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The Minneapolis journal. [volume] (Minneapolis, Minn.) 1888-1939, November 22, 1901, Image 1

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THE MINNEAPOLIS JOURNAL.
PRICE TWO CENTS.
BURIED TREASURE UNEARTHED.
Political Capt. Kidd—They have discovered my buried treasurt at last.
GOVERNMENT
OWNERSHIP
Next Congress Will Probably
Tackle R. R. Question.
TIME EIPE FOR TEIS
Democratic and Some Republican
Leaders for Control.
EXISTING FEDERAL ACTS FAIL
McCleary of Minnesota the Best
Equipped CoiiKreßMinan to Deal
With This Subject.
-*V»m Thm Journal Buremu. Mourn -AS. Ttt
tututjtf, TTashluaton.
Washington, Nov. 22. —Government own
ership of railways is a subject which is
likely to command a larger share of at
tention from this congress than was anti
cipated by the leaders of either party.
Recent developments in the line of rail
way consolidation, and more particularly
the organization of the Northern Securi
ties company, have convinced democratic
leaders here and also some republican
leaders that there must be some legisla
tion looking to the federal control of rail
roads.
The entire country has taken note of
the fact that the new consolidation in the
northwest has had the effect of stifling
competition or the possibility of compe
tition, between the two great trunk lines
connecting the shippers of the middle
west with the Pacific seaboard. The ulti
mate end and purpose of the consolidation
is to raise the freight rates. The only
redress for the shippers is in congress.
The states through which the two rail
ways pass have local laws which it is
claimed have been ,violated. There are
constitutional and statutory prohibitions
in all the states against one competing
railway acquiring another competitive
line. In ISSS J. J. Hill tried to acquire
the Northern Pacific; an action was
brought to prevent and the case went to
the United States supreme court and was
decided adversely to Hill. The present
device of a corporation to absorb the se
curities of the two lines is only another
way to accomplish what he then tried to
do. The action of Governor Van Sant of
Minnesota, who promises to do all in his
power to enforce the local laws, has at
tracted the attention of the country at
large, and the proceedings will be watched
with the greatest interest.
-
Ffrtcral Lawi LtteleMN.
In addition to being a violation of the
state laws, the consolidation has called
attention to the uselessness of the federal
acts which are supposed to govern in
such cases. There is supposed to be an
anti-pooling law for the protection of the
shipper. There is supposed to be an in
terstate commerce commission with power
to prevent abuses of this kind. As a mat
ter of fact the pooling law is a dead let
ter, and the interstate commerce commis
sion is a deader thing than .the pooling
law. Its vitality is exhausted when its
members have drawn their salaries and
uttered a feeble wail of protest at the im
potence of the commission.
Whatever may be the outcome of local
actions at law, the fact has been brought
home to wise men in both parties that
the time is rapidly approaching when fed
eral control of the railroads must be dis
cussed by congress. Politicians believe it
will be good politics; some financiers
think it will be good economics. Several
New York railroad owners have said that
they would not object to the government
taking over the railroad properties on a
basli which will correspond to the bond
purchasing which is now being done by
the secretary of the treasury. They say if
they can be assured of interest returns on
their railroad holdings which will be
equivalent to the interest on the govern
m«st securities, and have their returns
ANOTHER BAD RURLINGTON SMASH
A Farmer Burned to Death in the Wreck —Nine
Others Are Injured—A Heavy Cattle Train
Breaks in Two.
Special to The Journal.
Sterling, 111., Nov. 22. —John J. Besse, a
farmer living at Erie, 111., died an awful
death near Walnut in a bad accident on
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy rail
road.
A heavy stock train broke in two at the
top of a steep grade on that road. The
rear section, cut loose from the engine
and part of the cars, ran down the grade,
gathering headway as it ran, until it was
thundering along like an avalanche. A
freight train, in whose caboose were trav
eling a number of passengers, lay direct
ly in the path of the runaway train.
There was a frightful crash.
For an instant all was still, and then
the groans of the injured and the shrieks
of those who were fastened inextricably
in the wreck, rose on the air. The five
heavy stock cars were full of cattle, and
the poor, doomed animals made the most
frightful din with their bellowings. To
make matters worse, fire broke out in the
wreck, and in spite of all that could be
done Besse was consumed in the flames.
Nine others were injured, but all were
taken from the wreck before the flames
reached them. The injuries of two, G. M.
Hunter, residence unknown, and A. W.
Staley of Solon, lowa, are so serious that
it cannot yet be told whether they will
assured by the credit of the government,
they would gladly forego the uncertain
ties and harrassments which are insepar
able from the present system of private
ownership.
It is too early as yet to say what turn
will be taken in the discussion which will
take place in congress. It w rill naturally
be closely allied with the talk of trusts
and their control. President Roosevelt
has taken a real interest in this subject
i and will handle it in his message. It is
j not impossible that he will take notice
I of the more recent phenomena in the rail-
I road world, and it need cause no surprise
if he suggests that congress give its at
tention to remedies for the evils which he
will call to their attention.
The Shipping Interests.
The allied shipping interests of the mid
dle west have been preparing to renew
their fight of last winter to have in
creased powers given the interstate com
merce commission. Their bill was de
feated at the last session at the command
of Senator Hanna, chairman of the repub
lican national committee. Its defeat was
a condition precedent to the contributions
which the railroads were expected to make
to the campaign fund. Senator Cullom,
the father of the present commission, was
then chairman of the senate committee on
interstate commerce: now there is a new
chairman, Stephen J. Elkins of West Vir
ginia, a professional railroad promoter
and proprietor. Little may be expected
from that committee.
The battle of the shippers is likely to
take a new line this winter. Many repub
licans are anxious to get into the game
early, realizing that delay may permit the
democrats to make it a party issue. They
believe that the railroad situation, like
the tariff, will best be handled by the
railroads' friends.
When congress takes up the question of
government ownership of railroads, Con
gressman McCleary of Minnesota, who
studied the question last summer in Eu
rope, going abroad with that idea in view,
and who for years at home has given it
close attention, will be in position to
make himself a commanding figure. He
had a "hunch" more than a year »go
that the day was not far distant when this
subject would come before congress, and
so he wisely prepared himself in advance.
Probably no man in either house of con
gress is at present so well qualified to
discuss the question as Mr. McCleery.
—W. W. Jermane.
A HARD MASTER.
Brooklyn Eagle.
Perdinka—l understand Mr. Binks plays
the cornet.
Lydecker—You have been misinformed.
He works it.
FRIDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 22, 1901.
recover or not. The complete list of the
dead and injured is as follows:
THE DEAD.
BESSE, JOHN J., farmer, Erie, 111.
THE INJURED.
Baker, J. R., Pleasant Valley; lowa.; slight
ly.
Buck, Harry, lowa City, lowa.; head and
legs injured.
Carl, P. P., Bennett, Iowa; slightly.
Donovan, Daniel, lowa City; slightly.
Howson, F. H., Clinton, Iowa; severely cut
about head.
Hughes, Benjamin D., lowa City; slightly.
Hunter, G. M., residence unknown; internal
injuries; serious.
Staley, A. W., Solon, Iowa; internal inju
ries; serious.
Swift, Charles, Morse, Iowa; slightly.
Do They Come in Threes t
This is the second bad accident on the
Burlington within a few days, the other
having occurred near Newport, Minn.,
where the north-bound limited passenger
train going to Minneapolis crashed into
a freight train. The passenger was go
ing at full speed and the freight train, sup
posed to have been sidetracked to let it
pass, was carelessly left so near the main
track that a collision was inevitable. By
a miracle no one was seriously injured.
Superstitions trainmen on the Burling
ton, who have noticed that bad accident
always occur in trios are wondering wheu
and where the third one will occur and
whether the good fortune which has pre
vented a long death roll in the two that
have already occurred wili hold good.
crozieTlifted
Appointed Chief of Ordnance
and May Last Eigh
teen Years.
Washington, Nov. 22.—The president to
day appointed William Crozier, chief of
ordnance, with rank of bragadier general.
The appointment was made largely upon
the recommendation of Secretary Root.
General Crozier has demonstrated his
ability in nearly every department of
ordnance and has shown a wide knowl
edge of all affairs pertaining to his pro
fession. He was the military member
for the United States at The Hague peace
conference and was largely instrumental
in bringing about the agreement finally
reached for more humane conduct of war.
General Crozier is a native of Ohio and
was appointed to the military academy
from Kansas in 1872. When he graduated
in 1876 he entered the artillery and was
transferred to the ordnance in 1881. He
became a captain after four years' serv
ice in 1890. During the Spanish war he
was appointed a major and inspector
general. During his career as ordnance
officer he has given strictest attention to
guns and gun carriages and was a joint
inventor with General Bufflngton, who re
tired to-day, of the Bufflngton-Crozier
disappearing gun-carriage.
Some difference of opinion exists among
army officers as to whether General Cro
zier's appointment is permanent or
whether it is a detail of four years under
the army reorganization law. The opin
ion of Judge Advocate General Davis is
that the appointment is permanent. Gen
eral Crozier will not retire until 1919 an <i
if the contention is sustained that his ap
pointment is permanent his term as chief
of ordnance will be nearly eighteen years
and will preclude the possibility of any of
the ordnance officers who have heretofore
ranked him reaching that grade before
they retire.
CALIFORNIA
FED. BENCH
It May Be Given an Over
hauling by Congress.
NO YES CASE RESULT
What Will Follow if Judge Noyes
Goes to Jail.
IN THE ROLE OF PERSECUTORS
HiiiH of the California Court Clearly
Estublislietl In the Minds
of CouKremtmen.
frotn Tnes JT»urnai! Buremit, Xootn 45, i*«M
MuUJlnu, \Vn*hingt»n.
Washington, Nov. 22. —There are rumors
of some action in congress this winter
in the direction of an inquiry as to the j
general character and trustworthiness of
the federal bench in California. It is
known that the desirability of aa investi
gation is already being considered by
j prominent men in both houses. Nothing i
! may come of It, but talk of this charac
ter about United States judges is heard
so seldom as to give it in the present
case almost a sensational tinge.
By a great many people the federal
bench of California is believed, whether
intentionally or not only the investigation
j can establish, to have lent itself to the |
: plans of the San Francisco capitalists
' who for more than a year have been pur
; suing Judge Noyes of the United States
court in Alaska. First these men got
i after Alex McKenzie, one of the officers j
j of the Alaskan court, and sentenced him:
Ito jail for a year for contempt. Next
| they had Judge Noyes placed under ar
! rest, and he is now-struggling in San
j Francisco to clear himself of a contempt
,! charge. The bias of the California court
1 ; is clearly established in the minds of a
I good many men in congress, and it is
their purpose to consult the attorney gen
i eral of the United States for the purpose
!of determining whether he entertains
j opinions which harmonize with their own.
j Naturally, these members have been
friendly to McKenzie nad Noyes, but their
familiarity with the contempt proceed- :
ings is of a character to give their opin
i ions some weight, independently of their
j leanings. Should Noyes escape a jail sen
tence it may be that nothing will be done,
but should he be treated as McKenzie
was, it is almost certain that his friends
in congress ill try to bring about a gen- '.
eral overhauling of the California federal
judiciary. Iv- t'A*v'
*■ • i ■• A" •" ? f '*.--, ■ < '
TAWNEY Congressman Tawney
called on President Roose-
SENT FOR. velt this morning at the
. latter's request. While
the conference was behind closed doors,
it is understood the president wanted to
'. read to Mr. Tawney, who is a member "of
: the ways and means committee, that por
j tlon of his message relating to reciprocity
; and the tariff. He is sending for ways and
means members as fast as they reach the
city.
—W. W. Jermane.
AViixliiiiK'tou Small Talk.
Rev. Father Conaty of Grand Forks, N. D.,
Is spending a few days in Washington, the
guest of Senator Hansbrough, who to-morrow
morning will take him to see the president.
The call will be merely to pay respects.
Postmasters appointed: lowa—Max, O'Brien
county, A. H. Holse. Montana—Garrison,
Powell county, E. P. Shumaker. Wisconsin-
Pine Knot, lowa county, Christopher S. An
derson.
BANULED
A Liverpool Institution Loses
$850,000 Through a Dis
honest Employe.
Liverpool, Nov. 22. —Announcement was
made to-day that the Bank of Liverpool
had been victimized by a trusted book
keeper to a large amount. What the losses
amount to is not yet known, but an offi
cial statement issued by the bank says
that through the dishonesty and betting
transactions of a bookkeeper it may lose
$850,000. The bank's shares fell £1 on
the stock exchange to-day. The defaulter
has not yet been arrested.
TO SAVE HOWELL
Skull of the Man He Mur
dered Taken From the
Grave.
Special to The Journal.
Helena, Mont., Nov. 22.—1n a desperate
effort to save the neck of his client, Mil
ton O. Howell, who is sentenced to be
hanged at Lewistown. Fergus county, Dec.
13, E. W. Cort, his attorney, is said to
have gone to the grave of Thomas Rose
ling, the man Howell killed, dug up the
body and procured the skull to prove that
Howell did not shoot the man from be
hind. This will be shown to Governor
Toole next Monday, when Attorney Cort
wil make a plea to have Howell's sen
tence commuted to life imprisonment.
Cort tried in vain to get an order from
Judge Cheadle to produce the skull of the
murdered man in court. Failing in this,
he resorted to the desperate act of ex
huming the body on his own responsibili
ty.
About 200 of tfae leading citizens of
Fergus county have petitioned the gov
ernor in Howell's behalf.
CLERGUE SAYS SO
Two New Boats for the Algoma Cen
tral Steamship Company.
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., Nov. 22.— F. H.
Clergue announced to-day that the Algo
ma Central Steamship company would put
on two new passenger and freight steam
ers between the Soo and Windsor, Ont.,
i next season.
SHIP GRAB
ABANDONED
Friends of the Subsidy Bill
Throw Up the Sponge.
ENMITY IS TOO STRONG
Abandonment of the Idea as a Party
Measure Necessary.
MISSISSIPPI VALLEY MEASURE
Members From This Region May In
troduce Their Bill and Separate
Measure May I'ollow.
Mew York Sun Saseial Sorv.'ca
Washington, Nov. 22.—Opposition to the
ship subsidy bill has developed to such an
extent during the last sixty days that, in
the opinion of many persons supposed to
be informed, no determined effort will be
made at this session of congress to pass
the measure. In fact, there is a rumor
current that a conference was recently
held between the active promoters of the
subsidy scheme at which it was practi
cally decided to abandon the whole proj
ect for the present. The situation was
carefully gone over and it was positively
decided, it is said, that it would be impos
sible to put the subsidy scheme before the
i people as a republican party measure.
There was, it is believed, some differ
ence of opinion among the promoters as
J to whether the whole matter should be
| dropped, but there was no question as to
j the necessity of abandoning the idea of
making it a party measure.
It is sail the conference considered the
i feasibility of abandoning the original idea
entirely, allowing the Mississippi valley
j members to introduce their bill for a
j subsidy based solely on actual freight
j carried without regard to time, and then
pass a separate bill carrying a large bonu?
for transporting the trans-Atlantic and
j trans-Pacific mail. This latter scheme
j would be exclusively profitable to the
| American line in the east and the Pacific
! Mail company in the west, which were the
two corporations intended to be benefited
by the original ship subsidy scheme.
CONSPIRACY
Castro of Venezuela Has His
War Minister Ar
rested.
Caracas, Venezuela, Nov. 22.—President
Castro, believing that a oc»spiracy to
overthrow him existed, caused the arrest
to-day at Puerto Cabello of Ramon Guer
ra, the minister of war. The president
also brought about the arrest at Caracas
of a number of partizans of Ramon Guer
ra, among them being Montauban, who
claims to be a French citizen. The ar
rests have caused a great sensation. Joa
chim Garido succeeds Ramon Guerra as
minister of war.
PROHIBITION
Liquor Act in Manitoba Up
held by the Imperial
Privy Council.
Special to The Journal.
Winnipeg, Man., Nov. 22.—The liquor
act has been upheld by the imperial privy
ccuncil and prohibition in Manitoba will
follow.
Confirmed by London.
London, Nov. 22.—1n the appeal case of
the attorney general of Manitoba vs. the
Manitoba License Holders' association,
the privy council has decided that the
legislature of Manitoba has jurisdiction to
enact a liquor law.
ONISTHMHS
Colombian Government Can
not Guarantee Protection
for Transit.
Colon, Colombia, Nov. 22.—1t is reported
that the government has addressed a com
munication to the United States consul
setting forth that it cannot guarantee pro
tection for isthmian transit.
Two sailing boats having seventy sol
diders on board, which left Panama with
General Alban, returned to that place at
3 p. m. yesterday and General Alban and
fifty soldiers arrived there on board the
gunboat Boyaca at 7 p .m.
The liberals here assert that General
Lorenzo attacked General Alban's force
after it had lauded at Chame. near Chor
rera, and defeated it, only General Alban
and a few of his troops escaping. It is
also claimed by the liberals that the other
division of General Alban's army was
routed by General Lugo, when 400 of Al
ban's troops joined the liberal ranks.
The liberals at Colon are jubilant and
assert that they expect General Lugo to
arrive at Colon momentarily.
Further details of the later decisive
fighting are expected at Panama at any
moment.
New York, Nov. 22. — Consul-General
Arthur O. D. Brigard, of Colombia, re
ceived a cablegram to-day from General
Charles Alban, governor of the depart
ment of Panama. The cable stated that
General Alban would attack the insurg
ents under General Domingo Diaz to-day
at Chorrera and Alban promised, if suc
cessful in routing them, to proceed to
Colon and retake that city. The consul
general regards the outcome of to-day's
fight as highly important. If General
Diaz should conquer, the entire isthmus
-will be in the bands of the liberal-in
surgent party.
20 PAGES-FIVE O'CLOCK.
IS COMPETITION
A VITAL FACTOR?
The Average Citizen Seems to Think
It Is, When Considering North
ern Securities Merger.
Imposing Financial Magnitude of the
Combine Makes Critics Cautious
—Van Sant to Governors
•.■•■-■' ' :.._'
<?ysx$><$'<$><$><s><S><$><$'<$^
♦ <$>
<?> ATTRIBUTED TO HILL. <J»
<$> Special to The Journal. <$>
<S> New York, Nov. 22.—The Harriman-Rockefeller-Vanderbilt representa- <$>
<$> tives in the big railroad consolidation affirm emphatically t\at they do not <3>
<«> approve the attack on Minnesota's ernor and legislature and that they ■♦*
<?> condemn such a course. <^
<$> The attacks are attributed to Mr. Hill. <3>
<$> •
The general public has a settled con
viction that James J. Hill's big consoli
dation scheme is fraught with danger to
the northwest. The average man believes
that Mr. Hill's plan is not only to elimi
nate competition between railroads but
to force the people and the industries of
the northwest to help pay dividends on
watered stock. Tne average man in Min
neapolis makes that thought prominent
in all of his cemment. The public, as a
general proposition, is fully convinced
that the Northern Securities company
represents simply the ambition of Mr.
Hill for more power in the transportation
world. It is willing to give him credit
for good intentions but it also believes
that in spite of intentions, the people and
the industries of the northwest will be
forced to pay extra tribute to the rail
roads as a result of one man power.
The common, every day citizen whom
you meet on the street or in the various
avenues of employment has no regard for
the argument that it is the corporations
that are making America great. The
theory that this big transportation com
bine will carry the products of America
to the orient at a rate that will enable
the United States to compete for that
trade he regards as attractive, but he
also says that in the meantime we are
placing too much power in the hands of
I the transportation kings at home. He
| distrusts the plans of Morgan, Hill and
Harriman on this ground. Talk with the
men at the bench in the factory, at the
desks in the offices, or behind the truck
in the wholesale houses and nine out of
ten will tell you that something must be
done to hold the trusts down and that
the government must do It. Government
ownership of railroads is not favored but
they do believe that there should be gov
ernment regulation of trust and trans
portation affairs. It may be true that all
these men are not Bkilled in the art of
analyzing financial and commercial propo
sitions but it is true that, collectively,
they have distinct ideas as to what they
want; and they have votes.
Opposition Is Hard Headed.
There is no disposition on the part of
the public to grow hysterical over Mr.
Hill's latest maneuver. The formation of
big trusts and their steady accumulation,
of wealth and influence in the markets of
the country has been a 'feature of indus
trial progress closely followed by many.
The average man seems to believe that
the time must come when the people
through the government will be forced
to exercise strict supervision over some
of the big combinations. The public be
lieves that the occasion may already have
arrived. In the language of a Minneapolis
attorney:
"James J. Hill's transportation trust is
the first big stepping stone to strict gov
ernment supervision of the big combina
tions." What has been said of thwarting
the purpose of the Northern Securities
company meets with the hearty approval
of the common citizen. He believes in
holding such combinations in check, and
in the government pulling a tighter rein
over their future actions. This sentiment
is not of mushroom growth. It has been
developing in Minneapolis and the north
west for years.
Kliinf nation of Competition.
Among shippers and professional men
who have given the question more than
passing attention, there is much dis
cussion as to what the elimination of
competition between railroads really
means to the northwest. The theory that
big business combinations have been a
real benefit instead of a harm to the
country, and that the old theory that com
petition is the life of trade must be
modified, has a following among Minne
apolis business men. They maintain that
it requires big combinations to transact
the business of the country and keep it
within hailing distance in the race for
commercial supremacy. Combinations re
duce expense and thus in turn has its ef
fect on the prices paid by the people.
Discovery in Telegraphy
Boulder, Col., Nov. 22. — William Duane. professor of physics at the etata
university, has just been granted a patent for an invention by which a large num
ber of telegraph messages can be sent over one wire and return at the same time.
In the physical laboratory .at the university, it is said, he has had as many aa
eighteen circuits working on the same wire and return all at the same time. On
any of these circuits the Morse instrument can be placed and used exactly as \»ith
the single - wire - now ■in ua«. Dr. - Duane's invention is based on the principle ot
synchronizing motera. ,
Those who hold this view are in the min
ority. The sentiment expressed by the
majority is that competition is necessary
and especially in transportation. They
realize the force of the argument that
the elimination of competition gives sta
bility to rates and presents discrimina
tion, but they are afraid of the experi
ment in its other phases.
Few men are without opinions on thia
feature of railway consolidation, but the
percentage who are willing to come out
in the open and say what they think is
small. The man who believes that there
are some benefits to accrue from consoli
dation is not talking for -publication, be
cause he fears to make a stand on that
ground against the flood of popular senti
ment. It is also a fact that many busi
ness men of prominence who down in their
hearts feel that the Morgan-Hill-Harriman
plans are a menace to the best interests
of the country are timid about making
the statement. They do not wish to in
cur the disfavor of these or any other cor
porations. The transportation companies
are the foundation of the entire business
structure in the west. The lawyer re
gards them as the best possible clients.
Many members of the legal profusion
hope some day to secure some of the legal
business of the big corporations.
Many Cautions Critics.
As earnest and conscientious a citizen
and as good a lawyer as there is in
Minneapolis said:
There is no question but that, inch by inch,
these big corporations are lapping over onto
the rights of the people, as water gradually
creeps farther on the shore with the tide.
They are doing it under the cover of our
laws, aided by ingenious counsel. I believe
that the -common people realize it and that
there is a volcano of sentiment that will
belch forth its disapproval in the not far dis
tant future. James J. Hill may have fur
nished the occasion. I am not saying this
for publication. lam in the law business and
I may be employed by some of the corpora
tions. Ttaese corporations are the best pay
ing clients, and what may seem to be my
duty as a citizen in putting myself on rec
ord against this move, would not be reck
oned good business policy.
Many shippers during the past few day*
have been willing to indulge in heart-to
heart talks but object to going on record.
These men say that transportation is a
big element in their business, and as long
as they are forced to do business with
the railroads it is foolish to antagonize
them by expressing any general senti
ment against consolidation. The ma
jority of this element believe that while
consolidation is an experiment and its
effects cannot be foretold, the principle
of eliminating competition between car
riers as wrong.
The "Stability" Argument.
There is a considerable element among
men who are close students of conditions
and business problems which takes a con
servative view of the Northern Securities
company, and its purpose. These men
say:
No opinion on the purpose and plans of the
Northern Securities company formed on our
present insufficient knowledge of that corpo
ration and its aims, can be of value. Wait
until we know more about it.
As a general proposition, we do not regard
this big railroad merger with alarm. It will
eliminate competition between carriers to a
certain extent, but as a result, we will get
stability of rates. The small shipper will uot
be paying more for the same service tha ■ ' '<.
larger shipper, which is oftentimes the case'
under present conditions.
There is much talk about arbitrary action
in rates that conies from ignorance. Neither
James J. Hill nor any other man or set of
men dominating the transportation world
would raise rates. The natural tendency of
rates is downward, and it will continue so in
spite of any combinations that may be made.
The people do not. recognize one important
point—that rates cannot be arbitrarily made
by any one man or set of men. The traffic
man must yield to conditions in rate-making.
It is not so much a result of competition be
tween carriers as between conditions and cir
cumstanced. The railroad bases its rate oa
the ability of the traffic to pay; and the cir
cumstances and conditions surrounding the
markets of the country, and the regular laws
of trade, are prime factors in rate changes.
Conditions in rate-making have always
been superior to men. For that reason the
idea that traffic managers raise or lower
rates at their own volition Is wrong. Rates

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