Newspaper Page Text
THE JOURNAL LUCIAN SWIFT, J. S. McLAIN, MANAGER. EDITOR. SUBSCRIPTION TERMS . Payable to The Journal Printing Co. Delivered by Mail. One copy, one month 10.35 One copy, three months 1-00 Odo copy, six monthi 800 One copy, one year 4-00 Saturday Eve. edition. 20 to 26 pages.. 1.50 Delivered by Carrier. One copy, one week 8 cents One copy, one month 35 cents Single copy 2 cents TUB JOURNAL. la published •very evening,' except Sunday, at 47-49 Fourth Street South, Journal Building, Minneapolis, Minn. ' C. J. Billion, Manager Foreign Adver tising Department. NEW YORK OFFICE—B6. 87. 88 Tribune building. V£i ; :"■■■' CHICAGO OFFICE— ?J>S Stock Ex change building. CUASGKS OF ABUHKSS '. Subscribers ordering addresses 6t their papers changed must always give th«ir . former as well as present address. CONTINUED ' AH papers are continued until an ex plicit order is received for discontinuance, and until all arrearages are paid. _____ COMPLAINTS . Subscriber* Trill please notify the office in every caie that their paper la not delivered promptly or the collections not properly made. The Journal Is on sale at the news stands of the following hotels: Plttsburg, Pa.—Du Quesne. ... , ■■V-'A Salt Lake City, Utah—The. Knutsiora. Omaha. Paxton Hotel. . "£,-■*. Los Angelea, Cal.— Van Nuys. Denver, Col.— Brown's Palace Hotel. St. Louis, Mo.—Planters' Hotel. Southern Hotel. Kansas City, Mo.-Coates House. ' - t Boston, Mass.—Youog's Hotel, United States. Touraine. ; '■■■•-: Cleveland. Ohio—Holiendeii House, Weddell House.' ■ . i Cincinnati, Ohio—Qrand Hotel. Detroit, Mich.—Rusaell House, Cadillac. Washington; D. Cj— Arlington Hotel. Ra leigh. .". ■ . . : -■ Chicago, Auditorium Annex. Great Northern. New York City—lmperial, Holland, Murray Hill. Waldorf. Spokane, Wash.—Spokane Hotel. Tacoma, Wash.— Hotel. Seattle, Wash.—Butler Hotel. . Portland. Oregon—Portland Hotel, Perkins Hotel. Proves Too Much The Pittsburg- Dispatch, published at the center of the iron industry, and in the heart of the operations of the great steel trust, has made a peculiar attack upon Congressman Babcock and his bill to re vise the tariff on trust-made goods. The Dispatch boldly accuses Babcock of at tacking the steel combination for the pur pose of securing an abatement of the tax upon beer. It says that last winter when the war revenue law was under con sideration for amendment, Mr. Babcock championed the demand for reduction of the beer tax from $2 a barrel, with 7Ms per cent off, to $1.50 a barrel without re bate. He was able, the Dispatch says, t» finally force a reduction from $1.70, the rate first agreed upon by the house com mittee, to $1.60; but could not get it be low that. Thereupon he introduced the free steel bill. The Dispatch churges further that "Since that time the assertion has been made, and not denied, that peace could be had by the iron and steel men if they ■ ♦ould only consent to the reduction of the Internal revenue tax on beer to $1.50 a barrel." In otner words, Mr. Babcock ■would be willing to leave the tariff law untouched if the internal revenue la* Could be amended still further to the amount of 10 cents on each barrel of beer. Mr. Babcock, we understand, has for his constituents well-known brewers, and he naturally represents them before con gress in any effort they may make to se cure a reduction in the internal revenue tax. This fact creates whatever appeara nce of consistency there may be in the charge that Babcock's proposition was originally made, not so much in the inter est of the public, as In the interest of his particular constituency. We know, how ever, of no other evidence in support of that charge than this. And if that charge be made against Mr. Babcock, those who make it must be pre pared, on the other hand, to admit the force of tne counter charge that Mr. Dal 2ell and others, having as constituents the people interested in great steel trusts, •re actuated in their opposition to tariff revision by like unworthy motives. If there is any force in the accusation of the one side there is just as much ground for it on the other, and the people •who invite that kind of argument have not only done nothing to weaken the de mand for a revision of the tariff upon trust-made articles, but they have, Try suggesting a possible combination be tween great Interests affected by the tariff, shown further and most excellent reason why the general public should ■favor tariff revision and make a vigorous campaign in that direction. The Dispatch's argument proves too much. The Journal will publish to-morrow a short story of t£e war time by the late Marian Shaw, teacher in the Minneapolis Central high school. The story is an interesting piece of character sketching and is a fair sample of a considerable amount of unpublished literary matter left by Miss Shaw, some of which may find its way in print in more permanent form than in newspaper publication. Miss Shaw has been known to Mlnneapolitans for a good many years as a writer of grace and force. We are glad to be abie to produce this story from her pen. St. Paul is playing her old game again. A few Minneapolis people were "easy" enough to be induced to contribute some what to the expenses of the Woodmen's convention in St. Paul, with the under standing that Minneapolis would doubtless derive some benefit from that affair. Whatever benefit this city derives will be in spite of St. Paul, rather than on account of any reciprocal action in that city. The Woodmen themselves are corn- plaining of obstacles thrown in the way of their appearance in Minneapolis by St. Paul committeemen. But that is not the only thing that the Woodmen are com plaining about in St. Paul. St. Paul has fallen so far short of the pledges made ■when the location of the encampment there was solicited, that there is the ut most dissatisfaction in the head camp, and this morning when Indianapolis was selected for the next meeting the execu tive committee was authorized by resolu tion to take the convention away and lo cate it somewhere else in the absence of satisfactory guarantees that the shabby treatment received at St. Paul would not be repeated. Nothing but the rankest kind of failure to meet obligations and provide ordinary necessary facilities for the encampment could have produced a resolution like that. A morning paper reporter says that some of the Woodmen visited the Minne apolis sawmills yesterday and "watched the metempsychosis of the log into tim ber." That's probably what makeß the price qf lumber so high—it is the "met empsychosislng" of the log. "Home Rule" It Is reported from Philadephia that John "Wanamaker yesterday sent a square proposition to the mayor of Philadelphia to pay the city $2,500,000 for the street railway franchises which the mayor and city council are about to hand over to a gang of corrupt city politicians and their henchmen, without receiving a cent for the city. The mayor threw the letter con taining the proposition into the street. The people of Philadelphia have been ignored, 'and one of the most corrupt com binations .of municipal thieves has the city under control. ■ Tammany is possibly a little worse and it has a larger field for its operations. It is, however, unpleas ant to tiiink that, in the city where was held the first important conference of persons interested in the promotion of good city government, in 1894, the conference being composed of representa tive men from the eastern and western states, Philadelphia should still be the arena where the spoilsmen are still in great force. Out of that conference the National Municipal League was organized and that body has been doing effective work in enlisting public sentiment and in effecting reforms. Philadelphia is the seat of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, whose publications on mu nicipal reform have wide currency. Phila delphia has wrought a good influence in the promotion of municipal reform, and it would no doubt be most gratifying to the good pe<Jple of that city if that reform movement would strike so deeply at home, that valuable franchises could not be given away to predatory politicians by the city legislature which is supposed to guard the public welfare. The present government of Philadelphia is trying to rule without recognizing its responsibility to the governed. Many men who abuse the United States government as a "tyranny" because it is exercising perfectly legitimate authority in the Philippines over the natives, view with complacency the real usurpation of power and the exercise of the most obnoxious tyranny by combinations of politicians in cities like Philadelphia and New York, and yet there are no abuses of power, in our country to-day that compare with the abuses practiced within the sphere of municipal government. Corn King Phillips wants the govern ment to stand ready at all times to pay 40 cents for corn. We tried that on sil ver and the result everybody knows. A Woman on Women's Clubs When a woman of May Wright Sewall's prominence In the latter day movements of women, discusses both sides of the question of the utility of women's clubs, we may expect a candid statement of their demerits as well as their merits. In the two papers on the subject, which have been published in The Journal, Mrs. Sewall discloses her fine judgment and sense of the fitness of things, and, unlike cost advanced women, does not allow her sympathy with the movement for female emancipation to cloud her faculty of dis crimination. It would appear that in her second arti cle the lady has somewhat impaired by her candor the force of her former arti cle, which was a consideration of the ad vantages of the club movement to women. She very distinctly revealed the benefits accruing to women by combination in groups to promote a common cause, and the value ot mental attrition to bring out the best intellectuality dormant within them. She knows that "The fire i' the flint Shows not till it be struck" and that the clubs have been poten tial as developers of woman's mentality and educative in public questions. Just as a political party promotes its strength by expert club organization, so well or ganized women's clubs promote the cause of female emancipation to the status of a self-sustaining agent. The women's clubs, however, do not devote themselves to the rather serious subject of the eman cipation of women exclusively. Many women have 'a penchant for getting to gether to discuss such topics as the origin of reason, the ethics of utilitarianism, post-Kantian idealism, rational psychol ogy, the adaptability of Hegelianism, the cognitive powers, etc., and others, whose stockings have a decidedly blue tinge, range themselves in Browning, Tenny son, Shelley, Goethe groups, while the general literary club for the reading and discussion of papers, seems to have be come a prime necessity for many women. Mrs. Sewall, in her last paper, shows how these clubs may become the arenas of harmful dissipation and she cites cases of excessive devotion to club life which not only interferes with the proper de votion to the home duties of every mar ried woman, but, not Infrequently, work devastation to the realm of the home. When a woman belongs to twenty or thirty clubs and wants to be a power in all of them, it is very certain that she ceases to be a power for good at home and her chil dren are either consigned to the tender mercies of the domestics, or "just grow" like Topsy. It is a subject of congratu lation that such a fine, intellectual woman as Mrs. Sewall has seen fit to speak in no mild terms of women who be come so, wedded to club life that they become quasi strangers to their own homes and children and are so dependent upon the sorosis for inspiration and even for their opinions, that they give their own powers no wings for flight, no outlet for expression and make their homes but a lodging- place. Rightly Mrs. Sewall says: "The house is not a home when the woman who guides it Is not under its roof." Mrs. Sewall points out another very serious effect of this excessive clubbing when shf suggests the anomaly that the club, with a declared objective of train ing women into a sense of equality with men "has resulted in producing a wider and deeper cleavage between men and women," and she points out the increasing paucity of men at social functions and the entire eliminations of men at many of these gatherings. Luncheons and af ternoon teas are displacing the dinners and evening parties at which men and women have usually mingled. Mrs. Sewall says she does not oar© to THE MINNEAPOLIS JOUKNAE. discuss the future of the club movement. She sees the increasing disadvantages, but she would retain it, under limitations, in its proper place as a means of educa tion and, incidentally, as a means of re laxation. She has freely disclosed the imperfection* of the system and it looks as if she would' have these , reformers reform themselves, before they go any farther. This, of course, is a woman's affair. The Journal has no advice to give. If the strong words of counsel presented by Mrs. Sewall have no correcting ef fect, the women of the clubs would not listen to the voice of a seraph from the supernal. There is a charm about Perils of gardening that poets have Gardenias sun's> thoush the P°ets for * the most part were willing themselves to sit on the greensward and let somebody else act as motor for the hoe. The ideal gardening, where you thus sit by, over see the work and philosophize upon it, has its advantages, but one loses the intimate rela tions with the flowers and garden sass that actual work among them brings. Gardening in the city has its troubles, for other people also have fads and some of them are hostile to gardens. There is the large dog annoyance, A half ton of dog stepping on the asters is not conducive to The neighbor's cow who does not object to a bite of corn in the early morning has in duced Doc Bixby, the inspired Nebraskan poet and gardener, to burst into impassioned eong thus: I have got a disposition Rather gay—at least not grave— And I feel it is my mission To be calm when others rave. But it makes me mad as blazes, And it nils me full of scorn, When my neighbor's bovine grazes On my growing field of corn. Then there is the Hot Boys' Neighborhood Nine, who knock warm grass cutters into the tomatoes while the three fielders and the first baseman leap upon the beans. The first gardener was Adam, and it is no wonder he fell. No man can run a fine gar dtn and find some pleasant morning that the ichthyosaurus and the Peter O. Dactyl have been in his corn and peae without falling and falling heavily. Speaking anent the fall of man, We're led to understand That when our old friend Adam fell He fell to beat the band. When he upstarted from his couch. One glorious early morn. He found the pterodactyl Among his ruined corn. The language our first father used It grieves me to relate. For, on that burst of eloquence. The race has paid the freight. This may differ slightly from the story of Eve and the apple, but it has more verisimili tude. The gardener in the city must have a dog and-horse-proof fence and no end of charity and forbearance. Otherwise obvious mental and spiritual error will assail him, and he will hold claims of grievance and other obvi ous errors that will make the last state of that man worse than the first. Sunday golf has been declared not a nui sance by a Yonkers, N. V., jury. Some of the jury did not understand the game, and the attorney for the golfers thus, described it: "The player puts a little rubber ball on a pile of mud, and hits it with a stick. Then he spends a half hour in hunting the ball, and on finding it, hits it again." The inno cence of this pastime appealed to the jury, who found nothing subversive to our liberties iv doing it on Sunday. Philadelphia's boodle council and mayor is giving away a street railway franchise that Mr. Wanamaker offers $2,500,000 for. The Quakers are not naturally fighters, but they might be excused this time for getting their guns and defending themselves from robbery. England is going to tax the mines to help pay for the Boer war. There ought to be some way of getting a slice of Cecil Rhodes' ungodly "pile?" Eastport, Me., reports the capture of a giant lobster weighing twenty-three pounds. They always weigh more out here. Boston's elevated trains are running and there is much dignified "rubbering" in the old burg. The cutworm is sharpening his sickle on a half brick. AMUSEMENTS Foyer Chat. Three performances, to-night and to-mor row afternooxL and evening, will close the present vautWville engagement at the Metro politan. The program presented is an ex ceptionally good one and the audiences have been large. Seats for the Lyceum theater for next week's vaudeville engagement are on sale at the box office of the Metropolitan and the sale will continue until Sunday morning, when it will be transferred to the Lyceum. The program for next week will present a strong array of talent, including the charm ing entertainer, Jessie Couthoui, in mono logue and imitations, the four Olifans in a grotesque comedy Act. Waterbury Bros, and Tenny in a musical act. Wesson and Walters in a one-act farce, Ferguson and Mack the Irish comedians in a knockabout sketch; Burt Shspard, the famous minstrel monologist, and Smith O'Brien and company ia a sing ing sketch. The polyscope will show some new and interesting view 3. OTHER PEOPLE'S NOTIONS The Banda Rosaa Engagement. To the Editor of The Journal: The writer, as a trade unionist, desires to protest against the action of the "friends" of the Musicians' Union, designed to prevent the park board from employing the Banda Rossa at Harriet this summer. I think the Musicians' Union showed good Judgment when it declined to take steps to keep Sorren tino's band away, but am sorry to see that the "friends" of that organization are dis posed to invoke the power of the unions to accomplish that purpose. And, of course, If the unions were so disposed they could pre vent the park board from employing the great Italian band. But will it pay for us to do so? Won't we lose more than we will gdin by taking that course? As a union man, I have good reasons why we should not sanction the action of the "friends" of the Musicians' Union. It is bad policy for us to antagonize those two strong corporations, the street railway company and the park board, when we can avoid doing so without the sacrifice of any principle. Of course, It will be claimed that it ie a principle of trade unionists to keep the jobs for ourselves and to bar non-union men out. But this principle is not of universal application. Judgment and "sweet reasona bleness" should decide when it should apply. In addition to that given above, there is an other good reason why we should not try to keep Banda Rossa away, and that is that there are thousands of our citizens, lovers of goofl music, many of whom are unable to pay the high prices charged at the theaters for first-class music. To these thousands the coming of the great Italian band promises a great feast of good times, and whoever un dertakes to keep that band away earns their strong condemnation. As a union man and at the same time as a lover of good music, and after having looked at the question from both sides, I can see no good reason for the unions trying to prevent the coming of Banda Rossa. I Now a word of advice to our local musi cians. In the article "Stop Banda Rossa," which appeared in The Journal a few .days ago, it is admitted that the "musicians themselves do not feel like taking active steps" against the coming of the Italian band. "But friends have espoused their cause." etc. It is evident, therefore, that when you wish It your "friends" will cease their oppo sition to the park board's plan. It will encourage you to withdraw your op position to that plan when you remember that it is not the policy of trades unions to use Their extreme power when it can possibly with honor be avoided. A good many people thick we are tyrannical. Let us avoid doing that which will confirm them in their opin ions. —A. Harvey. The Liveliest Sort. Pittsburg Chronicle-Telegraph. Wall street bulls belong to the long-homed variety. Minneapolis Journal's Current Topic Serie Papers by Experts and Specialists of National Reputation. AMERICAN LIFE A CENTURY AGO. X VII—VARIOUS DETAILS OF DIF •"' ;■ ; FERENCE. " \ By Alice Morse Earle. author of "Stage Coach and Tavern Days." "Old-Time Drinks and Drinkers." "Colonial Days in Old New York." etc (Copyright, 1901, by Victor F. Lawson.) The newspapers of the early century show how much excitement there was over the introduction of vaccination as a protection against smallpox. That disease was a hor rible and universal scourge; far more people had suffered from it either through conta gion or inoculation than had not had It. The latter class lived in daily terror of disfigure ment and death. The words "pock-marked," "poek-fretten," "pock-broken," pock-pitted," appear iv nearly every personal description of the eighteenth century. It had brought not only death but business disaster and ruin to the colonists. New England had been devastated seven times by the disease. In oculation had controlled it, but there seemed to be no hope of exterminating it The first public notice of vaccination was in 1799. In 1800 Dr. Waterhouse of Cambridge, Mass., published a pamphlet on "The Pros pect of Exterminating the Smallpox," etc. He at once vaccinated three, of his children and four of his servants, and the boldness of his faith Inspired confidence. He issued funny little tickets entitling persons to "One In oculation." He received the virus from Eng land in quill points and in infected thread. Adoption of Vaccination. It is interesting to see how quickly and ■with what intelligence people accepted vacci nation. Dr. Waterhouse sent several sup plies of lymph to President Jefferson, who, with his son-in-law, vaccinated over two hundred of the Viriginia neighbors and serv ants. Whole towns turned out to be vacci nated, a hundred persons a day. Circulars of invitation were read in the pulpit. As proof was desired by some, twelve children who had been successfully vaccinated, were after ward inoculated with smallpox, and a pub lic-spirited gentleman of Milton, Mr. Horton, gave his house as a hospital. The charge of twelve healthy children for two weeks must have kept him busy. At the close the chil dren were discharged, none of them having taken the smallpox; and each was presented with a certificate, of which the following is a copy: Joshua Briggs. YOU ARE HEREBY discharged from the Hospital, where you and eleven more, ap oolnted for that purpose, have offered to all men convincing proof of the never failing Dower of that mild preventive, the COW POX. WHILST you REMAIN a Living Token of Mercy, your mouth will delight to Testify your Gratitude for a Blessing Great as it is Singular of its kind, so that the hearts of men may unite with yours in praise to the Almighty Giver. OLIVER HOUGHTON, Chairman Committee for Vaccination. AMOS HOLBROOK, Physician in Charge. October 25. 1809. This seemed so decisive that an annual inoculation was ordered in June, the time of which should be posted in public places, warned from house to house, and advertised in the newspapers, and to which strangers were invited. Due and significant gratitude to God for "so singular and admirable a blessing" was shown by permitting the vac cination to take place in the meeting-house. The result of all this was a law in Massa chusetts enforcing vaccination, and the loath some pest of smallpox never again had a foot hold in the state until after the statute was, unfortunately, repealed in 1836. In the Duvk of Dueling. The early century was a day of dueling. Every gentleman in the south had met his man. The story of Bladensburg dueling-field is one of gloom. Dueling was becoming al most as prevalent in the north as in the south when the public horror at the death of Alexander Hamilton by the hand of Aaron Burr caused a great revulsion of feeling. Previous to that tregedy New York had seen the duels of Burr with John B. Church, of a Man Hunting. $ f By Walter H. Farleigh. Copyright, 1901, by A. S. Richardson. The English government had been appealed to by Russia to make England too hot to hold the Nihilists who were hatching plots against the life of the czar, and Detective Frazer had been employed to take the premilinary steps. He was to locate the "center" and spot the individuals comprising it, and when all was ready he would call for assistance and draw a full net. Frazer was the right man in the right place. He was a human bloodhound by .in stinct. He was without mercy or pity for a criminal. He was ambitious, zealous and un tiring. If any public officer in London could locate the blood-thirsty theorists who were causing the czar so much anxiety it was Frazer. He was a man of wonderful intui tion, and he was trained in the art of running down shadows till he found them, flesh and blood. The government did not let it become publicly known that it was making a move against the refugee-conspirators, and Frazer took care that no one should know of his mission. He went on a still hunt for three months, and during that time he coveredevery district in London and became familiar with every suburb. Luck and intuition guided him aright. One night he called in the aid of the police and made a descent on a house, bag ging eight of the men he wanted. The papers did not call them nihilists, but counterfeiter, for the papers were not told of the bombs, infernal machines and treasonable literature captured with them. There were' ten nihilists In the group, and Prazer had secured but eight of them. The eight were given Up to Russia to become Siberian exiles, but the other two were left behind to avenge them. That they would seek his death Frazer fully realized and pre pared h'mself for the struggle. If they had to do with a crafty, aggressive man who know no fear, he had to do with two cun ning, vindictive men who had sworn to take his life and would dare everything to accom plish their object. Their identity was un known to him, as they had been out of the country while he was working up his case, ♦»»-»-«i•■«'«■»■• •«■ •— » • •»»• ••• -»->.».».».»..«_,. Daily New York BUREAU OP THE JOURNAL, No. 21 Park Row, New York. The Moore* vs. the Goulds. Juno 14. —Almost five years ago, in a tilt with W. H. and J. H. Moore, then of Chica go, for the control of the Diamond Match company, young Edwin Qould succeeded not only in wresting from the Moore brothers the corporation which they had created, but In driving them into virtual bankruptcy as well. The Moores, however, succeeded in ex tricating themselves from their difficulties, and to-day, five years later, are in contrbl of at least $11)0,000,000 capital. In the mean time, divining, as it is supposed, the Goulds' ambition to establish a transcontinental sys tem, the Moores have been quietly and grad ually acquiring control of the Rock Island railroad system, which embraces more than four thousand miles of track. At first it was supposed that the Moores were acting for J. Pierpont Morgan and the Pennsylvania railroad. As the "community of interest" plan progressed, however, in the further ance of which Morgan, Harriman, W. K. Vanderbilt and George and Edwin Gould are working, it developed that the Moore broth ers had simply been exchanging industrial for Rock Island railroad holdings on their own account. Then the whole deal began to clear up. Unless the Moores enter into the arrangement, the community of interest plan is liable to fall through, the Rock Island par alleling the Missouri Pacific throughout the most profitable part of its route; and with the failure of the proposed "combination," the Gould dream of a transcontinental sys tem of railroads, to be controlled and largely owned by the Goulds, falls to the ground. That the Moores, still smarting from their severe drubbing, will ever consent to see the Goulds realize their ambition if they can prevent it, is highly improbable. A Carrie Nation Affair. After nearly splitting its sides with laugh- man named Eaoker with Mr. Price. Then Eacker killed Alexander Hamilton's oldest son Philip, a youth of 19. Mr. Coleman met Mr. Thompson; Mr. Riker met one Swart wout, who had previously had a meeting with De Witt Clinton' In "which five rounds of shots were exchanged, Clinton wounding Swartwout each time and the latter refusing to stop, until Clinton declared he would not shoot again. These duels-were for the most trifling causes. For instance: It was an nounced that the "Youth of the City" would meet to address a letter of congratulation to John Adams when he became president. The next day an article appeared In a newspaper which said the meeting was presided over by "a stripling of 48 years, while Master Jemmy Jones, another boy not quite 60, graced the assembly with his presence." Jones was deeply enraged at this jocular sentence and sought out the author, who proved to be Judge Livingstone, the brother of Mrs. Jay. Livingstone declared he was sorry to have given offense, that he wrote it lightly. Jones then struck him and tried to pull his nose. A challenge and duel followed in which Jongs was instantly killed by a shot in the heart. A settled gloom fell on Livingstone, from which, though he rose to great distinction, he never recovered. French Ideas in Polities*. The most dominant and unusual charae teilstic shown in all records of political life .-■■-■ ■ TAMMANY WIGWAM FROM 1812 TO 186", at the beginning of the nineteenth century was the influence cf French ideas. These notions had been brought to cities and to isolated homes, both consciously aud unwit tingly,-by soldiers of the revolution, and they were held in different grades of esteem in various communities. Americans had watched with alternating emotions the entrance of the liberty cap, of Citizen Genet and of the red cockade. They heard with fear the carmag nole everywhere in the streets. Even Tam many, calm and collected, with such sachems as Governor Golden and Mayor Hoffman in power, could cot quiet all apprehension. The tricolor was everywhere. French sailors came ashore from French frigates. Matters became alarming and excitement prevailed. Alexander Hamilton and Rufus King, speak ing words of friendship and peace from a balcony of Wall street, were stoned away from public view. The beliefs of Rousseau, Helvetius and Voltaire had many worshipers. The philanthropists and rleists formed clubs and advertised their meetings. In Newburg a druidical society followed the principles of th<» Illuminati and the Jacobins, and cast scorn at Christianity. Paine's "Age of Rea son" had an extraordinary sale. Massachusetts folk followed John Adams in politics, and Massachusetts federalists re garded with abhorrence all democrats and fol lowers of Jefferson as French deists and drunkards. If they did not deem every demo crat a profaile rascal, they -were positive every profane rascal was a democrat. The story is told of an election early in the cent ury at Hadley, Mass., which, when th<? ballots wer.e counted, one democratic vote was found. The uproar and tumult was great; all won dered who the ungodly and abominable creat while it was more than probable that they knew him by sight. They also had the ad vantage of having friends among the criminal classes who would aid them in various ways. Having concluded his labors for the Eng lish government, the English government wanted nothing more of Dptective Frazer. Were it known that he had received orders from the cabinet there was no telling what public building might be blown up in re venge. An infernal machine in the house of parliament, or a bomb thrown through a window of Somerset House would awaken all Englarifc in an hour, and questions might be asked, that the government would find it embarrassing to answer. While England and Russia have long been on the most friendly terms, there are plenty of Englishmen, and many of them people of influence, who sympathize with the struggle for freedom in Russia and argue that the czar's obstinacy has driven his subjects to adopt extreme measures. The- government would have been glad to hear that Frazer was going off to Australia or America for a long vacation, and it so hinted, but he refusel to go. He knew he had been marked down by the two nihilists, and pr|de prevented him from running away. While they hunted for him he would hunt for them. It should be a battle to the death. He made an immediate move, and perhaps it was with a feeling of exultation that he discovered that the enemy was just, as prompt. He was in a low dancehouse in dis^ guise when the point of a knife thrust at«hi3 heart was buried in the memorandum book in his pocket, and the would-be assassin got away. Frazer was not injured, but his nerves were a bit shaken. In leaving the street be hind him a brick, dropped from a third-story window, missed his head by an inch. The next day he called other officers to his aid and raided a house of doubtful character, but of all the persons pulled in none were de tained beyond a day. From that day on, for months and months, Frazer was hunting over London. He was never Frazer as his comrades knew him. He had a dozen different disguises, and if he was ter over the fanatical antics of Madame Car rie Nation of Kansas, and speculating what to do with that lady should she visit our town, New Yorkers are caHed on to witness the spectacle cf William Travers Jerome cut tiDg the same capers. Mr. Jerome is the justice of the court of sessions, who, as a reformer, is a success from the Jerome stand point. By playing the spy and detective; acting as leader in numberless raids on gam bling houses tnd poolrooms; smashing down doors and blowing open safes to apprehend prisoners and secure evidence by which to convict them; concluding by holding court in the places raided, himself the judge, jury, prosecuting and defending attorneys, he has hoped to advance himself into the position of district attorney. He has charged the re form district attorney with failure to press charges against men he has had arrested, and has charged his associates on the bench with an unwillingness to try the cases. Iv consequence of these lingual bastinados, a most beautiful simoon of wrath, in which practically all classes are involved, now looms up. At his present rate. Justice Jerome is making a raid a day on gambling "joints," and is delivering himself of three attacks per diem against the city officials. The Sugar Polly. American firms and corporations with large export trade from New York are beginning to feel the effects of prohibitive tariffs. The levying of 50 per cent import duty on Rus sian sugar, for instance, to enable the sugar trust to declare dividends on millions of dol lars of watered stock, is proving a huge mis take. The amount of sugar imported was infinitesimal at most, when compared with the vast export trade the United States had with Russia and Siberia. This trade con sisted mainly of agricultural machinery, while immense quantities of railroad mate rial, mining and general machinery were ex ported to Vladivoatock chiefly from the port FRIDAY-EVENING, JTOHE 14,1901. ure could have been who thus disgraced the entire town. After a time a lean oid man mounted a furry horse, rode off to a safe distance and defiantly called back, "I cast that 'ere dlmmercrat vote" and galloped off amid a shower of stones. Some years later Nathaniel Hawthorne found' himself in a somewhat similar position In Salem. About the ointt-rvance of. Sunday. It was a constant complaint that French infidelity had seized the educated classes everywhere. The congregational minister of Rutland, Vfc, Dr. Samuel Williams, left his pulpit In despair and started the Rutland Herald in 1794, a newspaper which is still in existence. His son, the governor of Ver mont, said: "There was not at the time a lawyer from Middlebury to Bennington who was a professor of religion or willing to be known as a friend .to Christianity; their offices were open on the Sabbath. Multitudes frequented the taverns at Rutland, groups that rum and infidelity brought together vying with each other in blasphemy/ Among the many effects attributed to the spread of French deism was the alteration in the observance of Sunday. This did not prog ress without protest. Sunday travel was still prohibited. In 1802 Boston rulers tried to enforce the edict against bathing at the foot of the common on Sunday. Now our wise rulers and the law Say none shall wash on Sunday FRANKFORT AND NASSAU STREETS. So Boston folks must dirty go And wash them twice on Monday. It does not seem unreasonable to object on very secular grounds to Sunday bathing oa that spot. In 1810 the postmaster general ordered all postmasters wh# received mail on Sunday to keep open offices, but his Puritan conscience directed his mail carriers to travel quietly and in no way to divert attention from the church services. Remonstrances arose. It was declared that public convenience required travel and mail transference, and that pious correspondence, supplies to the needy, conso lation to the afflicted and -works of charity were transmitted, as well as secular matter, and should not be delayed. In 1825 some zeal ots denounced exchange of ministers from town to town as violating the sabbath. Then sabbath unions were formed and many re forms were effected. Thus did public opinion waver. Early Temperance Societies. The most Important reform of the early years of the nineteenth century was the es tablishment of temperance societies. The first marked effort leading to this end had been made by a tract of Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia in 1804, "An Inquiry Into the Effect of Ardent Spirits Upon the Human Body and Mind." Sermons began to be preached on the eubject. In 1808 a temperance society wa3 formed in Saratoga. The reform dragged along slowly. Dr. Lyman Beecher in 1801-sent an exhortation to a meeting of the New York synod. Other clergymen fol lowed and other societies indorsed the move ment. New societies were formed—'•moral" societies, "farmer" societies, "abstinence" a "toft" one day, he was a costermonger the next. Here and there he picked up a clue, until it came to pass that he knew the lodg ings of his foes and would have recognized their faces on the street. Then they suddenly disappeared, and within a week they had taken a leaf out of his book and adopted dis guises. A seeming mendicant accosted him one day and sought to stab him in the back. As he walked the streets one night a bullet whizzed by his head. A box was left at his lodgings which proved to be an infernal ma chine, and in the crowd at the entrance of a theater an attempt was made to assassinate him. It was a game of life and death well played, but, though the detective realized that the odds were against him, he would not give up. He shifted his lodgings, had the press an nounce that he had left England, and went into the slums as an evangelist. After two weeks he spotted one of his men, but before he could make a move he was assaulted and laid up for a fortnight. He was traced to his new lodgings, and a bomb was used to blow out the front of the house. He was determined to give the nihilists no rest until he had them in limbo, and, on the other hand, a new "center" appeared and solemn oaths were taken to run Frazer to his death before carrying out any other work. He was warned by anonymous letters of what was being done and what was inevitable unless he drew off, but each new develop ment only made him the more determined. He felt now that it was a losing game on his side, but he would continue to play it to the end. In four months Frazer shifted his lodgings seven times. During the same time he shot and wounded two men who had sought lo corner him, and he arrested eight or ten sus picious characters. A man who had entered his lodgings at midnight was almost killed by a blow from a club, and another, who was surprised in the act of throwing a bomb through the window, was flung into the gut ter and had his leg broken. At his last shift of lodgings Frazer moved clear across Lon- Letter. * * * of New York. Now the retaliatory duty of 50 per cent imposed by Russia on American manufactured goods has reduced this trade to almost nothing, while European manufac tures ars*eing rushed into Russia as rapidly as vessels can be found in which to ship them. This blow at the American iron and steel Industries, in order to boom the prod ucts of the sugar trust, is bound to be felt eventually by the other trades. In the mean time European manufacturers are securing a long-coveted foothold in the Russian mar kets. This will be difficult to overcome, and unless speedy action affording relief is taken by the next congress, American firms will be in imminent danger of permanently losing this valuable export trade. Sunday L^itv Fonnd Guilty. There Is general rejoicing over the verdict of the Yonker's jury before which Benjamin H. Adams, the New York banker, has just been tried for violating the Sabbatarian blue laws imported several. centuries ago along with our straight-laced ancestors. Not only was Mr. Adams acquitted, but the Sunday law was found guilty. In future the festive golfer may don hU kilts and belay the .at mosphere to his heart's content undisturbed by the fear of a constabulary to whom a cleek or brassie is the same as a baseball bat. Mr. A.dams was acquitted. The law was found guilty of being a stupid and irra tional, infringement of individual liberty. The golfers, of course, are jubilant. That a brass band and rivulets of champagne do not figure in the celebration of the victory speaks well for the Scotch origin of the game. Mr. Adams will indulge in his customary pastime next Sunday. A Wise Tag Boat. Horses that count up to twenty-four, dogs that select a counterfeit from any number of genuine coins, ravens that, talk and monkeys that dance the can-can will all have to sur- societies, temperance societies. Teetotal (• 'name adopted iv 1833) societies. Temperate* tales were printed. Reformed drunkartt formed Washingtonian societies, whoae propl* et was John B. Gough. The cause had a littV setback in the middle of the century, but like all absolutely necessary reforms, root triumphant. Theaters a. Hundred Year* Ago. I Theaters had b9come, In 1801, more tolerate! in the minds of American people than would have seemed possible twenty years earlier] In Philadelphia, in 1801, 'The Battle of Bun-l ker Hill" was played, and a pantoniinut called "The Federal Oath; or the Independ-1 en.;e of 177 G." Then came "Liberty in Louis-\ iana." The Manfred! family gave tlght-ropa ' performances and ballets. In Philadelphia, in 181)6, Spencer Cone, the grandfather ot 1 Kate Claxton, played Achnet in "Barbaroß sa." After being a successful a>:tor he turned editor, served as captain in the war of 1812, and then became a Baptist minister. In England a young boy, the "Infant P.oa cius," had set the theater going public wild. We had an "Infant American Roscius" 13 years old who played Douglas, and an "Infant Roscius" 8 years old, and an "American Ros cius" 16 years old, who in 1809 appeared as Young Norval. He wae John Howard Payne, the author of "Home, Sweet Home." The mother of Joseph Jefferson was playitg, and .the elder Wallack and Junius Brutus Booth, Edwin Forrest, Kean—truly there were giants in those days. English actors of fame were here, such as George Frederick Cooke and Betterton. The Coming of Photography. A great invention was that of "sun p'.c tures"—photography and its predecessors, the daguerreotype, eurgeatype,. ferrotype, chrysi type, cyanotype, amphitype, anthotype, gandi notype, calotype, talbotype, ambrotype and— let us rejoice in its decease—catallssisotype. The deguerreotype process was given to the public in 1839. I have one of the earliest da guerreotypes taken, a large size, about seven inches by five inches, and an exquisite picture It is in quality. It is of .a father and child, and they had to sit for three minutes. It cost $55. These pictures were a great ad vance beyond the silhouette, which . was the prevailing cheap likeness of the day. Por traits in oil, miniatures and relief portraits in wax, though costly, were commoner than would naturally be thought, and in propor tion to the number of inhabitants and their income painted portraits were far more com mon than to-day. The first cheap photo graph, tlie "carte de visite," and the tintype sprang at once into universal popularity. Bequests of the Nineteenth Century. The bequests of the nineteenth century to the twentieth may be thus summed up: We received ' the goose quill; we bequeath the typewriter. We received the scythe; we be queath the mowing machine. We received the spinning wheel and the band loom; w« bequeath the cotton and woolen factory. . W« received the tallow dip; we bequeath the elec tric light. We received the fire bucket; we bequeath our steam; and electric flre engines and our fire system. We received the well and springhouse; we bequeath cold storage, artificial ice plants and liquid air. We re ceived the stage coach; we ~bequeath the eteam railroad, electric cars and automobiles. We received the sailboat and - horseboat; we bequeath the steamship. , We . received the post rider; we bequeath the telegraph and telephone. We received the well sweep; we bequeath the vast reservoir and -water sys tem. We received small homes of wood and brick; -we bequeath our great iron and ston« hotels and. apartment-houses. ■■, We received scant knowledge or thought of sanitation, antiseptics or drainage; we bequeath out street ■ cleaning and sewerage systems, oui quarantine, and public health -departments* our discoveries in bacteriology. In medicine we received mercury and bleeding;, we be queath our magnificent discoveries and prac tice in medicine and surgery, and our hun dreds of hospitals and asylums. But we have cot space to tell the great be quests the century leaves, and as for the infi nite number of small comforts, protections, devices and improvements^—who can enumer ate them? 6&ei cMazse &&. don and assumed the disguise of a tramp. For a week he heard nothing from his foes, but If they had dropped him, he had not done with them. He had subordinates who were picking up threads for him as he rested. One afternoon, as he sat in a small park after having solicited al*s in his disguise, a middle-aged man of the dress and bearing of a clergyman turned In fr.om the street and sat down beside him. At first the detective rose Op in an excited way, as if to flee; then he sat down and seemed perfectly helpless. His face grew pale, his eyes dilated, and, though he made an effort to speak, his words stuck in his throat. All this was witnessed by two other stroll ers in the vicinity. A nurse girl who was wheeling a child up and down the walk said that bis lips were blue and his chin quiver ing. She heard the supposed clergyman ad dress him several times, but there was no answer. The sun was shining, the people about him were laughing, and it was a sum mer's day, but the disguised detective shook and shuddered. It could only be said after wards that the chill of death was upon him, and that his nervous system had been sud denly upset by the unexpected appearance of one of his foes. By and by the clergyman went away and left Frazer sitting there bolt upright, hU hands clasped and his eyes staring Into va cancy. It was ten minutes before a police man came along and had his attention at tracted by the pallor of the man's face. Ha laid his hand on the tramp's shoulder anl asked if he were 111, and the body toppled over sideways on the bench. The disguised Frazer had been stabbed to the heart by a small dagger In the hands of the clergyman, 1 and then the man who had been marked down had been removed at last. What was called "The Park Mystery" created a good deal of talk and wonder, and It was an nounced that the best talent of Scotland Yard had been put on the case. Xo arrests were ever made, however, and to this day It is a mystery to the English public why the mur- * der should have been committed: render their laurels to the tugboat Pred'J. L>ohman when it comes to intelligence dis played In the service of man. This boat, not long since, discovered itself on fire. The crew, consisting of three men, was asleep aft, and there was not a soul in sight to j've the alarm. Somethnig must be done an<* that speedily. Tnen the boat remembered its whistle. How to start it tooting was the Gordian knot to untie. Not being Alexander, however, and also not having a sword, the boat's intelligence commended burning the rope that controlled the whistle as the next best thing. This it immediately did, with the result that Stentor shouting across the Styx could not have made half the noise. The whole river front was aroused by the whistle's continuous w&ritk, and the men of the crew, half smothered by smoke, bundled out of their bunks as if it were raining gold dollars outside. Giving the alarm, the fire boats New Yorken and Van Wyck were soon on the scene and the flames .were promptly extinguished. The men are puzsled how to thank the tugboat for saving their lives. VAI*E, PETTY Ah, fallen is the idol now. That reared its head so high. And mournfully his vassals bow Where dust-wrapt ruins lie; No more in popullstic choir He'll wake the silver lute Alack, his trolley's off the wire Since Petty played the plute. Mid base, ungodly bulls and bears He shied his caster in And then, with plutocratic airs He gathered in the tin— A hundred thousand golden plunks— Our Rrfef is most acute And sorrow cornea ie chilling chunks Since Petty played the plute. —Mortimer Crane Brown.