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403 Nicollet Avenue. New Suits, Jackets, ~(ifsr ;" Raglans, Paddock da^JSLk Coats, Dress Skirts, Mm Waists and Trimmed \llPi^ LJo+q Smart Styles for J^spMrl JLlalb. Fall and Winter. f I] TAILOR-MADE SUITS— <fc"l A fr . <fc7C 1 / I Hundreds of styles to select from vpJ-vy IV 4) / j #IK j DBEBS AND WALKING SKIRT&—(fcC trk <tCH It I i None bat the best styles *pJ LU >pJ\Jh% ' i FALL JACKETS— dM A+ U fr-lC il I \ %l All the new styles $-LU tO $J)/IL*X \ W*k PUB COLLARS AND COATS— jfM -\1 jis^^^ All new Collars. Coats. J^ My VV««—^V'" . > styles....ss*oo to^NXOO 825.00 to $100 /' Jr* \ \^ CLOTH AND SILK WAISTS— V # V / Beautiful style. (tO m M (tOH T W / Best in the city .vp^Ov LU 4>ZU v^^_^^- S& Bring in Your Furs to Be Repaired. WAITING THE PLOW Aa Agricultural Empire in Northern Minnesota Sparsely Occupied. BOOM THERE FOR MILLIONS W. J>. Wuhbarn, Jr., After a. Reoon uaiianoo of Northern Counties, ties, Cites Some Pact*. W. D. 'Washburn. Jr., Just back from an extensive trip through the northern coun ties of the state, is enthusiastic over the possibilities for settlement and develop ment In the vast region traversed by him. Mr. Washbum traveled over 400 miles through the counties of Case, Crow Wing, Altken and Itaeca, and his observa tions on the conditions existing in those remote sections will be found very inter esting. Instead ol a trackless wilderness, in habited only by big game and lumber- Jaoks, Mr. Washburn found a fertile coun try well adapted for agricultural pur poses and capable of maintaining two or three million inhabitants. In an Inter view with The Journal to-day, Mr. Washburn furnishes a mass of interesting Information touching that portion of Min nesota so little understood by the majori ty of her citizens, and he emphasizes the fact that the growth and supremacy of the twin cities depends largely upon the speedy development of the magnificent lands of northern Minnesota. This can only be accomplished by railroad occupa tion of the lands in question, and it was in the hope of bringing strong pressure to bear upon the transportation compa nies to provide communication with these rich counties that Mr. Washburn under took his arduous trip. He says: The magnitude and wealth of the northern oounties of Minnesota Is not understood by the people of the state. While It is common ly thought that Bralnerd is in the northern part of Minnesota, It is almost in the cen ter. There la a large area of good land north of that city, and it i» upon the devel opment of it that the future growth of the twin cities depends In large measure. Leaving Staples I traveled over 400 miles northward by team, and with the exception of a few townships In the neighborhood of Brain erd I found no bad land—none, in faot, in the northern part of the state, outside of St. Louis county, so poor as the counties of Sherburne, Anoka and other prosperous coun ties in the neighborhood of Minneapolis. Crood Soil for Farming. There is little or no sand in, the lands of northern Minnesota. The Boil in general is a sandy loam with clay subsoil, and in a large portion of that country one finds a heavy black loam with, a hardwood growth of the finest character. Taking the country in detail, and starting from Staples, in the northern, part of Todd oounty, one finds that the lower end of Cass county is a fine agricultural district, with a gentle rolling contour, a black loam soil and a heavy clay subsoil. This county is well timbered with poplar, elm and bass wood, and Is settling up rapidly. One finds good. Improved farms, schools and churches thirty and forty miles from a railroad. The roads are Invariably good and the country admirably adapted for stock raising and gen eral farming. Rpsolar Hawkeye Corn. It will be & matter of surprise, no doubt, but the principal product of this section is oorn—lowa corn, twelve feet in height—just ripening, was what I found on Sept. l. The meadow lands run from two to three tons to the acre this season, and hay stacked in the meadows was selling at from $5 to $5 per too. Many settlers wbo bought land at |5 or $6 per acre had hay standing upon it which would bring them $10 or ?12 per acre. Crow Wing county, which was formerly a part of Cass county and immediately adjoins It to the east. Is of the same character, but is slightly more rolling than Case county. It is Interspersed with fine lakeß and streams, and Is being settled rapidly by people from Pine River and Brainerd. In the town of Emily, some twenty-five miles from the station, is a large and prosperous colony with fine schools and churches. The roads are also well made and serviceable. The country improves rap- Idly as one goes further north, many town ships being covered with a fine growth of oak, maple, basswood and various coniferous timbers. This particular county is not ex oelled by Meeker or Wright counties, and while It is at present Inaccessible by railroad, It Is destined to become one of the richest agricultural sections of the state. In this connection, I might call attention to a flna logging road connecting Gross lake with Wau blna lake. It is expected that this line will shortly be connected with the main line of tit* Brainerd A Northern, In. which case that magnificent section will be at once opened Co settlement. In Cass county I met many settlers whose nearest neighbors were fifteen miles distant, and who went forty miles to the postofflce and tixty miles to the nearest railroad station. CAN CURE ASTHMA AND HAY FEVER ■ A Leading Phyatcian at La*t Discov en the Remedy. Dr. Rudolph Sehiffman of St. Paul, Minn., who is the reoognized authority on ! throat and lung diseases, and who, in thirty years of practice, has undoubtedly treated and cured more cases of Asthma \. than any living physician, makes the astounding statement that he has at last discovered a remedy which not only gives Instant relief in the worst cases of asth ma, hay fever and bronchitis, but effects . cures where all other treatments -, have failed. Such is the confidence of this phy sician In his discovery, that he has author ized the announcement that on next Thursday, Sept. 19th, he will give, free of charge, a liberal sample package of his :. remedy to every sufferer who ' applies at ;". Voegeli Bros. Drug Co., corner Washing ton and Hennepin. : ?:-'■* Those living out of town will be sent a free sample up to September 21st, if they •; will I inclose a 2c stamp to : Dr. R. Schiff f; mann, 870 Jackson street, St. Paul, Inn. ' These pioneers are nearly all Scandinavians or Americans, and with the exception of their Inability to secure school facilities are well satisfied with their locations. A Mr. Wilson, who lives in town 141, range 26, is an excellent type of the northern Min nesota pioneer. Mr. Wilson settled in his present quarters some eight or ten years ago, and now has a fine, improved farm with big barns and other substantial improvements. He showed me corn that stood ten feet high and potatoes that yielded 300 bushels to the acre. His meadoys yielded some three tons to the acre. While these pioneers are a long distance from transportation lines, they find a ready marget for their produce in the log ging and lumber camps which are still oper ating in that section. The Slaughter of Deer. A regretable thing in this garden spot is the frightful slaughter of deer, which Is now going on. In many places I found large par ties of professional hunters arranging their camps for the annual slaughter. These men operate almost without let or hindrance in northern Cass county, and openly defy the law. As a result it Is very difficult for set tlers to secure fresh meat during the year. Aitkin county to the east of Cass is one of the richest regions of the state. I know of no better Minnesota land than is to be found in the northern part if Aitkin county. Itasca county, immediately adjoining, is very Blmilar to Aitkin, and is desirable on account of its proximity to Duluth. The lumber business of this county is prac tically over, and four or flye years will perhaps see the last of It. As to railroad development, the new line of the Minnesota & International will be of the greatest value to the twin cities, as It al most bisects the northern territory. The line which has been surveyed from Swan to Mora should be of great commercial value as it opens up an enormously rich country and places the twin cities in direct connection with the iron ranges. The country in ques tion should easily support a population of two or three million people whose trade and gen eral business should be brought to the twin cities, if possible. AMERICAN KINDNESS It I* the DintliiKuinltiiiu Characteria tlo of the People. International Monthly. A most important result of this belief In the essential likeness of men is the emi nently kindly quality of the American. The proof of this on a large scale Is again to be had in the history of the rebellion. Though this contest, like all war whatso ever, was replete with brutality and hor ror, it was singularly distinguished from all like contentions by the mercy shown to noncombatants, by the care for women and children and by the leniency with which the subjugated leaders were treated. The evidence to support these statements cannot here be given in detail. To ex hibit it fitly would require an extended study of the matter. I cannot, however, forbear to set forth a few incidents which came to my knowledge at the time, and which served to illustrate the temper of our people in conditions which bring out the worst qualities of men. Shortly after the close of the rebellion I questioned many persons who had been in the most sanguinary contests to find whether they had observed any instances where prisoners, taken in the heat of bat tle, had been harmed As the result of thia Inquiry, which was made of over one hun dred ex-soldiers, I learned of one or two cases where prisoners had been shot by memberß of a rabble home guard, men generally of a much lower grade than the embodied troops and without adequate control by officers. Among disciplined troops there was but one example of cruelty, if such it may be called, where a federal soldier, as he clutched the mus ket of a surrendering confederate, slapped him on the face, and he was at once put under arrest for his brutal conduct In the campaign of 1862, between the armies of Buell and Bragg, for the posses sion of Kentucky, movements which led to the fiercest action of the war, the con ditions were such as to have elsewhere always brought vast suffering to noncom batants. It was a more truly internecine struggle than occurred in any other part of the great field. The state was divided against itself, communities and families were rent. In instances, probably num bering thousands, brothers and fathers or sons were In opposing armies. It is doubt ful if in any other time have people of our race been so moved by fury to the foundations of their souls. Yet at the end of it I recall that none of the many I questioned knew of harm having come to woman or child; that whenever a flag of truce gave the chance of meeting there was expression of a mutual anxiety to "keep the fighting clean" and a deter mination to insure this by slaying all of fenders against decency. THE EARTH'S BENDINGS Surface of the Globe Acts Like a. ' Steel Spring-. Little bendlngs are In progress all the time the world over. The "immovable" hills are bowing and scraping to each other constantly. j Every evening, as the dew settles in the valleys between them, they nod to one another. So, likewise, do the mountains," even to a greater extent. Gravity Is \ tugging all the . time. And in London, too, where earthquake sensa tions are practically unknown, the earth bends daily, - and the buildings, like the hills and the ; mountains, nod to their friends opposite when the morning traffic begins. On Sunday, usually, their manners take a rest, excepting In such places as Petticoat lane, where : business flourishes in- as lively a fashion as %xx Paris. Heine said that even the trees made obeisance to Napoleon I. when he entered Berlin. This was ■■ imaginative yet truth ful, for the weight of the crowd along Under den Linden made a tilting sufficient for Professor Milne's pendulums to have recorded distinctly. One might say the crust of the earth acts like a steel spring, it bends so easily. >.;■!■;■■:''. : • • INCONSIDERATE INCREDULITY ■■••■•■.........5mart Set. Daughter— I fear I hurt the oount's feelings. ' ■ . • . Father—ln , what way. -I>?^ --* "I thoughtlessly told him I didn't believe he owed as.much as he said he did." "Isn't he ridiculous? He Bays a glass of Sehuylkill water reminds him of a Jewel " "Oh, that's v Just his roundabout war of putting It H» refers to the consistency of it" ' SEEDLESS ORANGE MAN A PAUPER L. C. Tibbets, Who Introduced the Navels Into California, Now in Abject Poverty, While an Army of People Grow Rich on His Efforts and Industry. Helen T. Griswold in New York Post. The man who introduced the seedless navel-orange tree into California is an aged, luckless, forlorn county charge in Riverside county. He whose little trees of seedless oranges have revolutionized the orange industry of the world, who, more than any one else, has made possible the investment of millions of dollars in orange growing, and who has demonstra ted how once arid valleys in southern Cal ifornia may be converted into lovely or ange groves and made to blossom as the proverbial rose, is old, neglected and for gotten. Very many large fortunes and a multitude of small ones have been made by the success of the naevl orange. A half dozed great attendant industries have been created by the wealth produced by navel-orange groves. Several cities haev waxed from sleepy pueblos, and a score of towns have sprung up in treeless val leys because of the impetus to their pros perity by the growing of the seedless na vel orange. Nothing has altered the to pography of southern California so much as the golden naevl oranse. The third greatest industry in the state now is or- ange growing. Meanwhile, the man who cultivated —in fact, created —the first navel orange in America, has been growing whiter, fee bler, poorer and less known. The sheriff has stripped him of practically all his ■worldly possessions; he has lost almost all of his family, and has been beset by ad versity in every quarter. But, like Job of old, he has kept a philosophic mind amid a flood of disheartening discourage ments. An army of people, prosperous and happy in their homes amid the beautiful orange groves of California, have never heard, much less thought, of Luther C. Tibbets of Riverside, who made possible the successful growing of the finest or- anges. Twenty-seven years ago last December, Mr. Tibbets left New York city and came down the coast from San Francisco to seek a home in the semi-tropics of south ern California. The orange trees at San Gabriel mission showed him what was pos sible in orange culture In the soil and cli mate of the south-land. He was one of the six men who took up free government land at what now is Riverside, and, with his brother settlers, he settled down in a rude habitation to be the pioneer fruit growers of the region. Mrs. Tibbets (who died last July) had remained with her daughters in Washing ton, D. C, until © home might toe estab lished for them in California. Her husband wrote to her frequently concerning the cli matic conditions in San Bernardino coun ty. In one letter he asked her to see what shrubs and plants the department otf agriculture had suitable for propaga tion in tne southwest. Mrs. Tibiaets was a cousin of General Ben Butler, and, with the influence of her distinguished relative, she received extra attention from the au thorities in the department. In the fall of 1878 Mrs. Tibbets wrote to her hus iband that she could obtain in the depart ment a lot of forage plants indigenous to arid regions, some berry shrubs, a tobacco plant, and several peculiar orange trees, but the department must first toe assured that the specimen plants would be care fully watched and cultivated. Mr. Trbbets wrote at once to send the specimen orange trees, and that he would give them un usual care. Six weeks later. In December, 1873, a package came in the mail from the de partment of agriculture, to the little ham let of Riverside, addressed to Mr. Tibbets. The parcel contained three tiny-rooted shoots of orange trees—the first known in •the world outside of the swamps of Bahia, Brazil. It seems that the United States consul at Babia was of a horticultural turn of mind and had sent six cuttings from a curious tree —a horticultural freak —which bore seedless oranges. Three of the cuttings died In the department gar dens at Washington, and tout for Mr. Tib ibet's urgent request for the remaining tree, they also would probably have been lost. The settlers in Riverside, who were pio neering in seedling orange culture, paid little or no attention to the tiny trees that Tl'bbets watched over and watered so as siduously. One of the shoots was chewed up by a cow, but for five years the other two were carefully attended. Then each tree *bore two oranges. It was the sum mer and fall of 1878. A .fence was built about the trees to (protect them from the wind and trespassers, and Mr. and Mrs. Tibbets anxiously waited while the fruit developed from green bullets to great goldien, juicy, pungent oranges—the first navel ones ever grown outside the swamps at Bahia. On January 22, 1879, two of the new oranges were cut oipen and crit ically tasted 'by a little company of orange-growers at Riverside. The following year the wonderful new trees bore a half bushel of oranges, and from that time the neme and fame of Tib bets' seedless oranges went throughout southern California. The name navel was given by the Riverside growers because of the resemblance to a human navel, an<l the name will no doubt always remain, in America, at least. Like all new ideas and unique things in this world, the Riverside navel orange had its doubters and pessi mists. There were only a few orange- WHY THEY WEDDED Reasons Given by Women for Tak ing Their Spouses. Tit Bits. If there is one question more than an other to which it is difficult to get or give a satisfactory answer it is surely this: "Why did you fall in love with your husband?" In nineteen cases out of twen ty a woman would probably confess can didly that she did not know, or else she would declare conclusively that she did because she did, and that ought to end the matter. In the rare cases where the lady con descends to declare her reason the an swers are both interesting and instruc tive. "Whatever made you marry the pris oner?" a London magistrate asked a wom an whose face bore "striking" evidence of her husband's affection. "Because he punched all the other fellows' heads," she answered, "and nobody else dared make love to me." Another good lady confessed that she fell in love with her husband because he was the "only man who ever dared to snub her." While other men were stum bling over each other to pay her court and attention, he always treated her with absolute indifference and even rudeness. The consequence was that she deter mined to bring him to her feet and his knees. She succeeded, but lost her heart in the attempt. "I fell in love with my husband," one lady recently declared, "because he was the only man about whom no one was ever heard to say an unkind word. Even the women, although he paid them no special attention, were agreed that he was 'a darling'; and although he was plain, almost to ugliness, and old enough almost to be my father, I loved him and deter mined to marry him long before he had any such thought of me." Not long ago a Yorkshire lady of wealth and beauty shocked her friends by marry ing a poor cripple. It had come to her ears that he had long loved her in silence, and had counted each day happy if he only caught a distant glimpse of her. She dis covered that be was a devoted son and brother, and a man of unusual'gifts and culture for his humble position; and, moved by one of those sudden, generous Impulses to which some women are liable, she sought an interview with him, told him that she had learned his secret, and offered him her hand and fortune. This may appear a strange and improbable thing, but thousands know that it is lit erally true. Another lady whose marriage resulted from a similar impulse gives this explan ation of it. Among the friends of her fam- THE MINNEAPOLIS JOUHNAL. growers In southern California in those days, and only a small part of these ven tured to cut back a few of their seedling orange trees to gaunt stumps and experi ment with budding from the Tibbets navel orange trees. The greater part of the growers believed that the seedless fruit was but a short-lived curiosity. It is funny to read nowadays the arguments of California horticulturists' against their general growth. Mr. Tibbets, however, had full faith in the new variety. He budded all his' seedling orange-grove to the navel variety, and he sent samples of the new fruit to horticulturists and fruit-buyers throughout California. In 1880 the "Lucky" Baldwin orange grove cl seventy-five acres was planted to navel oranges exclusively at Sierra Madra. It was the first important recognition of the commercial superiority of the new fruit. Six months later a syndicate of English men planted a larger tract in Riverside to trees budded from the Tibbets' two original trees. By 1882 the majority of orange trees set out had been budded from the Tibbets trees and by 1884, tVhen the Baldwin and other groves began to bpar the new navel fruit, the era of planting seedless groves came to an end. The enormous prices paid in San Francisco and Portland, Ore gon, for the new seedless oranges set the growers wild. James G. Blame had a sample box of the fruit in Washington, and he wrote enthusiastically about it for the American Agriculturist. By 1886 over 5,000 acres of new land that had been sheep and cattle ranges were converted into navel orange-groves. In 1887 over 6,000 more acres were made orange groves, and in 1888 some 800,000 navel orange trees were planted on 8,000 acres of comparatively virgin soil. The most spontaneous and remarkable real' estate boom occurred in southern California in 1886 to 1888. Towns like Pomona, Red lands, Ontario, Tustin, Monrovia, Sierra Madre, Corona, Highlands and Azusa in the orange-growing localities were un known before 1885, yet grew to several thousand population in a few years. Land that had gone begging at $30 an acre sold readily when its adaptability to navel orange production was shown, at $800 and $1,000 an acre. The railroads brought 12, --000 people to southern California every month during 1887. Everybody talked navel oranges and the great profit there was in the business, and people who had nurseries .of orange trees grown from navel buds made fortunes in one or two years. In 1888 and 1889 tiny budded trees suitable for planting in groves sold for $1.60 and $1.80 each. Similar trees have cold for 5 and 6 cents each in the last few years. In 1880, when there were but a few navel-orange trees bearing, the total capi- tal invested in growing oranges—that is, in trees, land, irrigation systems, pack ing-houses, and agricultural devices —was $1,150,000. In 1887 and 1888 over $8,000, --000 was inves-ted directly in the navel orange industry, and millions of dollars were invested in industries and boom propositions influenced by the rise of the orange industry. The transformation by the buds from the Tibbets' seedless orange trees was nearly as thorough in Florida between 1884 and the "big freeze" there in 1894. To-day $45,000,000 is invested directly in the growing and marketing of oranges. This season the orange crop is about 12,000 carloads, Worth to the growers over $3,400,000. Of this sum more than 90 per cent is from navel oranges. In a few years more the navel-orange crop of California will be over 18,000 carloads. The revolution of the orange world' by Tibbets' seedless fruit is almost complete. All this time Mr. Tibbets guarded the two orange trees whence came all the buds of navel-orange trees, with jealous care. Buds from the genuine Tibbets trees were in enormous demand, and fancy prices were offered for buds from the parent stock. Sales of buds amount ing to $600 a month were not uncommon for a few years. Speculators offered $10, --000 for the two original trees for budding purposes, but Mr. Tibbets not only de clined the offers, but refused to sell any thing but genuine first buds from the trees. Had he sold second buds—that i3, buds one removed from the parent stock —he might easily have made tens of thou sands of dollars annually for half a decade. His correspondence was stu pendous, and he had letters from horti culturists all over the world. He built a beautiful home, and erected a sightly barn, with towering cupolas and an elaborate bay window. He had an ex pensive fence built around the original trees. Then he became involved in law suits regarding his irrigation water rights, and spent a fortune in court ex-. penses and lawyers. His wife was an invalid for the last few years of her life, and abandoning all else, he gave his whole time and remaining fortune to prolonging her life. At the time of her death his mortgage became due on his place, and he was driven from the old home. He is now nearly eighty years of age. Some day California will be building a costly monument to the founder of the orange industry of the country. ily was an old bachelor, with a reputation for crustiness, who had known her from a child and had often nursed her in early days. To her he had always,, been gentle and kind, and she loved him "in a way" as long as she could remember. One day she said: "Why have you never married, Mr. —?" "Marry, my dear? Why, no one would ever marry a grumpy old man like me." "Of course thay would!" she answered indignantly. "Why, I would marry you myself." "Thank you,' my dear!" came the unexpected answer; "then we'll consider the matter settled." In spite of her surprise and misgivings the girl loyally kept her promise and she has never had reason to regret her "mo ment's indiscretion." A lady friend of the writer married her husband for the very illogical reason that he was an avowed woman hater. He made no secret of his aversion to the fair sex, and declared it so constantly that, as she say», "I vowed I would convert him and make him change his mind, at least, so far as one of my sex was concerned." He was not a difficult convert; for within twelve months he had forsworn hia creed so far as to conduct one of the "hated sex" to the altar; and now he declares that he "loves them all." THE WAITER MEANT WELL ' Baltimore Sun. . • When the Rev. Dr. S. Reese Murray was doing pastoral work in Montgomery, Ala., he was called on to marry a couple at the home of Mr. Pollock, the leading merchant in the city. Mr. Pollock was a wealthy Hebrew who lived in great magnificence, his home being the former g residence of an •" ex-gov ernor of Alabama. . The bride, a Gentile, was an inmate of the house, and the wedding guests were lavishly entertained. The supper was remarkable for all sorts of delicious things to eat and drink and for the hand some display of silver and glass. - -.*:" ■•?& 'i In the early part of the meal a waiter ap proached Dr. Murray -and was about .to nil hi* ■ glass. 11 "'.. . ;;. ■]■ •>. -,:~: ; , ■ f - ....•■ "Not any for me," said Dr. Murray, quietly." . "It's champagne, sir, insisted the waiter.' "Not any," repeated Mr. "Murray. -;■. ■ •. The waiter turned away,- hut come back in stantly with another bottle. -...:. "Hare this, sir? It's port.'' \ "No, I don't care for any," from Dr Mur ray.-. - •:.-.■' .-.' i' r .--. :•; :■ - ;'.■ ■-i , . Again. the man went away, only" to return with, a third bottle. " ' This time he smiled confidently. As he was about to pour the wine, he said: "Claret; "No," again from Dr. Murray. < f' A fourth wine was brought and declined s I Then the waiter came up close to Dr. Murray"* I leaned, over his shoulder' and; whispered In his ar: ; , .-. ; ■ ■;,-,■:. .. ■, v • *•. ■•.- •-■ ■•..- ■-■■'■.. "Doctor, we have whisky and brandy in the house; which, can I get for you, sir?" Willie— gold fish you sent home are fakes.-'.. .- .. '.-, ......--.j. ■ ■-i.jr-■••■'.; ■■■ 'y '.-.--..- Slimson—How do you know? .' ,: '--'-Why, lV took<• them out of tbe water aad they turn»d brown to fifteen minutes." • "SWEDISH NICHTINCALF'LEGENDSi Some Light Thro wn (he Birth and Early Lfe of "Jenny Lnd" —Hotels and Dining Stations in Sweden—Charges for Food Are Fairly Reasonable. In his Scandinavian letter to the Chi cago Record-Herald, William E. Curtis writes as follows under date of Stock holm, Aug. 5: According to the records and traditions of Stockholm, Jenny Lind was born iv two places and had neither father nor mother, but she is buried in Westminster Abbey. The official record of her birth in the parish books states that her par entage is unknown, but the woman who brought her up to the church to be bap tized, and who was believed to be her mother, was the widow of an army cap tain named Lindborg. She afterward married a government clerk named Lind, whose name was given to the "Swedish nightingale" when he formally adopted her a few weeks later. Her reputed father was a rich brewer, named Schmidt, one of the most prominent and richest busi ness men in Stockholm in that day. His brewery is still running, and is owned by his descendants. Jenny Lind was bap tized as Johanna Lindborg. The nick name by which she became famous was given her in her childhood. Her mother lived in two different tene ments, No. 43 Jakobsbergsgatan and No. 32 Mastersamuelsgatan, while she was an infant, and it is not definitely known in which she was horn. Both claim the honor, but the weight of evidence seems to be in favor of the former, which is on a short street in the manufacturing sec tion of the city, and mostly occupied by artizans of various sorts. A snickare, or carpenter, now occupies the ground floor of the two-story building in which Mrs. Lindborg lived. The remainder of the house is occupied by a man who makes bird cages and other wire goods, and a gun mender. A cabtaet-maker has his shop in the rear. The other place Is on a better street, near ±he center of the business section, and the ground floor is occupied by a skaddare, as they call a tailor in Sweden. A Mr. Lindhalh, who holds a position in the royal library here, has an interesting collection of letters and documents re lating to the early life of Jenny Lind. Most of them are unpublished. He has certified copies of the record of her birth and christening and the proceedings of the court which, when she was 14 years of age, decided that her parents were unfit persons to have charge of her, and ap pointed the director of tfce opera-house as her guardian. He also has a number of autograph letters written when she was a child, and afterward, when she was a young woman, in Peris, studying with Mme. Garcia. One of them, written at the age of 11, is extremely interesting, for it reveals the poverty of her family and her thoughtfulness in saving expenses for her mother. She says that she must have a new pair of shoes, for the shoe maker has refused to repair her old ones any longer, and tells her mother that she can buy a pair at Drottningholm, where she is stopping—a little village that sur rounds the king's palace—a little cheaper than she can get them at Stockholm. The letters from Paris, full of ardor and en thusiasm, tell of her experience there, the compliments that have been paid her, the encouragement she has received, and her confidence of success. There are people still living in Stock holm who knew her intimately, although the greater part of her life was spent in London. Among others is Professor Gun ter, a former instructor in the Royal Con servatory of Music, who retired on a pen sion a few years ago, to whom she was at one time engaged to be married. She jilted him to marry Otto Goldsmith, her accompanist upon her American tour un der the management of P. T. Barnum. Mr. Goldsmith is still living in London. Their son Is a captain in the British army and their daughter is married to a prom inent business man in London. When she "was 10 yeans old she "was ap prenticed to the singing master of the Royal opera In Stockholm with a num ber of other girls of her age who had fine voices, and at the age of 18 made her debut in the opera "Agata" in the Royal opera-house, "which was torn down to make room for the new one that stands opposite the palace to-day. It is an in stitution of which the people of Stock holm are very proud. At the old-fashioned inns and restau rants in Sweden it is customary to charge less for women than for men, on the theory that they do not eat so much. This amuses people, but it is not so absurd as the practice of charging half-rates for children in our own country. Everybody who has had anything to do with healthy boys or girls knows that they usually eat twice as much as the average grown per son, and yet at many hotels they are taken at half price. At some hotels in Sweden a man and wife are charged as v one and one-half persons if they occupy the same room. A husband and wife may travel as one and one-half persons by railway, and also by the post routes, furnishing their own car riage. On local trains on most of the railroads there Is no first-class accom modation —only second and third-class. This is said to be a political measure adopted by the demagogues in parliament to emphasize the theory of equality among the people. On all through trains, how ever, there is at least one first-class car riage. The railway system of Sweden covers nearly 6,000 miles. About half the roads are owned by the government; the remainder by private corporations. The cars are comfortable and well kept, and upon one of the roads there is a dining car. The dining stations are managed in a peculiar manner. Twenty minutes is al lowed for breakfast, lunch or dinner, and as soon as the train stops the passengers rush into the dining-room, where the food is spread out upon a long table. Everybody helps himself, and the scene reminds one of the supper-room at a fashionable evening reception at home. There will be several platters of hot meats, fish, stews, omelets, potatoes and vegetables, and a startling array of sausages of different kinds, preserved fisn, and five or six varieties of cheese. The hungry passenger seizes a plate, plunges into the mob, grabs whatever he can reach, and then carries his provision to a table over in the corner, where he can sit down and devour it. Pretty soon a girl comes aion<: and asks him what he wants to drink —tea, coffee or beer, and all kinds of wine, but nothing stronger. After he has finished the first installment he can help himself to another, if he de sires to do so and there is time remain ing. There is no limit, and some people can eat a great deal In twenty minutes. As you pass out of the restaurant you are intercepted near the door by a woman, to whom you pay for what you have eaten. The charge is generally 1 krona, or 28 cents, for breakfast, 2 kroner for dinner and 1.50 kroner for supper—tea, coffee, beer and wine extra. When the train is crowded the ruah for the lunch counter is very exciting, and will remind you of bargain day in a Chi cago department store. On the steamers breakfast and lunch are served in the ordinary way. but the din ner and supper are great events, and are preceded by a preliminary repast called a "smorgasbord." An extra table spread with a great variety of cold meats, pre served fish, cheese and other appetizers, with bottles of schnapps, brandy and liqueurs on the side, is first attacked, and one would think from the energy usually displayed that it would be sufficient. But after devouring this cold food the passen gers pass Into the dining tables, where they sit down and are served with sev eral hot courses. This custom prevails in many private houses, particularly where there are guests, and at formal banquets. Among the old-fashioned Swedes a "Smorgasbord," at which the guests are expected to help themselves to cold meats of various kinds, herring, an chovies, sardines, radishes, sausages of great variety, fried fish, hot omelets, corn brandy, potato brandy, schnapps and oth er drinks, always precedes the regular dinner. When large parties are gathered It is always customary for the men to sing one of the national drinking songs when they take their schnapps. Tbe Swedes have good appetites and en TUESDAY EVENING, SEPTEMBER 17, 1901. joy eating. On the steamers on the lakes and canals and the coasters they seem to be eating and drinking all the time, and an old-fashioned custom permits each pas senger to keep his own score. There is usually a slate or a memorandum book hanging by a string in the dining room, where he writes down his name and the items of food and drink that he has been served with. At the end of the voyage one of the maids goes around among the passengers with this book and they settle with her. No one ever thinks of cheat- Ing. The honesty of the Swedes is pro verbial. This custom, however, is being done away with, with others equally old fashioned, and modern methods intro duced. The charges for food are comparatively low. At most of the hotels breakfast and supper are 42 cents each and dinner 56 cents with tea, coffee and all other drinks extra. The" old-fashioned hours of meals are also being changed in the cities. It has been customary to have breakfast at 9 o'clock, dinner at 4 and supper at 9. This custom appears to have been the re sult of the long nights aid the short days of winter. From November until April it is not fully light until 9 o'clock and it is dark at 4. The banks, government offices, the lawyers and other office men begin work at 10 o'clock, and continue un til 4, with perhaps a cup of coffee and a sandwich at their desks between times. They then go home to dinner and do not return to their work, although the shops keep open from 8 o'clock in the morning until 7 or 8 In the evening, and mechanics and laborers work from eleven to twelve hours. The meal hours, however, are changing, and fashionable people follow the French custom of taking a light, breakfast with coffee and rolls In the morning, a luncheon or breakfast at 12 and dinner at 7. ' The state dinners at the palace are al ways at 6 o'clock. At nearly all the other courts of Europe it Is customary 10 dine at S. The king's dinners are short. His guests seldom remain at the table more than an hour or an hour and a half, after which the ladies adjourn to one of the drawing-rooms, the gentlemen to the smoking-room, and later are usually en tertained by musicians from the opera house or the royal conservatory. Carri ages are usually ordered at 10 o'clock. This seems old-fashioned, but for people who like to go to bed early and those who are occupied with business all day it is a much more sensible and agreeable custom than in some cities where social festivities do not begin until the hour waen the King of Sweden's guests are bidding good night. Everybody complains that the Swedes are drifting away from their old customs and are becoming modernized. The French influence seems to prevail and modern Swedish life is an imitation of that of Paris. Another of the old customs is for peo ple to indicate their business upon their visiting cards. You will receive the card of Lawyer Jones, or Banker Smith, or Notary Johnson, or Music Professor Brown, or Qrosserer (which means whole sale merchant) Furgeson, or Geologist. Thompson, and if a man ever held an office it is customary to indicate that fact upon his card. A burgomaster is always a burgomasiter, a consul is always a consul and an alderman always au alderman. The prefixes "Honorable" and "Mr." are .seldom used, and the title, whether com mercial or professional, is observed in conversation in the same way. It would sound rather queer for anyone in the United States to ask ''Wholesale Merchant MacVeagh, will you kindly pass the but ter?" or "Banker Hutchinson, will you escort Fru Board-of-Trade-Operator Jones to the table?" or "Director-of-Music Zieg feld, I wish you good day"; but that is the custom in Sweden, and it is observed by children as well as grown people. A lisp- Ing child will approach a guest, make a pretty little bob-courtesy, and say 'Good morning, Chief- Justice-of-Supreme-Court Fuller," or "Good night, Representative in-Congress Boutell." It is customary also for ladies to print their maiden names upon their visiting cards in smaller type, under their married names, particularly if they have a pride of family and want people to know their ancestry. BURDENS OF THE COSSACKS Military Exactions Causing: Tlielr Decline in Population. Liondon Times. A report from the Austro-Hungarian vice consul at Rostoff, on the Don, con tains some highly interesting particulars of the inquiry instituted some time ago by means of a special government com mission as to the causes of the decline of the Cossask population. The report, which deals more particu larly with the Cossacks of the Don, be gins by stating that In the "Institution of the Cossacks" there is a dominating factor which distinguishes its mode of ex istence from that of the other elements in the empire, and which is characterized by compulsory military service in the strictest sense of the term. For the last thirty years compulsory service has been in force throughout Russia, but in ac cordance with certain dispositions of the law a large number of young men are ex empted as being the support of their fam ily or in consequence of trifling physical defects and on other grounds. No such favor is extended to the Cossacks, who are, indeed, obliged to equip and mount themselves at their own expense. Their rifles and ammunition are alone provided by the military administration. Every Cossack on attaining his eighteenth year is enrolled in the Cossack army, and has to take the oath of allegiance. The 'spe cial privileges which the Cossack enjoys are exemption from taxes and gifts of land, from which he makes his living and meets the cost of his equipment. The greater part of the district of the Don, is, or was, the property of the Cossacks. Their Improvement is due to the fact that the material burdens imposed upon them by their military obligations have been steadily increasing, while there has been, no corresponding augmentation in their sources of revenue. In order to pro vide himself with the regulation equip ment the young Cossack, or more fre quently, his father, has to mortgage, let. or sell his property. The lessee of the land is naturally anxious to get as much as possible out of it in a short time. The consequence is that it loses much of its fertility, a circumstance which has proved highly unfavorable to the rearing of cat tle, and especially to horse breeding. Ac cording to a member of the commission of inquiry, forty years ago the communes made no special distribution of the land belonging to them. The Cossack sowed and reaped where he liked and as much as he liked, but he confined himself to the requirements of his family, the land that remained over being used for graz ing purposes. He did not need money and cared nothing for It. The New Maa*acliusett« Leader. Worcester Gazette. Josiah Quincy is not a man one would nat urally pick out as a popular leader. He is as cold as ice and as stiff as a ramrod. When he addresses an audience he is calm and cooi as though he was a college professor lecturing on the internal structure of the oscoptscupus. He neither smiles nor flushes nor moves his arms nor looks pleased or displeased. He is aristocratic, haughty, distant and unsympa thetic, but a hallfull of worthy men will ho vl themselves hoarse over him while he stands stiff and silent before them, showing neither pleasure nor interest in their display of en thusiasm. That such a man should be sut-n a popular leader is exceptional, but the fa<, remains that he is, and that he is more of a national vote-getter than any democrat iv the state save John R. Thayer. BUT NOT INDEED. "Aekerr says he aim* to be a friend in need." "Well, be is. I seldom see him that he isn't in need of borrowing at least a quarter." HE TESTIFIED IN SONG The Lawyer Made the Prosecuting; Witnei« Sing a Hymn. '..t: The Macon (Mo.) Republican. Colonel C. C. Fogle, attorney-at-law or Lancaster, Mo., related the following legal incident: "One of the most orig inal .lawyers I ever met in my life was 'Sam' Dysart, who some twenty years ago was a resident of our county. He is some kin to Major 'Ben' Dysart of your town. .'Sam' was a born humorist, and could have made his fortune in the lec ture field. When he lived up our way he was engaged on one occasion to defend a lot of boys and girls charged with dis turbing a religious assembly out in the country by 'laughing and giggling' is the ' way the information read. The case was tried before Squire A. C. Bailey, a good old man, who has long since gone to hl3 final reward. Like all cases of the sort it attracted an immense crowd from the vicinity of the alleged outrage. T. C. Tadlock prosecuted, and he was instructed . by the church people to spare no pains to convict the disturbers, who were very much frightened by being dragged into court. All the defendants were children of good families and it was their first of fense. They candidly admitted they laughed out in church, and the state in sisted that by their own mouths they were condemned. Brother Tice Spears, a right eous man of Puritanic type, was the main prosecuting witness. He had conducted the services, and he testified that his peace was sadly disturbed by the un seemingly behavior of tha 'rioters.' After he told his story in chief he sat down with clasped hands waiting for the de fendants' attorney to begin on him. He didn't have long to wait. The examina tion began like this: "'Brother Spears, you led the meetla' last night?' " 'I did, sir.' " 'You prayed?' "'I did, sir.' ' , " 'And preached?' "4 I tried to.' ■ • ', " 'And sung?' , "'I sung.' " 'What did you sing?' , 'There Is a Fountain Filled with Blood,' " sir. "Here Mr. Dysart pulled a hymn book 1 from his pocket and handed it to the witness with the remark: " 'Please turn to that song, Brother Spears.' "The witness did so. " 'That's what you sang that night?' " 'It is. sir.' ".'Well, stand up and sing it now, if you please.' ' 'What!' " 'You heard what. I said, Brother Spears.' " 'But I can't sing before this sort of a crowd.' "Brother Spears,' with much apparent indignation, 'do 1 understand that you re fuse to furnish legitimate evidence to this Jury?' " —no —but, you see' " 'Your honor,' said Mr. Dysart, 'I in sist that the witness shall sing the song referred to just as he did on the night of alleged disturbance. It is a part of our evidence, and very important. The rea son for it will be disclosed later on.' "There was a long jangle between the lawyers, and the court finally ordered the witness to get up and sing. " 'And, mind you, Brother Spears,' said Dysart seriously, 'you must sing it just as you did that night; if you change a note you will have to go back and do It all over a^ain. "The witness got up and opened the book. There is a vast difference between singing to a congregation in sympathy with you and a crowd of courtroom habi tues. Brother Spears was painfully con scious of the fact. You know how those oldtlme hymns are sung in the backwoods settlements? You begin in the basement and work up to the roof, and then leap off from the dizzy height and finally finish, the line in the basement. That's the way the witness sang. He had a good voice— that is, it was strong. It seemed to threaten the window lights. The crowd didn't smile —it just yelled with laughter. The jurymen bent double and almost rolled from their seats. The court bit his cob pipe harder and looked solemn. It wasn't any use. There were only two straight faces in the house. One belonged to a. deaf man and the other to 'Sam' Dysart. The singer finisher and sat down. He looked tired.. 'Sam' immediately excused him. . When the. time for speechmaking came, 'Sam' remarked to the jury: 'If you gentlemen think you could go out to one of Brother Spears's meetings and behave bet ter than you have here, why you may be justified in convicting these boys and girls.' That was all he said, but it gave the jury lots to think about. They brought in a verdict of not guilty, with the re quest that Brother Spear sing another song. But that gentleman had gone home and court adjourned. A ROOSEVELT STORY Harper's Weekly. Vice President Roosevelt was not always the mighty hunter he is now. He has had his day of being afraid of big game. But that was many years ago, when he was a wee little boy in short trousers and used to play tag in Madison Square in New York. Opposite the square on the east side stood a Presbyterian church, and the sex ton, while airing the building one Satur day, noticed a small boy peering curiously in at the half-open door, but making no move to enter. "Come in, my little man, if you wish, to," said the sexton. "No, thank you." said the boy. "I know what you'e got in there." "I haven't anything that little boys may not see. Come in." "I'd rather not." And the Juvenile The odore cast a sweeping and somewhat ap prehensive glance around the pews and galleries and bounded off to play again. Still the lad kept returning once in a while and peeping in. When he went home that day he told his mother of the sexton's Invitation and tils unwillingness to accept it. "But why didn't you go in, my dear?" she asked. "It's the house of God, but there is no harm in entering It quietly and looking about." With some shyness the little fellow con fessed that he was afraid to go in because I the zeal might jump out at him from under a pew or somewhere. "The zeal? What is the zeal?" the mother inquired. "Why," explained Theodore. "I suppose It is some big animal like a dragon or an alligator. 1 went there to church last Sunday with Uncle R , and I heard the minister read from the Bible about the zeal, and it frightened me." Down came the Concordance from the library shelf, and one after another the texts containing the word "zeal" was read to the child, whose eyes suddenly grew bis and his voice excited, as he exclaimed: "That's it—the last you read!" It was Psalm lxix, 8: "For the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up." WHY HE IS BARRED. Chicago Evening 1 Post. "No," said the man of wisdom, "ho never can be really great. He may eecure a certain amount of notoriety, but he has no chance for lasting fame." "Why do you say that?" "Because I happen to know that there ar« not enough different photographs of him in existence to make the foundation for a modern magazine article relating to his life." AWFUL AUDACITY. MudklQs —.What would you say, Blr, lit I should tell you that I love your daughter? Mr. Cashburn—Not a word, sir; not a word. Your audacity would simply bold me spellbound. THE SABBATH DAY. Charleston News and Courier. The view that the Sabbath of the Decalogue Is rtot a specific day. but any seventh day, it is noted, •Ms spreading," and even one of th« leading Protestant religious Journals of tha country goes so far as to say that the idea •obtains very widely among Christians" that the law of God requires that one-seventh of our time be devoted to rest and worship and that the particular day of the week to be thus observed "is not a matter of great con sequence." "What made you so long coining?" asked the boss. 'I was long because I was short." Mid tha workman. "Hay?" "I had no carfare and had to walk."