as
much. It does not quite double in weight,
while the 'whole body increases twenty-fold.
The brain increases its birth weight about
three and one-half times, and does practically
all of this in the first seven years of life.
The muscles, on the other hanJ. are increased
in weight twenty-eignt times and acquire
most of this increase after the age of 12.
The changes which occur in the first twenty
years of life may be covered by two terms,
which are frequently confounded, but which
are essentially different. These terms are
growth, which is quantitative, and refers
especially to size, and development, which is
qualitative and refers to change of function,
to adjustment of the varying organs and
structures to each other, and of the body as
a whole to its environment.
Inherited and Acquired Skill.
The broadest I and most profound, and at
In 15hQ Shadow of &f>e JOSS. By Jessie Juliet Knox.
Copyright, 1901, by J. J. Knox.
A shower of almond blossoms, a low, musi
cal laugh, and the world had just begun for
the young Ah Gong.
It^was the week of the Chinese New Y-ear,
the time when every heart Celestial beats
with joy, and the heart of the handsome
young Chinaman beat with more than the
usual allotment of joy, as he glanced upward
to find the source of the snowy shower of the
omnipresent almond blossom. Was it a wo
man who had dared? In that glance upward
his whole heart went out to the owner of the
sweet, piquant face, as it leaned far out over
a mass of Chinese lilies and almond blos
soms, and his young heart thrilled with
something that went straight to the heart of
the fair one, the one who dared.
With all the coquetry of her sex, she smiled
upon him in a sweet, shy way, not to be re
sisted by one of the temperament of Ah Gong.
Who could wonder that in the sweet intoxica
tion of that glance he forgot that he had a
wife? A wife who was old and ugly, and like
a piece of parchment, not a sweet, dimpled,
perfumed thing like this?
The fair one, Ah Leen, had been burning
her incense before the good Joss, and had
bowed her pretty head, glistening with jewels,
so many times, upon the rugs, and waved her
sandalwood sticks so dutifully. And while
doing this, It had seemed to her maiden heart
that it must be lovely to be good, as good
as Joss would like one to be, and after her
devotions she had stepped out upon the long
balcony overlooking the streets In order to
gaze upon the ever-changing crowd.
The narrow streets were lined with almond
blossoms and lilies, and, in front of every
door and on all the picturesque balcA&ies,
3wayed by the breeze, glowed the great,
round lanterns, and in every door were the
little bowls of burning incense, and the red
papers to scare away the devil. Far up in the
latticed .windows burned large, red candles,
and from these same windows peeped happy
Ah Gong looked again, and the more he
looked, the more he was convinced that his
soul was in great peril, and that it was abso
lutely imperative that he should at once re
pair to the Josshouse and supplicate thf gods.
He suddenly remembered that he had been
fery lax in that respect lately, and with a
boldness quite remarkable for one who cared
nothing for these things, he mounted the
stairway, and—well—"hearts are Hearts the
Daily New Yorß Letter.
~: BUREAU OF THE ■ JOURNAL,
i -■•- -■•'--■. . No. 21 Park Row, New York..
Engineering Problem*. . .r ■ ■ '-•;•';*,
• May 9.—The rapid 1 transit tunnel. presents
many interesting and intricate engineering
problems, but -; they are all . simple • and
straightforward compared with > ; those ' ■:; en-'
countered in constructing the system subways
of the old world, notably those of .< Paris and
London. 'The \ great advantage secured \ here
was through the plan on which New York city
is laid out. , Outside .of;, the congested ; busi- ;
ness district 'on the ' lower f end :of ' Manhattan •
island '. the' city is - laid; out fin \ squares wl th'
long longitudinal avenues and "cross^streets,
running from river to river. v As the subway, 3
through! which % New;-Yorkers j expect: to * take
their first ride on Christmas Day, 1903, follows:
the ' lines of broad ■ business '• and residence'
streets "'running, north and: south for miles
without a break, ;It is :.what' engineers t call .
a "surface subway." > It •la % not necessary . to ■
I go down deep beneath the streets or to under
mine buildings as is the - rule v and V not the
exception :• in ■; London" and Paris. "- There j the
subways dive under '■ the ,maze: of ; thorough- r
fares«radiating ■; like -: the , spokes ' of * a wheel
from) a * common ■ center. ',: Engineers under
such circumstances have to make their plans
to provide'for the support of heavy buildings
under which :. the ;, subways must run.
"Needles'™ and "shores" are employed in most
such cases to hold up the buildings while the
digging is going on and until the steel frame
work can be put in place. The most Interest
lngVandfdifficult'work on the entire subway
is .rbn., the ; Park \ avenue section, where % the
contractor obliged ' to »go through 'j bedrock
and ■ i»: simultaneously drlvlrg i tunnels I from
the same time the most useful conception of'
infancy, or rather of the developmental period
of life, ever formulated is that of John Fiske.
A brief presentation of Fiske's theory may
here be given. The life of the codfish is a
simple one. Its acts are mostly concerned
with the securing of food and the avol
of danger. These acts are few in kind and
require for their performance only a very
slight intelligence. Its experiences, whilo
numerous epough possibly, quantitatively, arc
so much of a kind that practically they re
quire only the monotonous repetition of the
same few acts. So few are these acts, and
so limited the nervous connections necessary
to their proper performance, that they oe
come established by heredity, and the young
codfish enter upon its life capable of perform
ing all of them about as well as its ances
tors. It has little to learn from experience.
It requires, no education. It has no infancy.
Consider on the other hand an expert pian
ist. He acquires the skill to read his music
slowly; he acquires the skill to perform it
stumblingly; but finally he will perform the
most difficult music at sight, and do it easily.
Slowly has he developed the nervous connec
tions necessary to these acts. They were not
developed at birth. Analogous has been the
development of the great arttet, the great
poet, the great warrior, the great mathemati
Rapid and Slow Development.
To a less degree, but in the same manner
and by similar mechanism, has the mediocre
man developed his power to do what he does.
Even the lowest man in the race develops
after his birth his most important voluntary
motor functions. The power to do, whether,
by muscle.or by brain, is in man almost ex
clusively a post-natal acquirement. Between
the highest and the lowest animals a great
diversity of post-natal acquirement exists.
The writer is indebted for come interesting
facts regarding the jungle fowl to his old
classmate, William Dbherty, a naturalist,
who has spent many years in the orient. Ac
cording to Mr. Doherty, the jungle fowl is
one of the lowest of the gallinaceous birds.
It deposits its eggs in heaps of decomposing
vegetable matter, and relies upon the heat
engendered by the decomposition for their
hatching. These eggs Mr. Daherty was very
fond of and frequently collected them for
food. He says, however, that he has fre
quently been disappointed in his supper by
having an egg suddenly break open and its
inhabitant escape. How escape? Can the
chick just from the egg escape a man? The
ordinary chick cannot, but the young jungle
fowl does not even deign to run, it actually
flies away, so highly is its muscular co-ordi
nation developed before its birth. Surely
here there Is no infancy.
The young puppy Is quite helpless at birth.
But his infancy is short, and he soon crystal
lizes into an adult dog. Yet short as is the
infancy of this species, dog fanciers have
taken .advantage of it, and by careful train
ing and selection have developed many inter
esting varieties of tliis animal. These men
fully recognize that the period of infancy is
that of plasticity, for they say, "It is hard
to teach an old dog new tricks." The acts of
the adult animals of this species are so sim
ple that a short infancy is all that is neces
sary to gain the experiences and adjust the
nervous connections required for the per
formances of the adult acts. But Is this the
cause of their short infancy, or Is the short
infancy the cause of the adult limitations?
Both these propositions are in a certain sense
Importance of Slow Development.
But we must consider some higher animals.
Wallace relates in his "Malay Archipelago"
his observations of two infant quadrumana,
which he was fortunate enough to have in
his possession at the same time. One was
the infant of the harelip monkey, Macaeus
cynomolgus, an ordinary animal such as
organ-grinders use, and the other was an
infant Mias or orang-outang, the highest and
most Intelligent of the manlike apes. He
says: "It was curious to observe the different
actions of- these two animals, which could
not have differed much in age. The Mias
(orang-outang), like a very young baby, ly
ing on its back quite helpless, rolling lazily
from side to side, stretching out all four
hands into the air wishing to grasp some-
weary world over." There comes a time to
every one when the sound of one voice and
the glance from two eyes have the power to
thrill our heartstrings and make one forget
everything, except the intoxication of being
loved. That time had come for the aristo
cratic little Chinese maiden, and through no
fault of hers. It was fate —that was all.
She said to the maid: "Ah, Suey, look! You
think bimeby he come? My hair—is it pretty?
My lips—are they red? What make me feel
so strange? Will the good Joss be angry?"
"No—no—you.are beautiful; more beautiful
than the almond flower! Your eyes are stars,
your mouth a rose, your heart speaks—
And listening," she heard and saw with the
eyes of her soul, and then—he came; and
with his coming life was changed.
First, as the maid reported through the
chinks of the carved woodwork, he burned
his Incense sticks and little red papers before
the great Joss, his silken robes clinging
gracefully to his lithe form the while, and
then he placed his New Year's card, a long
slip of red paper with his name in Chinese
letters, on the carved table.
His devotions over, what more natural than,
that be, too, should repair to the balcony
to look down upon the crowd? What more
natural than that the little Ah Leen should
drop her fan at that precise moment? She
really did not mean to do it, but she was so
startled by the appearance of the one upon
whom she had showered her almond blossoms.
He was not like any one she had ever seen.
He was bo strong, and handsome, and young,
not in the least like the vicious old Gum
hing, the high-binder to whom her father had
promised her in marriage.
t was also quite natural that Ah Gong
should pick up the perfumed fan and return
it to the fair unknown, with a light pressure
of the hand and a thrilling glance from his
Ah Suey might have been deaf, dumb and
blind, for aught one could notice to the con
trary. Like the well-trained little maid she
was, she saw and heard nothing. The two
conversed as readily as if they had known each
other forever, and for a time Ah Leen forgot
that she was promised to old Gum Ching.
She meant no harm —she waa only a youug
thing, and human, and she had a tender,
innocent heart which' had 1 never before been
touched. But to-night she knew, as she
Thirty-third and Forty-first streets, to meet
in the center. Both tunnels have progressed
several .hundred feet and immense timber
arches are being used to carry the tremend
ous weight of wall, car track and tstreet level
which is over and around the tunnelled sec
tion. The work is slow and expensive but
shows it is possible to go under anything if
the contractor is willing to work slowly and
spend a sufficient sum of money for a sys
tem of Umbering.
A Chinese Hospital.
The Chinese cor.sul has appealed in his
native tongue to his fellow countrymen wbll^
Dr. Esther If. Bok has appealed to the
phllanthropically inclined of the Caucasian
race and between them the project of a
Chinese hospital is well launched. That there
is great need for such an institution is con
tended by Dr. Bok, who certainly is famili_.
with the requirements of the Celestials, for
she has not only practiced her profession ex
clusively among the race since she graduated
from the New York Women's Medical college
in 1898, but jhe Is the wife of a wealthy and
prominent Chinese merchant and they have
their respective establishments at No. 8 Mott
street, where Is also located tbe Chinese
Methodist mission school. Dr. Bok explains
in bahalf of the plan that at this time there
is not a single institution where the Chinese
can obtain the peculiar treatment they need
The principal requirement of the patient is
confidence and when a Chinaman falls ill in
his quarter and is perforce taken to an ordin
ary New York hospital he lacks confidence
In the institution and in most cases, be
cause of tbe language, his symptoms cannot
be understood and treatment accorded prop
THURSDAY EVENING, MAY -9, 1901 e
thing, but hardly able to guide its fingers to
any definite object; and when dissatisfied,
opening wide Its almoet toothless mouth, and
expressing Its wants by a most infantine
scream. The little monkey, on the other
hand, In constant motion; running and jump
ing about wherever it pleased, examining
everything around It, seizing hold of the
smallest objects wfth the greatest precision,
balancing itself on the edge of the box or
running up a post, and helping itself to any
thing eatable that came in its way. There
could hardly be a greater contrast, and the
baby Mias looked more babylike by the com
Of the various animals reviewed, it is to be
noted the higher the intelligence of the adult
animal, and the more complex its life activi
ties, the longer is its infancy or period of
development. Each increase in brain size
is accompanied by increase in intelligence,
and generally speaking this Increase In in
telligence is accompanied by greater com
plexity of the life of the Individual; that is.
there is a greater variety of experiences and
a more numerous development of faculties,
and hence a greater number of nerve con
nections to be established to direct and con
trol these faculties and their resulting ac
tivities. Finally there comes a time when
the nenessary nerve connections cannot all be
established before birth, but must be partly
established by education after birth. Thus
ia infancy established, for any ininjal re
quiring postnatal development which should
happen not to have a period of infancy
would cease to exist. Even In the human
family it is far from uncommon to meet
instances where both prenatal and postnatal
development are from some cause or other
hindered, and where in consequence the re
sulting Individual would certainly cease to
exist, were it not for the fostering care which
highly organized society gives him.
Valuable Period of Plasticity.
Of all animals, with one exception, to be
noted presently, man has the most prolonged
infancy, or period of development, both
actually In number of years and relatively
so far as the percentage of the total duration
of life, which is given up to development, is
concerned. To quote the expressive language
of John Fiske, "It is babyhood that has made
man what he is."
With the exception of the elephant man has
a longer period of plasticity, or of develop
ment, than any other animal. Man's plastic
period lasts twenty years, the elephant's lasts
upward of thirty years. During Us growing
period the elephant has an enormous bulk
to acquire and most of its growth processes
must be directed to that end. Influences
which Tvould act strongly to differentiate the
young elephant from Its hereditary tendencies
would necessarily tend to interfere with its
acquirement of bulk and hence make It
less liable to survive, which would prevent
the establishment in the species of any varia
tion so produced. The great reason, after
all. why it has not evolved higher lie? in the
failure of the elephant's brain to develop,
which Is itself the result of the highly spe
cialized structure of the tnimal.
Rapid growth is antagonistic to perma
nence of environmental impressions and is
Inimical to the life of the individual, at
least in the case of the human infant.
Susceptibility of Environment,
During the period of most rap'd growth of
the child, that Is. during the first year of,
life, deep impressions are readily mode upon
the organism, which reacts almost violently
to stimuli, which later would have little or
no influence. Sickness is produced by causes,
which In older children or adult 3 would be
incapable of producing any noticeable devia
tion from health. Moreover, pathological
conditions which would not interfere in the
least with the growth or development of the
older child, interfere markedly with the
growth of the infant. But the very condition
of hyper-plasticity which permits these effects
to occur serves also to wipe them out quickly
and apparently completely. The result of this
hyper-plasticity to the individual is great
danger, as is shown by the high mortality
of infancy. Nor is it of any benefit cr harm
to the race except as It destroys infant life,
for we look almost in vain In the later his
tory of the individual, for any effects from
the environmental causes active in infancy.
looked into the eyes of this man, that life
would never again be the same.
After hearing her sad story, he mentally
registered a vow that she should never wed
They must meet again, but how—and
where? It was the deaf and dumb Ah Suey
who spoke at this moment, and suggested
the theater. The theater—ah, yes! As this
was only the first night of the New Year she
would be allowed her liberty for a week. A
week of bliss was before her, if only she
could play well her cards. And he did not
remember until he had left her that he did
not think to tell her he was married.
She and her maid leisurely took their de
parture from the place, with a guilty look
at the Joss as they passed, and toddled aloug,
•through the narrow, blossom-lined streets
to their home. She slept that night with her
lips on the dainty sandal-wood fan he had
touched, and no premonition of evil disturbed
Next day she was happy in the thought that
she wa3 to see him again. Was ever a day
so long? The maid dressed her hair more
gorgeously than she had ever done before,
and covered it with jeweled ornaments. The
pretty lips were dyed a vivid red, the cheeks
were tinted and the eyes blackened. The long
finger nails were manicured most carefully,
and when at last she was ready, a more
beautiful picture cannot be imagined.
With loudly beating hearts the two girls
wended their way to the large theater. Push
ing through the mass of celestials who were
literally packed into every available niche of
the place, they ascended, with hundreds of
other women and children, to the balcony
next the roof.
They could look down on the stage. The
tom-toms were clanging noisily, and the shriil
notes of the stringed instruments rose high
in unison with the sharp falsettos of the men,
who were impersonating women. The air
was heavy with the ever-present odor of
opium, but Ah Leen hardly knew what was
going on about her. She had told him that
she would remain only long enough to be
seen at the theater, so soon the two girls
slipped out unnoticed in the crowd and met
Ah Gong in a little dressing-room back o£ the
stage. Passing on, down some narrow steps,
they found themselves winding through tor
tuous underground corridors.
Ah Leen was completely mystified, but
she had no fear of anything except separa-
erly. Then the food is not such as the
orientals need or desire and- the result is the
patient generally becomes worse because of
his medical attendance. There are about 10,
--000 Chinese in New Y«ork and it is estimtaed
that $50,000 will be required for the hospital.
Lucky Real Estate Deals.
Corporation Counsel John Whalen has just
succeeded in cleaning up a million dollars
through real estate investments in and about
the Washington Heights section. To this part
of town much attention has been paid of late
by Investors, speculators and homeseekers.
because of the opening up of tbe district by
the rapid transit subway. As soon as the
subway is completed it will be possible to
go from Washington Heights, about St. Nich
olas avenue and One Hundred and Fifty-fifth
street, to the city hall, in twenty minutes.
For many years Mr. Whalen has been inter
ested in land In this section where he has
long lived. He has invested freely and in
spite of discouraging conditions and the im
position of heavy taxes on unpromising land,
he has kept his faith in the ultimate develop
ment of the district and has, through the
rapid transit developments, met hia reward
for patience. He is now rated as a million-
aire through the investments and in addition
to becoming rich himself he induced many
of his Tammany friends and associates to get
aboard hi 3 particular bandwagon, with the
result they too 'have made handsome profits.
Tbe New Boole Center.
London publishers have been getting the
worst of it, accoi ding to Colonel Q. B. M.
Harvey, head of Harper & Bros., who re-
Later, however, when the plasticity is leas
an<l the rate of growth and development is
slower, effects from environmental influences
become more lasting, provided those influ
ences are sufficiently prolonged In their ac
Prolongation* of the period of development,
as-sotiated with a certain low degree of plas
ticity, possibly an essentiol corollary of the
prolongation, are factors which are essential,
not only to the advancement of the race, but
also to the welfare of the individual.
Safety In Averajpe.Development,
An important deduction from this proposi
tion is this: The individual is safest when
his development follows most closely the av
erage or mean. There are many instances
which illustrate this. Infants whose size and
weight are much above the average for their
age are generally anemic and are notoriously
difficult to nourish. Children who are born
with livers ill developed in function are the
victims of many pathological processes,, some
of which cause merely suffering; others in
volve the future life and health of the indi
vidual, and still others threaten, and at times
actually destroy life. The girl or boy who
at the age of 13 or 14 has a much greater
acceleration of growth than normal, puts so
much energy into this process that excessive
fatigue results, and- if the' ordinary vocations
are continued the child ia often permanently
damaged. Growth sometimes occurs so rap
idly that the heart cannot keep up with the
increased work thrown upon it, becomes over
worked and is damaged to the extent that it
is neglected. The most striking illustrations
of this truth are to be found iv the cases of
unusual precocity which from time to time
have been noted. The average is best for
the individual, and while advancement of the
race demands deviation from the average, no
altruism yet evolved requires one to welcome
or foster it.
Plasticity of the Orgam.
Thus far plasticity of the organism as a
whole has alone been referred to; but plas
ticity of individual organs must also be taken
into account. At birth there Is a great range
of the degree of growth and development of
the several organs of the body. Those upon
which the maintenance of life directly de
pends are necessarily developed quite highly,
and their nervous connections are well estab
lished. The heart is quite as capable at
birth of performing its functions as it Is at
any later stage. Its subsequent change is
principally one of growth. The lungs and
kidneys are also highly developed at fairta.
The gastroenteric tract and its adjuncts, on
the other hand, are not nearly so well devel
oped. While the proper action of the stom
ach and bowels is quite as essential to tha
maintenance of life a3 is the proper action
of the heart, their deficiency in development
is met by the highly specialized food of the
infant. The liver, the great chemical labora
tory of the body, like the stomach and bow
els, is incompletely developed' functionally,
and to a greater degree than these other or
gans. The same specail condition of food
which favors the gastroenteric tract, also
generally saves the liver and permits it to
be competent to do the work thrown upon It.
The most immature organ of all at birth-,
and the one in which the greatest changes
are subsequently to occur, is the brain. In
weight at birth Is about 380 grammes, whicti
is about 12% per cent of the whole body
weight. At maturity, at the age of 2i>, it
has acquired a weight of about 1,450 grammes
in the male and about 1,230 grammes in the
female; but at this age it constitutes in both
sexes somewhat less than 2% per cent of the
whole body weight. The growth of the brain
is very rapid during the first year of life,
and much less in subsequent years; but by
the seventh year it has attained fully 90 per
cent of its total future weight. While the
processes of growth and development go on
•together, In the first seven years the braiu
change Is pre-eminently that of growth, and
thereafter pre-eminently that of development.
No organ of the body can be affected so
much by proper training as the brain.
tion. from this wonderful being. At las;
they slipped iiito one of the small compart
ments on either side the opium-scented pas
sageway, and there, chaperoned by the little
maid, they enjoyed several hours of uninter
j Ere they had parted they had agreed io
[ meet again the next night at the Joss house.
' When the young Ah Gong stepped out into
the pure air he left something pushed forci
bly into his hard. He glanced quickly in
every direction, but could see no one who
looked as if he had done this thing. The
celestials toddled along just the same, the
admond blossons still retained their frag
rance, and yet—this man had just received
his death-warrant. On the little slip of red
paper in his trembling hand he said: '•You
shall die like a. dog the reason—Ah Leen."
Knowing well that the high-banders always
kept their vows, all hope died within him.
"To die," ne groaned, "when she loves me!
I must see her! Perhaps we can escape, if
Ah Leen had gone home another way. He
could not warn her.
"I shall see her to-mcrrow night. Perhap3
we can escape!"
Meanwhile Ah Leen was happy.
Again fell the night. * Ah Leen was first at
the rendezvous, and the dutiful Ah Suey was
eagerly watching through the chinks of the
"He comes! he comes! He is fairer than
the sun! See! He kneels before the Joss!
He burns the incense! He—"
Just then sudden darkness fell on the
place. They could not understand. They
It lasted only a moment. The tapers were
relighted, and before the trembling Ah Leen
could realize what had happened, she felt
her tender little body seized in the rough
grasp of someone, and felt his hot breath
on her pretty face. With a scream o* horror
she looked into the yellow face, and then all
hope died with!" her. for it was Gum Chin?,
the highbinder. Forcing her upon her tiny
feet, while Ah Suey was made prisoner by oae
of his accomplices, he brought her out into
the temple, saying:
"You mine now. I never let you go! You
go no more to meet Ah Gong!"
And then she bel-eld the brave and hand
some one, the one whose warm lips had 90
lately clung to hers, lying dea« la tha
shadow of the Joss.
# * *
turned from a brief European tour to-day.
This simply adds cne more casualty to the list
of Britisn trade misfortunes. Colonel Har
vey says there dees not exist in England to
day what American publishers would con
sider c\ fen a moderate demand for either
books or periodicals. England is beginning
to realize that the United States has become
the great book market of the world, tbe key
note of success, according to Colonel Harvey
being the publishing of American works by
The Gambler King:.
"John Doe" has been uncovered. The com
mittee of ilfteen claim the man who has thus
been known to uninitiated New Yorkers as
the head of the gambling syndicate is Frank
Farrell, bosom friend of Deputy Commis
sioner Devery. Associated with Farrell in the
gamblers' syndicate, says the committee, is
Senator "Tim" SuJlivan, probably the strong
est politician, next to Richard Croker, in the
Tammany organization. To-day everybody
has been asking, "Who is Frank Farrel!?"
There is more interest concerning his identity
than that of the man who struck Billy Patter
son. This interest is but natural, for If th«
allegations against Mr. Farrell are titte h«
is to tfie gambling world what J. P. Morgan
is to the industrial world. To every polQ*
man in New York he is known as "pevery*B
friend." He began life as a barkeeper, and
to-day is said to be one of the wealthiest men
in Tammany Hall next to the king of Tam
many himself. A» soon as Wall street quiets
down a little Frank Farrell will be "very inuci*
in the public eye. — &• N. A.