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THE JOURNAL LUCIAN SWIFT, J. Si M«LAIN, '; MANAGER. EDITOR. ..• THE JOUHHAL Is published every evening, except Sunday, at 47-49 Fourth Street. South. Journal Building:, Minneapolis, Minn. C. J. Blllaon, Manager Foreign Adver tising Department NEW YORK OFFICE— 87, 88 Tribune building. • CHICAGO OFFICE—3O7, C&tf Stock Ex change building. ~~ SUBSCRIPTION. TERMS ~~7~T Parasle to The Journal Printing: Co. Delivered by Mail. One copy, one month $0.85 One copy.. three m0nth5............... 1.00 Oorj copy, six months 2.00 One copy, one year........... 4-00 Saturday Eve. edition. 20 to 26 pages- 1.50 1 Delivered by Carrier. - One copy, one week.............. cents One copy, one month..... 35 cents Single copy 2 cents The Insular Gases The federal supreme court is reported to bave reached a decision in the insular status cases which have been under* con sideration so long, and the decision Is •aid to be to the effect that the consti tution does not follow the flag, the ma jority opinion being written by Chief Jus tice Puller. The lack of unanimity is re grettable, but it does not effect the coni snoadable result that this vitally important question has been decided, for very impor tant business interests have waited upon the long promised decision and ail the pro- Visions made by the government for in sular control and government have neces sarily .been of a temporary character, pending the determination as to the com petency of the political powers of our government to provide for acquiring and governing external territory. It Is expected that the texta of the majority and minority opinions "will be made public next Monday. It will be in teresting to note the contentions on either feide, for the whole subject has been so diligently threshed and rethreshed that the arguments are becoming "familiar as household words." The opponents of the sjovernment'a position contend that the United States is not a nation possessing all the attributes of sovereignty and is only a national government, not having the unenumerated national powers re served to -.he people, or, if it has them, cannot exercise them and can exercise no power not specifically conferred by the constitution; that there is no distinction between external and internal sovereignty and that annexation makes the acquired islands an integral part of the United States, in which the constitution, includ ing the tariff uniformity clause, fully op erates while separate tariff laws are un constitutional. The contrary view is the reverse, holding that there is a distinction between ex ternal and internal sovereignty, and, until the islands are annexed as integral and domestic parts of the United States, the latter will exercise external sovereignty over them, including the making of sep arate tariff laws if it sees fit, on the ground that the United States possesses all the constitutionally enumerated national iwwers and the unenumerated powers reserved to the people, which ag gregation of powers is such as inheres in the most potential sovereignty, and that this sovereignty may be exercised in all external and international relations. These two views are flatly contradictory. Practically the precedents since the organ isation of our government, notably the ac quisition of Louisiana as an early prece dent, favor the latter contention. An authoritative decision upon this important matter, embodied in American Jurispru dence, is greatly needed, and the delay in the supreme court is pardonable since that august court has not heretofore* had such a vitally Important question brought to it for decision. Mr. Pettigrew Is said to have refused a salary of $15,000 and the offer of the position of land commissioner of the Northern Pacific and Great Northern railroads, demanding $25,000, provided Mrs. Pettigrew would agree to his throw- Ing away his time at that rate. Mr. Pettigrew is getting some advanced ideas of what a capitalist's time is worth since be became one himself. The country -will say omen to Con gressman Land Is' statement that if haz ing can't be stopped at West Point with out closing up the academy the academy -will .be closed. Mr. Landls is a member of the congressional board of West Point •visitors and knows what the sentiment of congress is. The Porto Rican Tariff The Porto Rican tariff of 15 per cent, •which provoked so much discussion last year, terminates on the first of March, 1902, and It is reasonably certain that it will not be re-enacted. The island of Porto Rico has to her credit in the L'nited States treasury to-day more than |400,000. This is the full amount of custom receipts from goods imported tram Porto Rico into the United States. This money is held in the treasury sub ject to the flemand of the insular gov- ernment, which was a provision of the Porto Rican tariff bill. But the internal revenue receipts of the island, and the duties upon articles imported from other countries, have proved to be sufficient to pay the expenses of the island govern ment, showing, aa was contended at the time, that a tariff upon articles imported from the island Into the United States was not necessary. It was complained that It 'was not only not necessary but that It was a hardship to impose upon the people of that island a tariff on im ports into the United States from Porto Rico, but objectionable from the sentimental side in that it interposed a trade barrier between a dependency of the United States and the United States itself. The people ofthis dependency had wel comed the American occupation with hos pitality and delight and had manifested the most enthusiastic loyalty to Ameri can authority. The Porto Rican tariff may have been excused to some extent, in the first instance, on the ground of prudence and necessity of meeting the ex- penses of establishing a government where revenues from other sources might be regarded as indefinite and uncertain. Experience has demonstrated, however, that revenues from other sources are abundant, and the Porto Rican tariff will not survive the limit fixed for it by the law of 1900. Indeed, under the circum stances, it would seem to be the part of wisdom for congress to repeal the act early in the coming session without wait ing for its expiration by limitation. Presdent Taft of the Philippine commls- Bion, has cabled to Secretary Root re questing him to Bend 500 of the appointed school teachers selected for work in the Philippines under the auspices of our gov ernment. This Is the way the poor Fili pinos are being ground under the heels of imperialism. The Oriental Trade Mr. James J. Hill In his remarks to The Journal of yesterday upon the development of traffic with Asia from our Pacific coast, was not oversanguine In por traying the opportunities and advantages of the United States. No other great manufacturing and trading nation except Great Britain possesses the coast line on the Pacific essential for trade and traf fic development with the Orient. Great Britain's is a comparatively small coast line wedged between United States terri tory. We face Asiatic territory which, if Americans have not lost their prehensile commercial ingenuity, will more and more, as the years come and go, fall to us as a most valuable trade preserve. That we shall grasp it is indicated by the operations of capltol during the past few years and notably at the present time. Besides the Asiatic continent the vision of the future of trade must take in the insular tracts which gem the bosom of the Pacific and which are inhabited by the Malayo-Polynesian race. Of these groups, we have placed under our flag Hawaii, Guam and the Philippines, a chain which reaches nearly to the east ern coast of China. Since these acquisi tions the importance of the Asiatic mar ket has been recognized, as it has not been recognized before, as contributory to the objective of our immense output inci dent to the expansion of our home manu facture. At present there are four rail and water lines from the Pacific coast to . Asiatic points, the Canadian Pacific's Vancouver line, the Great Northern railway, operat ing from Seattle, the Northern Pacific, operating from Tacoma, and the South ern Pacific, operating from San Francisco. The Great Northern (Mr. Hill's road) is about to add to its service two of the largest freight and passenger vessels in the world, each of 20,000 tons register and 33,000 tons displacement. The Northern Pacific has recently added a new line of steamships to be operated from Tacoma to Liverpool via the Pacific, Indian ocean, Suez canal, the Mediterranean and At lantic ocean. In addition to these facilities, the China Mutual Steam Navigation company of England, is about to extend its service from Liverpool and Yokohama to Seattle, making monthly trips for each steamer, taking in Manila en route. It was re cently announced that the Hamburg- American line will establish a service be tween San Francisco and Chlrra and Japan, in connection with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railway. Then there is the proposed rail aftd water line to China and Japan from Manzanillo on the Mexican Pacific coast, the rail con nection with our railway system being by the extension of the Mexican Central to Manzanillo. And other* lines are in prospect. These important connections are worthy of note, as showing how the present and Inevitable future of the Asiatic trade strikes the minds of the shrewdest cap italists in the world, who know a good thing when they sect it. It is not exhila rating for Americans to know that the greater portion of the vessels engaged and to be engaged in this important trade, are not of American build. Mr. Hill is show ing that it is aburidantly possible to build big American steamships right at home and without subsidies, too. There is no doubt that other enterprising Americans will build steamships for our Pacific Asi atic trade and fly the American flag in oriental ports. As the trade develops (it is in its infancy now) American capital cannot resist the opportunity for profit able investment in Pacific ocean trans portation facilities. The lion's share of the Pacific trade must come into Ameri can hands; at least it will If we do not enter upon a period of decadence. If foreign shipping interests have gone in ahead of us we must displace them by our superior enterprise and energy, which have brought us to the position of a competitor for the world's trade dreaded by. all Europe. The prospect Pacificward broadens and brightens as the student of great trade movements and developments contem lates it It is a great opportunity which is presented to American enterprise and the American grasp will tighten about it. The prune trust is in a bad Full of way because of its vicious at- Prunes tempt to corner the luscious 'vegetable and raise prices. Some time back the Cal'fornla prune growers were convinced that they were being robbed by the packers. They organized a prune octo pus to market their own output and divide the profits among themselves. Their octopus was to get S cents a pound for the crop, with out regard to the size of it. A great deal of money was spent "bulling the market" by buying up outside prunes, and the growers of Oregon and Washington sold «ut to them at fair to high prices. The crop was bigger than, they bargained for, as Is always the case, and the California octopus finds itself still hold- Ing the sack with 80,000,000 pounds of prunes of last year and a big crop coming on. In fact, the prune octopus Is full of prunes and is not feeling at all well. Sick semper octopi. It requires great skill to run a corner and not be left with all the stuff on one's hands and no particular market. A student at the University of Missouri was skylarking around "the female college" the other night, and now carries In hi 3 person, or has had dug therefrom, fifty-two bird shot fired by a learned professor who was pro teoting the girls from goo-goo serenades and fool talk. The higher education of the sexes sometimes requires the strenuous life on the part of the professors. A Delafleld, Wis. horse saw a Milwaukee automobile for the first time -Sunday. As he noted the wagon moving along pulled by an Invisible horse, he came to an abrupt stop, snorted, quivered in every limb and dropped dead. Either he saw the finish of his kind, or he thought he was "seeing things." The Russian thistle that we were all bo badly frightened about a few years ago is now said to be the salvation of stockmen in Nebraska. Anything that grows green and edible there Is valuable. The Chicago university anthropologist says the man or boy who parts his hair In the middle is a degenerate. We have suspected this for some years, not having had any hair to part. Three hundred religious commercial travel ing men are to meet at Madison, Wis., July 5. This sounds paradoxical, but it isn't. Crop destroyers are exulting over the fact that the German wheat crop was destroyed anyhow. If it did rain here. , THE MINNEAPOLIS JOURNAL. AMUSEMENTS Richard Manafielu'a "Henry V." at the Metropolitan. Let us speak frankly of this Sbaksperean chrontcle-play, "Henry V.," and its produc tion by Richard Mansfield. First, then, it is not, strictly speaking, a play at all. It has no action, no sustained interest, no coherence of story, no stirring situation or effective climax. Of character drawing there is little, save the ideallied portrait of the English hero-king, who, upon assumption of the scepter, has become a very different person from the rollicking Prince Hal of "Henry IV." Even the comedy which is Introduced at intervals has but the moat tenuous connection with the play, and mere ly serves to introduce and dispose of certain oharacten which had already been made pop ular In the preceding chapters of what may be called William Shakspere's 'Dramatic History of the Plant&genet Kings of Eng land." And this comedy is rather elephan tine in its humor—not at all in the best vein of the master. The fact that it harks back to earlier plays in the cycle, thus pre supposing a knowledge of them on the part of the auditor, must be accounted a serious defect, if the play is to be considered as a separate production—as it must under mod- em conditions. What made "Henry V." popular in the England of Shaksperea time and after, was its historic interest. King Harry was a national hero, one of the great English kings whose deeds and character stirred Engll;n Imagination and fed English vanity. His great victory over the hated French at Agin court was an oft-told tale, such as Bunker Hill, for example, is to Americans. Hero worshipers all, the English delighted in Ho meric tales of his prowess, his frankness, his generous chivalry, his piety, his rough find-ready soldlerness, his even-handed jiis tice, and, withal, his innate modesty. But this epic quality is not sufficient to endear Harry Plantagenet to us. We cannot see hlm'through English eyes nor revere him as the English do. So that the historic inter est of the play does not blind us to its un doubted defects as a subject for modern stage representation. There remains the literary quality of the text—the hall-mark of the master at last. Herein is the play of "Henry V" differen tiated from a mere dreary chrofilcle of Ho linshed. The sonorous blank verse is Illu minated by a felicity of phrase, a nobility of sentiment and a profundity of thought that mark it unmistakably as Shaksperean. Unfortunately, however, literary quality too often eludes the actor. Give him action and interest, and thß beauty of the language with which the thought is expressed will in evitably enhance the effectiveness of his reading, even though much of that beauty be lost because one may not pause and study it. This loss in effectiveness is made greater by the archaic words and obscure meanings that abound in Shakspere and puzzle the commentator. How much more must they puzzle the auditor who catches them as they come from the actor's mouth, and who, per chance, Is not over 'familiar with this rarely acted play! These are some of the reasons why the "Henry V." chapter in the series of chron icle-plays is not well adapted for modern stage representation. What, then of Mr. Mansfield's effort to overcome the difficulties and win success for his production? Having premised that the choice Is badly made, It must be freely admitted that sel dom in the history of modern stagecraft have bo much time and money and effort been ex pended In an adequate Shaksperean produc tion. One readily believes all the tales of the advance agent about the year that was spent In getting together the properties and the costumes and arranging the thousand and one details of this truly magnificent as ■well as historically correct production. Wherein Mr. Mansfield has demonstrated a love for dramatic art that stops at nothing to accomplish its purpose. The stage pic tures that are presented cannot be matched for beauty and truth and completeness. But are they not a mistake, for ail that? Be yond their archaeological value, do they serve any good purpose? This question brings us to the consideration of the work of Mr. Mansfield, not as a pro ducer, but as an actor. Certainly it cannot be contended that this wonderful production Is worth while unless it is the setting of some gem worthy of the frame. For that gem we naturally look to Mr. Mansfield's characterization of the hero-king, the central figure in the play, to whom Shakspere attrib uted every manly virtue. If Mr. Mansfield ■were to materialize for us a living, breathing King Harry, buoyant, frank, sympathetic, in spiring affection as well as fealty in his sub jects, a man uo less than a king, defects of play might be overlooked and magnificence of production applauded. But alas, Mr. Mansfield's art cannot encompass that result. It is Just that quality of open-handed, free hearted manliness which he cannot portray. The very simplicity of the character is what eludes him. His successes have been achieved in characters which are recondite, whose" qualities do not lie on the surface, which are cynical, perhaps, or at least developed most on the Intellectual side. The bluff soldier, the leader of men, the kingly optimist with a sublime faith in himself and his cause, seems not to be within his grasp. Perhaps it is this lack of adaptability, this failure to identify himself entirely with the role, that leads Mr. Mansfield into indulgence in certain unpleasant mannerisms in many of his long speeches. Perhaps It is his ever-to be-praised horror of ranting that prevents him from declaiming these speeches with suf ficient distinctness and earnestness. It is interesting to note that when the king gets through with the declamatory harangues with which he put heart Into his followers and de votes himself to the wooing of the French princess, Mr. Mansfield at once finds his footing and the result is the prettiest scene of the play. It goes without saying that Mr. Mansfield reads with intelligence and discre tion, as he always does, but he is not well fitted with the character of King Harry. The company in support of Mr. Mansfield la necessarily a very large one. and although the demands upon its members individually are not great, they are for the most part well chosen and well drilled. One of the features of the -work is the part Chorus plays in explaining the connection of events and bridging over gaps in the action. This char acter, somewhat like the chorus in the Greek drama, ie intended to act as commentator on the action and also to stimulate the imagina tion of the audience so as to cover up the deficiencies of stage representation in Shak spere's day. This latter function is rendered unnecessary by modern stagecraft, but Mr. Mansfield has wisely decided to retain Chorus la his version, since some of the best lines In the play are spoken by that character. Miss Florence Kahn invests the role with a pictur esque Interest, which Is unfortunately marred by a delivery in which the declamatory style demanded by tradition is unduly exagger ated. Xo member of the company succeeds so well in reading the blank verse effectively as- Sheridan Block as the French King. Mr. Block's reading is beautifully cadenced, and is always clear and lucid. Without particu larizing as to the other actors who appeared as English and French royalties and nobles, It must suffice to say that they uniformly appeared to advantage. The comedy charac ters, Pistol, Nym and Bardolph, are well bestowed, while J. A. Wilkes, who took the role of Fluellen last night at short notice, deserves a word of praise. The flrat comedy scene in which Falstaff's old servants ap peared was given with true Falstafflan flavor and, indeed, much more was made of the comedy scenes than could have been thought possible. This is only another evidence of the fact that Mr. Matosfield has neglected noth ing that could tend to bring his production nearer the goal of perfection. His acting version of the play is arranged with skill and does no unnecessary violence to the orig inal, while the spectacular additions of the triumphal entry into London and the be trothal at Troyes are in keeping with the spirit of the play. In a word, to see Mansfield's 'Henry V." production once is a privilege and a pleasure. But one would not care to sea it twice. —W. B. C. Got It Away From Morgan, Cincinnati Enquirer. Webster Davis and Richard F. Pettigrew have been accumulating money rapidly. At the very moment when J. Pierpont Morgan has been suppos^l to be after everything in sight they have secluded large sums from him. 'Rah for Davis and Pettigrew. A Traveler. Indianapolis Journal. President McKlnley has already traveled more extensively than any of his prede cessors, and after his present tour there will be but two states and two territories, not counting onr Island possessions, which lie will no: have visited. Minneapolis Journal's Current Topic Series. Papers by Experts and Specialists of National Reputation. AMERICAN > LIFE A CENTURY AGO. Vt > -■ _ ■ ■■■ ■ -■•.... , ■•;• ■■ XIV.—SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES . By Alice Morse Earle, author of "Stage Coach and Tavern Days," "Old-Time Drinks and Drinkers." "Colonial Days in Old New York."etc. , Copyright, 1901, by Victor F. Lawßpn. I The year 18Qo witnessed little change in ed ucational ideas from those of half a century previous; though | great ..changes were brew ing. The horn-book was 1 still seen,' but the famous New, England Primer was chiefly use. Little boys and girls., attended ' dame schools, learned their letters, rto read and spell and to knit and sew. '•" When the little girl proudly carried home and displayed her first pair of knit garters her brother showed the "galluses" he had knitted as he sat by her. side. When they left the dame school their paths separated; he was thrust prompt ly into the pages of Latin grammar and waa set to make a •sum book." Seldom did he have a .printed arithmetic, and it "was just as well that he did not. , For many of the rules in the arithmetic 'of . those days can hardly be understood by tolerable mathema ticians of mature age to-day. Pike's arith metic was the most popular and the worst. A ■ very ' good Latin grammar for Its day, "Cheever's Accidence," was .In use ■ every where; written by one Cheever, the Boston schoolmaster, who taught seventy years. , Jo siah Quincy said he studied it through twenty times ; before mastering it. The ; custom was to study the grammar through three • times, committing to memory, before -any parsing was done. The "Young Lady's Accidence", was a much simpler and clearer-grammar. ; A book printed in 1834, entitled "The Dis trict School" says geography was taught in but four schools In Massachusetts till 1820. and was not well taught even at the date of writing. . ■ ■„.' . .\ .. A . .. Thoronshueiiin Writing and Spelling. ■ ■■■■■•' The writing master' still dominated, and poor handwriting was deemed as disgraceful as poor spelling. Home-made. ink, of a. de coction of maple bark mixed with copperas, or a compound of water, 1' vinegar and ink powder, and goosequill pens, did not add to ease of writing. The master always' set the copy and made the pens. The crystallization of orthography caused by the books of Noah Webster awakened a perfect passion for spelling. Teachers rev eled in holding spelling schools, and young and old joined In spelling matches. Every, one spelt well. . Poor ? spelling was abhorred. The modes of reciting lessons in spelling, the dividing into syllables, and pronouncing each portion of the word as it grew in the speech of the speller, have been made the ob ject of much ridicule, and are frowned upon by modern teachers. Those - methods pro duced, .; however, generations of absolutely perfect spellers, while our ;• modern methods have brought out a generation of young peo ple who spell wretchedly, and, worse still, are not at all ashamed of it. . " . , Great severity of discipline still existed; pupils were flogged unmercifully. Teachers seemed to have a perfect passion for pun ishment. I read recently some pages of the diary of a very genial gentleman, a librarian of the American Antiquarian society, ■ who had .been a schoolmaster in his youth and who died in 1840. One entry told of a ride In a stage coach with a mother and a young child who cried. He said: "Such is my temper of mind toward every: child I see since I kept school that I could scarce keep from thrashing him. I long to beat every child I meet." Pupils were whipped with leather straps, with birch rods, with cat-o' nine-tails, with heavy ferules, with walnut sticks. Even the Lancastrian system, held to be founded on gentleness.and persuasion, set pupils in the pillory, hung them. up in sacks, shackled the. legs, tied the arms, etc. ! Every illustrated child's book shows. that whipping was the.common practice. -.. .- . • Scant Education of Girls. In early schemes of education in this' coun try girls had scant attention. The wife of President Adams (born in 1744) wrote: "I never was sent to any school. Female educa tion in the best families went no further* than Tom Dawson, Private Secretary. Copyright, 1901, by W. H. Durham. Dawsoii Thomas was private secretary to' the head of a down-town wholesale house. Old Jackson used to say that the house could not get along without Dawson, yet that per sonage had been In the employ of the firm only a short year, was but 24 years old, and knew nothing of the business when he en tered. But he had been a reporter and a good one. That means, as everybody knows, that he knew a little of everything In the world and a great deal more. So when he applied for a position with one of the most unique letters Jackson had ever received, the Old Man, after struggling through a wil dernesa of bad writing, broke into a hearty laugh and sent for him. ■•You think you can fill the position that is open, do you," growled Old Jackson at Daw son, when that young gentleman appeared. "Do you know that this Is a most confidential place and that, while knowledge of the busi ness and lines we handle is not absolutely necessary, yet to a man of not more than average Intellect, who is Inexperienced, the position Is impossible?" '•Why, of course I can hold it. Do you sup pose I would come snooping around here if I didn't think you needed me?" Jackson had been so used to having men quail before him, especially when seeking a position, that this breezy answer floored him. But he liked it. "Well, young man, I will Just glv« you ten minutes' trial." It was nearly noon when Dawson had pre sented himself, and he now said: "Very well. I will spend the ten minutes getting lunch, and then return." He was gone before the Old Man could stop him. He left the door open as he went out, a trick for which a man had been fired the day before. Old Jackson seemed to shrink Into himself until he was almost sitting on his back, staring out the open door at the stalwart back of his new secretary as It went down the long alsie and out the front door. "Bang!" -went the Old Man's fist on the bell. A huge negro, dressed like a comic val entine, sprang into-the office. "Dolefulness," roared the Old Man, "did yom see that young fellow go out?" "Yes, sab., I saw him," said the black. Daily New York Letter. BUREAU OF THE JOURNAL, No. 21 Park Row, New York. The Oriental Trade. I May" 24.—Ever since the railroad magnates and financiers have been . given, a brief vaca tion, as a result of the collopse of the trans portation "community of interests" plans, they have been turning over in their own minds the moves under way for the possession of the oriental trade. This offers a prize of such value and magnitude that every man interested in 1 railroad or ' steamship trans portation has regarded it I with longing eyes for many months if not years. And from the signs that have come to the surface a severe struggle is coming at no late day for the possession of this trade, .lames •J. Hill and J. Pierpont Morgan are working towards this end and hope to accomplish it -through the fleet of the largest steamships in the world, which the Great Northern railroad Is build- Ing. These vessels are to have an enormous carrying capacity, amounting. to something over 120,000 tons each, together with a speed of something like fourteen knots an hour. At New /London, Conn., 'wo of these .vessels are now being built at a cost of | over $5,000,000, and their companions are to follow soon. According to the little of - the; Hill-Morgan plans that, have become known,',these vessels are to co-operate with other steamship lines, particularly with the Atlantic Transport line and the recently acquired Leyland' line, both of which are controlled by Mr. Morgan at this time. When the scheme has been thoroughly worked out, |it is expected that the Hill- Morgan combination will have; af system of rail '■ and ;, water lines that ' will encircle the globe. But the "combination is not having everything its own way, as the Atchison sys tem -has a deal -on the : carpet with : the Hamburg-American . line, which will enable the : combination to; reach every important mercantile center - and - make > a ■ specialty ''■ of the - eastern: trade. • Backf of the" Atchison", in the deal is the Pennsylvania railroad and- the combinationYdoes'/not':lack"capital. .-" Then writing and arithmetic; in some few and rare Instances music and dancing." The letter of oue of the school board of Eastou, Pa., urges teaching girls the use of the needle as well as to read and write, "if v/rlting should be thought necessary for girtb." Their first entrance into the advantages of boys' schools waa through an attendance at most inconvenient hours. Oirls In Providence' could be taught from 6 to 7:3u in the morn • - ■ . - •" - I ■ ■ ' - • ■ ,-■.-■.■■.._-»■«■ _^__ ''j^jSß^H. ' f^^SSfc vS^^9 »• jj^^J YALE COLLEGE IX 1823. Ing and 4:30 to 6 in the afternoon. The Morning Oracle of April C, JBO2. had this ad vertisement: A morning school for misses will be opened in the chamber of the brick schoolhouse on April 19. Attendance, one hour and a half, beginning at B o'clock. Price, 13s 6d a quar ter, 15s for those who may choose to be fur nished by the Instructors with paper, ink and pens. William WoodbrT3ge opened a school for girls at Mlddletown, Conn., and in the first quarter of the nineteenth century the By- p. . VIEW OF WASHINGTON' FROM THE CAPITOL GROUNDS, 1825. (From an old print.) field school (kept by the Rev. Joseph Emer son), the Andover Girls' school and Cather ine Beecher's school at Hartford were estab lished. In IS2O, in Miss Willards school, was held the first public examination of a girl in geometry. Miss Lyon's school, at South Hadley, has lived and flourished, just escap ing being called the Pangknaekean seminary, which was appropriate, if not melodious, for it meant that, for the first time, the whole woman of our race was to be put to school. In 1825 a hish school for girls was established in Boston; it was attended with most intense eagerness and not one pupil voluntarily left the school. But the success o| the school was its ruin. With the most perverted view '•Well, when that fellow comes back, kill him." Dolefulness disappeared as rapidly as he had come, and the old gentleman went out to lunch. When he returned Dawson was seated at a desk looking over the mail, which had just arrived. ■What the dev—where"s that Dolefulness?" "Who, the nigger?" said Dawson, continu ing to sort the mail; "he's in the closet." With a bang the door or the coatroom in the Old Man's private office hit the wall. Dolefulness, bound and gagged, tumbled on the floor. "Well." gasped Jackson, sinking Into a chair and mopping his forehead. It was ten degrees below zero outside and he had been kicking at the fireman all day. "What does this mean?" "Oh, nothing," said Dawson, "the nigger got kinder gay when I came from lunch, and I just put him on ice. Shall I release him?" "Dolefulness," Jackson thundered when the negro got on his feet, "what does this mean? Didn't I tell you to kill this man If he came back again?" "Yas, sah, yo' did, but he seed me fust, Just as I was going to hit 'im wid my billy." "What did he do?" "Jest grabbed me by de collah, he held me wid one hand and tied me wid the oddeh." "Stand up," to Dawson. He saw that the negro was a foot and a half higher than his private secretary. "That'll do. Doleful. You may go." "Xow, slj," said Dawson; "if you will be so kind asto give me a word or two of ad vice, I will proceed with business. I have stacked the letters marked personal on your desk, and sent the others to the heads of the various departments. Is that right?" "Say, you—you, who's boss here, you or me? How did you know who the heads of departments were?" "That's easy. I noticed the names of them, together with their departments, emblazoned in box letters on the doors of their offices In the hall." "Do you mean to tell me that you have only passed down this aisle three times and know all the heads of departments by name?" "Certainly. What else are my eyes for?" Jackson didn't answer. He looked at his new employe a moment, took his seat and there is the Harriman syndicate, controlling the Union Pacific and the Southern Pacific, which will have something to say about the Northern Pacific connections at Tacoma, while the Canadian Pacific, with Its steam ship line from Vancouver, is to improve its service and make a bid for trade, to say nothing of the new China Navigation com pany from Seattle. This fight for the trade of the orient will be the next great struggle to shake Wall street to its foundations. Mr. I.awMon'ft Presumption. To one who has closely watched the course of recent events it must appear that Thomas W. Lawson, the Boston copper magnate, has been properly punished for his presumpt'.on. Mr. Lawson attempted to forcibly and rudely intrude upon the pleasant pastimes of the New York Yacht Club. Apparently Mr. Law son regards the international yacht race as really international. He does not seem to know that in the opinion of the members of the New York Yacht Club these races are of English challengers against the New York Yacht club. The rest of the country has no more interest in them than in the personal invest ments of the members of the club. Mr. Law son foolishly believed It was the privilege, even the duty, of a patriotio American citizen to do all in his power to assist in maintaining the sea supremacy of the United States by building fleet yachts to defend a cup gained many years ago and placed in the custody of the New "York Yacht Club. He even went so far In defending his theory as to build a yacht which has been launched, but he has learned by this time his action cannot be regarded as other than a presumption in the extreme. The defense of the America's cup Is entrusted solely to the club and the mem bers of the club would gladly see the cud pass into the hands of British or Irish yachts men rather than to have it held on this side by some enthusiastic sportsman not affiliated with their organization. In the future Mr. Lawson will not be so hasty in dealing with these hair-trigger master of marine eti FRIDAY' EVENING, MAY 24, 1901. of education ever known, Mayer Quincy re ported against the continuance of the school on the grounds that such large numbers would wish to attend, and the consequent ex penditure would be great, so, in. 1827, the girls' high school was discontinued. Bitterly disappointed the principal opened a private high school for girls, and soon many other girls' schools sprung up. In 1855 the girls had another public high school. It was not deemed good form for women to go to public lectures: even in 1838 lyceum audiences were so rude that few women were willing to attend. In 1827 it was an nounced that ladies miglit attend the Athe naeum exhibition of paintings in Boston, even If not accompanied by a gentleman—this vai an important step. How College Students Dined. In Yale college at the beginning of the century the students ate in a new commons building. At meal times sophomores entered at the north door, freshmen at the south door and juniors and seniors at the middle door. Tutors sat at an elevated table and tried to preserve order, but there was much rioting. In one term thirty coffee pots and 600 tumblers were destroyed—and this when classes were comparatively small. Boiled po tatoes, bread, pats of butter, would be thrown back and forth. When peas were cooked all the undergraduates were summoned to sbell them, but the work usually fell on the fresh men. If any man shirked he found all the pea pods thrown In his room. This was called "podding." Great pewter jugs of cider stood on the tables and all drank from the jugs. When the students did nor. like the began to open his mall. Dawson picked up a paper and began to read. Directly:, "By the way, Thomas." "Yes, sir," said the new secretary. "I wish you would go and tell Miss Agnew, the stenographer I always have, to come here. You may spend the time looking over the store. Come back in an hour." Dawson looked the store over from top to bottom in that hour. He introduced himself to every man In the place and brought a smile to the face of each. A thinly veiled compliment here, a well told bit of his news paper experience there, made every man his friend. When he reached the office Mr. Jackson was gone, but on Dawson"a desk reposed a note. "Well," he said, "I guess It's up to me. I supposed from the way the Old Man acted that he waa going to keep me, but he con cluded that he could write better than he talked after all, and here is where —wow." Dawson had opened the envelop and the last exclamation was caused by the fol lowing: Mr. Thomas —You have intruded yourself into this office and shoved my nigger ("put that n-i-g-g-e-r," Mr. Jackson had said to the stenographer) into the closet. You have also made yourself familiar, without any warrant or direction, with my whole store. You are retained at a salary, to begin with, of $5,000 per year. —Eben Jackson. All this happened a year ago. Now the Old Man was furious. He' arrived at the store fifteen minutes early and cursed every .man in the place black and blue. Dawson's first duty In the morning con sisted of sorting and opening the mail, and he had so arranged matters with the post man as to meet him at the door, taking the mall to his desk himself. That caused him to be ready for business as soon as there was anything doing. He followed his plan this morning. "Good morning, Mr. Jackson," he said, cheerily, as he took his seat. "This is cer tainly a fine day." There came a gurgle from the Old Man's throat, not unlike a column of water through a pipe too small. "For funerals," he at last managed to say. Dawson was used to this and continued to sort the mall. Finally he took the personal quette, but will pocket his enthusiasm and superfluous zeal and be content to take his place with the other spectators of events over which he can have no control. The National Art Gallery. The proposition to establish a national art gallery in this country is again revived. Us prime mover Is Francis Howard, the artist, who has been working up the proposition in Washington all winter. Mr. Howard has been in the city for a few days and has just sailed for Europe, where he will consult with sev eral prominent American artists who have for some years been making London their home. These artists, including such repre sentative men as Whistler, Sargent, Macmon nies. Chase, La Farge, Dielruan, Melchers, Alexander, Fisher, Pennel and St. Gaudens, residing in both Paris and London, are back of the idea for an American art gallery, and their idea has been favorably received in high official circles at Washington. Secretary Hay of the state department has promised his support with the president and with con gress, to which body It is also likely the president will offer a recommendation. This latter action is desired to give the move ment an official status rather than to secure funds, as the artists desire to erect their own building and secure the pictures through private and popular subscriptions rather thaa from government aid. According to tie idea as at present outlined, the gallery would be made a permanent Borne for a collection of the works of deceased American artists, so that the living artists at the back of the project could not be accused of working for their personal interests. Mr. Callavray's Reason*. Samuel R. Callaway, who has retired from the presidency of the New York Central rail road to accept the presidency of the new American Locomotive company, the latest arrival in the trust field, assures-the public he made the change, not because of any trouble with the New York Central, but be- quality of mutton i served them th«y «nt*rtd the commons j bleating and seized the platter of obnoxious mutton and threw it through th« window. ■ " For breakfast at the commons were hash, . "alum" and'coffee; for dinner, ,beef or salt * pork, with vegetables, bread, a quart of beer ; and ample cider; for supper, a quart of milk and half a loaf of bread or an apple pie for each student. Apple pie was' a dally item ol food at Harvard and at times was served at all three of the daily meals. / Some Quaint College Rales. ;-• • Students at Yale wore obliged to draw water from the college wells for their usa for bathing and drinking unless their fags did it for them. Two upper classmen were entitled to one fag. Every student had to remove his hat .and stand silent as.the col lege president passed. "Every hour A the day was rigidly guarded..; If a student wished to take a. walk ■- he asked permission of the faculty, specified the hour of leaving and re turning, and his destination, • and was fined if he varied these. ' Attending a dance was punished by a fine of 50 cents; playing bil liards called for a fine of 40 cents, and th» third offense meant rustication. There was i '■buttery" at which cider, metbeglin. beer loaf sugar, tobacco, etc.; could be bought am students were forbidden to buy beer or cldei anywhere else. The "butler" who kept thU "college canteen," had to furnish candles at prayers as a return for his privileges. About 1820 there was so much display of dres3 tha/ a uniform of quaker gray was planned fo( Yale undergraduates. One student appeare* ( In a suit of changeable silk; another write* of his plaid cloak. A Lycurgan society wa« formed to encourage plainness of dress and simplicity of life. In the eighteenth century the candidate fo: Harvard was not required to know eithe* geography or arithmetic, • though it is to b« inferred that he did. In 1814 Harvard de manded a knowledge of arithmetic through the' "rule of three," and announced that after 1815 the college would demand a knowledge Of ancient and modern geography. In 1816 tha entire arithmetic was set as a necessary study. . Yale at that time made similar re quirements. In 1805 proctors were Instituted in Harvard. There was then no college chapel; there, was no chair of Greek, of natural history, or of law; there was no classification of under graduates by merit. The rules regulating freshmen were still very rigid; they were severely "ground down." Among other im positions upon them was that of furnishing bats and balls for the use of the whole col lege in their games. The president's salary was $1,400 a year. An engraving that shows a view from the capltol grounds at Washington in 1825 dis closes that Pennsylvania avenue was planted with Lombardy poplars. They began to be imported vto America soon after the'revolu tion, and their popularity grew through tha advocacy of Jefferson. They came to be- re garded as a symbol of democracy and the domination of French ideas. They were therefore profoundly hated in some communi ties. In Salem a splendid row of them was destroyed at night by ardent federalists. They were planted along the new .turnpikes • which were being built everywhere. But few of there old poplar 3 still stand anywhere in our northern states, save a few winter-killed old settlers and some scraggly young growth. They proved a poor substitute for our fine native trees, just as French notions of liberty poorly served our purpose. ' America was certainly ever, ready to make friends with France under every . new rule. When Webster was secretary of state, the French minister asked whether the United States would recognize the new government of France. Webster assumed a solemn. and impressive tone. "Why not?" said he; 4 "The United States since its birth has recognized the Bourbons, the . French republic, the di rectory, the council of 500. the first consul, the emperor, Louis XVIII., Charles X., Louis Philippe, the " "Enough!. enough!" the minister, at such a citation of consistent precedents. &(&ai (J&ist (oa*£t By W. H. Durham. ones across the room and laid them on Mr. Jackson's desk. "Thomas," the boss said, "take a seat. I want to hold a heart to heart conversatioa with you." "Here's where I get it," sighed the boy. "My daughter," Dawson started; "'has told me that you have proposed marriage to her, and that she has accepted you. Is that true?" "I never dispute the word of a woman, sir." Mr. Jackson had been holding in pretty well, but this was too much. "Do you mean to tell me that you have dared —" thus far he got and choked. "Sput sput-sputter," came from his thoat, until Dawson said: "Par-don me, sir, but some day that fit will kill you." The proprietor of millions sank into his chair before this beardless boy. "I want you to go, »lr. ThU instant you leave my employ, go!" "Certainly, sir," was the reply: "but be fore I go"—here he reached behind his desk and produced the same rope with which he had tied Doleful. "Just a minute." He grasped Mr. Jackson by the collar, swiftly bound his hands, thrust a handker chief into his mouth and. anchored it with one abstracted from Mr. Jackson's pocket, thrust him into the closet which had proved so useful before, locked the door and Mr. Jackson heard him whistle. It was only an hour that the boss had to stay in his cooped up jail, but it seemed a year. He suddenly heard the whistle again. and was ready to get down on his knees to his unruly employe, when the door suddenly opened. He happened to be straining upon it at the time, and, as a consequence, fell headlong into the room. He was quickly re leased by Dawson. "That's all right, my boy," faltered the employer. "I won't fire you again, not until I get a corps of policemen." "That's all right, sir. If you desire that I go now, I will do so. Only," and he poked his head out of the office door and brought In the girl who was at the bottom of the trouble. "Allow me to introduce my wife." The Old Man was too full for utterance. Finally he reached out and grasped them by the hand. Palling one on each knee he be gan to pat them o,n the back, while a smile of contentment stole over his face. * * * 'vT'Vcj.-X" y/ ■■ :;-^. cause he needed the money. That the presi dent of a corporation such as the New York Central should not be a wealthy man seems remarkable, but Mr. Callaway asserts that, after thirty-eight years as a salaried railroad man he is not worth more than $25,000, a sum which can be exceeded by many of his subordinates. As the president ot. the Amer ican Locomotive company, Mr. Callaway will be paid $60,000 annually, which is much In ex cess of his stipend as head of the New York Central. According to Mr. Callaway, there are many railroad presidents in the United States, and heads of the largest roads, too, who are worth tess than $100,000. The posi tion evidently is not such a wealth-producing one as many people have been educated la believe. —X. N. A. PAST REDEMPTION Short Stories. At one of Mr. Moody's meetings a worker aproached a young man with the question: "Are you a Christian?" The young man. looked up, smiling good-naturedly as he re plied: "Oh, no sir; lam one of the choir." Parted With Gladly. Chicago News. London has decided to purchase an automo bile fire engine from this country. We are pleased at that,'because we have them tor sale rather than for use. Reciprocal. Chicago News. The farmers will gladly continue to rtlsa the corn if Mr. Phillips will agree to continue to raise the price. Attain In Eruption. Cleveland Plain Dealer; The antiurapireallsts are again in active i business at the baseball arena.