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THE MINNEAPOLIS JOURNAL.
PKICE TWO CENTS. LIKELY TO CATCH THE WHOLE WEST INDIAN GROUP. STIRRED BY ROOSEVELT Expected to Deal the Trusts a Terrific Blow. BROKERS ARE UNEASY Ihe Message Will Probably Call on Congress to Act. THOSE REPUBLICAN CAUCUSES Tariff Members Trying to Offset the Harm Done Their Cause Through Publicity. n F™™ The Journal Bureau, Room AS, Post Building, Wamhiugton. Washington, Nov. 27.—There are many guesses concerning the republican house caucus set for Saturday afternoon and evening. The popular impression regard ing it was given in these dispatches yes terday; but the tariff republicans decline to admit that any move will be made to wards shelving that issue or referring it to a commission. They say that the after noon caucus will decide on house officers and the eve Ding caucus discuss house rules. Representative Hepburn having said that he would stir up trouble on the floor unless something was done to make the rules less tsringent. But the general impression remains the same—that the principal business of the caucus will be the consideration of the tariff, which promises to be an issue next year In more than half of the northern congressional districts. It was not the Intention of the tariff republicans that the purpose of the caucus should become known, and there is a chance that pub licity will compel a change of program, possibly even to the extent of an abandon ment of any attempt to reach a tariff agreement. It is certain, however, that the house republicans have very rarely felt called on to caucus both afternoon and evening, even when there was a hot contest for speaker and the several sal aried offices under him. Naturally there is a suspicion that something important is coming up. » The east is becoming quite panicky over the president's message and stocks In Wall street have been tending downward for some days. The impression that Roosevelt will deal the trusts a terrific blow Is becoming widespread. It is said that he will denounce them in the strong est language which he can command and call on congress to do something to sup press them. His remarks will be gen eral, it Is said, but characteristically vig orous and to the point; and should this forecast of the message be accurate it can not be seen how congress can fail to re spond. Roosevelt is unique in that he is a law unto himself. He calls prominent public men in to conference and finds out what they think, but his habit of keeping his own views to himself is puzzling. He has read the rought draft of his trust para graph to several senators and it is pre sumed that in some way there has been a leak, possibly thrcjgh them directly. At any rate, the east is looking for some thing spectacular on the trust line in the message and the stock market is very nervous. It is noteworthy that within the past week a number of prominent pub lic men suspected of dabbling in stocks have gone to New York on hurry-up calls from brokers and business friends there. Continued on Second Page. M CKINLEY'S MEMORY Cabinet Member Has Strange Idea Regarding Its Cher ishment. Special to The Journal. Washington, Nov. 27.—A member of the cabinet says: All the leading high protectionists of the country have seen the president's message, and all are satisfied with it. Undoubtedly it will strike many readers as a strong reci procity message; but we understand the sit uation. It will be found that the language will be susceptible of an interpretation that will give cheer to every protectionist in the country who has been fearful that something will be done about reciprocity in the com ing congress. We cannot get down from Mc- Kinley's position too rapidly. That would be unkind to his memory and impolitic. But we can get down, and we will; and by the end of the fifty-seventh congress we will be Just where we started, with no reciprocity of any consequence and with all our pro tection. BOYS PLAY BANDIT One at Helena Kills His Com panion While Holding Him Up. Special to The Journal. Helena, Mont., Nov. 26.—Ames Buck and Albert Stevens, boys, thought they %vould play highwayman last night in Helena and scare Harry Burwell, a companion. They stood armed by his home in the west side and when he appeared, Buck yelled "Hands up" and raised his weapon, a 38-caliber pistol. To his horror the weapon went off, the bullet hitting Bur well in the left side, instantly killing him. Young Buck is almost crazed with grief. He will not be prosecuted. ROOSEVELT AND BOERS Michael Davitt'ti Idea of Why Burgh- ers Lack Help. >'•«/> York ,lun .Special Service London, Nov. 27. —In to-day's issue of the Freeman's Journal, Michael Davitt has a statement headed "Roosevelt's Poli cy," in which he says: On account of the attitude of the McKlnley government toward South Africa, and its friendly neutrality for a half-beaten bully, the United States has allowed the shipment of 20,000 mules, more valuable to the English than 5,000 troops. England abandoned the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, fearing that Presi dent Roosevelt would change the McKinley policy. President Roosevelt, though a Boer sympathizer, canot give any active evidence of his sympathy in consequence of the Phil ippine difficulty and the growth of jingoism in the United States. JOHANNESBURG CONSPIRACY Gen. Dclarey's Wounded Leg Canted a Postponement. JVntr Torle Sun Special Service Pretoria, Nov. 27.—Several sworn neutrals have been arrested here for breaking through the barriers in an at tempt to rejoin the Boers in the field. It is learned that the plan of conspiracy recntly discovered that Johannesburg pro vided for the sounding of an alarm that would cause the Rand rifles to turn out. The conspirators would then suddenly attack the riflemen, seize their rifles and hold the town, while General Delarey would attack It from the outside. There is documentary proof that the plan was arranged with General Delarey and also that its execution was delayed by him, the conspirators being informed that General Delarey was prevented from carrying out his part through the wound he received in a leg at Maedeval. Mines Attain Operating. New York Sun Special News Service Pretoria. Nov. 27.—The Brown reef and Angeio mines have commenced crushing. Thj Burban and Roodepocrt mines will commence in a few days, which will make a total of twelve mines running. There is sufficient native labor to work the mines. Commandant Captured. London, Nov. 27.—Lord Kitchener, in a dis patch from Pretoria dated to-day, reports that General Knox has captured thirty-six members of Buy's command, who escaped aft er the recent fight. The prisoners include Commandant Joubert, who is wounded, ud Field Cornets Wolmarans and Uiedriks, WEDNESDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 27, 1901. LOW DUTIES ON SUGAR What the President Will Rec ommend to Congress. CUBA AND PHILIPPINES Return for Expected Concessions in Trade. TO STIMULATE SUGAR OUTPUT Commercial Advantage)* Looked For From Cuba I'nder the \ew Government. Washington, Nov. 27.—President Roose velt in his message to congress will rec ommend the advisability of reducing the duty on Cuban sugar in return for trade concessions when the independent gov ernment in the island is set up, and also the reduction of the duty on sugar from the Philippines as a means of stimulating the production of sugar in those islands. This information the president conveyed to several important visitors with whom he talked to-day. Returning senators and representatives fairly besieged the presi dent to-day. Most of them, however, simply called to pay their respects. CORONATION SEATS Comments on American Women Mas querading un Peeresses. London, Nov. 27. —Society paragraph ers continue to express satisfaction over the measure taken to prevent traffic in coronation seats and the masquerading of American millionaires' wives as peer esses. It is not stated whether the court news man will stand at the entrance to the abbey and brand interlopers with the finger of scorn, or whether Scotland Yard will employ the best detective talent in exposing the sham peeresses in diamonds and pearls. From the point of view of house agents and tradesmen, too much stress is laid upon the social ambitions of foreigners and the necessity of ex cluding them from the coronation serv ice. They would prefer to have the talk about the traffic in coronation seats dropped and every facility offered for wealthy Americans to come to London in June and spend their money freely. If no lurk Sun Special Servlom London, Nov. 27.—The World states that the provisional date fixed for the corona tion of King Edward VII. and Queen Alexandra is June 25. A royal banquet will be given that evening at Bucking ham palace, followed by a reception at which princes and princesses of the royal families, members of the special diplo matic missions, members of the cabinet and a few of the higher nobility will be present. DREDGERS CONFER Progress of the Attempt to Form a Combine for the Great Lake*, Special to The Journal. Chicago, Nov. 27.—Representatives of the various dredge companies on the lakes finished their business with the promoters of the proposed dredging trust yesterday and went home. "We met with the promoters to dis cuss terms and prices," said the owner of one plant. "We gave them our figures, and in some cases they told us just what they could do. The promot ers have gone back to the capitalists they represent and the question now to be settled is whether the formation of a big company on the lines proposed is a practicable thing from a financial stand point. I have no doubt that the consolida tion will come about." TWENTY-EIGHT DEAD. Detroit, Mich., Nov. 27.—The corrected Ust of known dead as the result of yesterday's boiler explosion at the Penberley Injector company's plant numbers twenty-eight. PLENTY TO TALK ABOUT Western R. R. Presidents Soon to Get Togethar. MANY PLANS HUNG UP Alarm Is Felt Over the Attitude of Western Governors. WALLST.'S CRUMB OF COMFORT Found in Reports That Attorney General Douglas Won't Act Under State Law. Chicago, Nov. 27.—The meeting of west ern railroad presidents to be held in New York on Dec. 5, probably will be the most important since the famous meeting of presidents on J. Pierpont Morgan's yacht in New York some years ago, when the "gentlemen's" agrement was adopted. It is a year since the last conference of rail road presidents was held, and since then the "community of interest" scheme has made wonderful progress and the entire railroad situation has been changed. The original combination plans, which contemplated the practical consolidation of all the western railroads into three systems, received a severe setback through the fight between the Hill and Harriman interests which culminated in the Northern Pacific panic last spring. Since then efforts have been made to harmonize the conflicting interests, and the formation of the $400,000,000 North ern Securities company was the result. The latter action has aroused the hos tility of the governors and people of the far western states, which is causing con siderable excitement and bids fair to lead to hostile legislation. The railroad magnates have become alarmed and further combination schemes have been abandoned for the present, and for this reason E. H. Harrimau, George J. Gould and James J. Hill have joined in a call for a meeting of the presidents of all the roads to consult with them as to the bast measures to be adoptetd to allay the hostile feeling and to provide for the maintenance of rates. WALL STREET REJOICES Financiers Seem to Believe That Doaglas Is Beateu. Special to The Journal. New York, Nov. 27. —It is said in Wall street to-day that the statement made by Attorney General Douglas in St. Paul last night shows plainly that he cannot find any state law upon which to base an attack on the Northern' Securities com pany, and a feeling akin to jubilation pre vails among the Hill-Morgan following. Douglas' opinion that the Sherman act applies does not scare Hill, who says: No law, federal or state, has been violated, and none will be violated. The Northern Se curities company is a purely financial affair and has nothing to do with the management of the railways. It will do business here, as It is now, and not in Minnesota or any where else in the west. Like all New Jersey corporations, it has a dummy office in Jersey City, but all the business is done in New York. Hill thinks Governor Van Sant is going to a great deal of trouble for nothing, unless political claptrap is his aim. Neither is any stock taken in the Wash ington story that Attorney General Knox is ready to begin a suit against the North ern Securities. The charges, if any, will have to be carefully formulated, properly presented to the attorney general and then carefully considered before any action is possible. GEN. DOUGLAS' WORK Until He Reports the Governor Will Not Act. Attorney General Douglas now holds the key to the anticonsolidation campaign. Governor Van S-ant has referred the whole question to him for a legal opinion, both as to whether the law has been or is to be violated, and as to the question of procedure. Until Mr. Douglas has made a thorough examination and informed the governor of his deliberate judgment, no further steps will be taken. The attorney general has not selected counsel to assist him, and probably will not until he has gone over the question thoroughly himself. It may be two weeks before the question reaches that stage. Governor Van Sant will proceed with business-like caution. He has seen the suggestion in Washington dispatches com ing from the United States attorney gen eral's office, that he meke a formal com plaint to that department and set its wheels in motion against the Northern Securities company. That suggestion may be adopted in due time, but not now. It will depend on what the attorney general says. That official has not gone far enough with the question to give any hint of his intentions. A friend of the governor said this morn ing: The governor may not move in this matter as swiftly as some of his advisers would like to see. He is not going to go out and tear up a section of Great Northern track, nor is he going to plunge into a contest without being sure of his ground. Mr. Hill has been planning the consolidation o fnorthwestern railways since 1895, and per haps farther back. He has had the benefit of first-class legal talent at every step, and has worked out his scheme gradually, with great care not to lay himself legally liable. It is only fair that In opposing Mr. Hill Governor Van Sant should have a reasonable amount of time to consider and prepare for the struggle, which means so much to the people of the state and country. He is not going to do anything hastily. The only hasty thing the governor has done was to announce that he was going to fight. The haste of that announcement had an ned in view. It was done to alarm the financial world for the safety of the big deal and to block its consummation. TOOLE NOT ENTHUSIASTIC Governor of Montana Replies to Guv- ernor Van Sent. Special to The Journal. Helena, Mont., Nov. 27. —Governor J. K. Toole, replying to the request of Governor Van Sant of Minnesota, that he co-operate in an effort to block the Northern Securi ties company in its effort to control the Burllngtor_*!«3reat Northern and Northern Pacific, handles the subject very delicately. He evades any meeting of governors by saying he has pressing engagements that would prevent him from attending. Beyond saying that the state govern ment will co-operate with the Minnesota governor, he does not appear to commit himself. His letter was, on the whole, quite a surprise to his friends, as it was expected he would eater heart and soul into the proposition. HIS RESPITE A BRIEF ONE Governor Van Sant Will Sus pend the Sheriff. TO NAME COMMISSION Charges in Public Examiner's Re- port to Be Probed. THE DOCUMENT IS MADE PUBLIC Deputy Koerner Brands the Over charge* a» Acts of Intentional Frand and Larceny. Phil T. Megaarden has about two days' grace, during which he will remain in un disputed possession of the office of sher iff. He will eat his Thanksgiving din ner in jieace. Governor Van Sant called Miss Helwig, his stenographer, in this morning and gave her the report of Public Examiner Pope, asking her to make several copies. When this has been done, the governor will begin proceedings. The report makes charges against Megaarden's conduct of the office. They require attention and the governor will appoint a commission to investigate the charges. At the same time he will suspend the sheriff from of fice, upon the showing made by the pub lic examiner. The extra copies being made are for the use of the three gentlemen who will serve on the commission, and of the coun sel for the state and for Megaarden. The governor made the contents of the report public this morning. It is a se vere document. There is no disposition to glos over any of the transactions and many of them are condemned in unstinted language. There are twenty-four sched ules appended, showing the overcharges in detail. They are summarized in the following table: Items Due the County. A—Copies of venire facias $603.40 l>—Attempted services 57700 C—Conveying prisoners to the work house 94 50 D—Deputies attending court .".."".*! 665.00 E—^Arraignments, bench warrants and attending muncipal court 1,222.00 F—Duplicate charges for commit ments and remanding prisoners ... 157.50 G—Mileage and expenses outside the state 545 37 H—Railroad fare and team hire for conveyance of prisoners 299.28 I—Deputies looking up evidence and patrolling cycle paths 154.50 J —Light, telephone, books and sta tionery 169.48 X—Conveying children to public school at Owatonna 999.96 L—Conveying children to training school at Red Wing 584.68 M—Conveying persons to the Institute for defectives at Farlbault 43.65 N —Board and keeping U. S. and other prisoners _ 1,102.64 N—Boarding prisoners for the city of Minneapolis, estimated 432.63 O —Amount collected on citations, taxes of 1899 2,324.21 O—Attempted service, etc., in tax matters 994.83 P—Collections on executions 202.76 Q —State vs. DeShone, service on A. A. Christianson 25.76 Q —State vs. Clara Adams, service on Joseph Godreau 33.92 Q —State vs. Clara Adams, cash ad vanced for railroad fare 5.56 Q—State vs. Gallagher, conveying from reformatory, St. Cloud 29.75 Q—State vs. O'Malley, conveyance from Red Wing 9.54 R —Overcharges for court service by jail watchman 273.00 Total $11,851.22 No interest has been calculated on abovo amounts, which if added, would increase over charges and illegal fees to approximately the sum of 112,651.22. Hits Other County Officials. On the first item, the county commis sioners and county attorney come in for a share of the condemnation. Jan. 18, 1900, the public examiner found illegal charges for copies of venires, subpoenas, etc., and so reported to the county com missioners. The sheriff continued to pre sent such bills, the county commissioners approved them, "and each and every claim of this nature is ornamented with the 'O. X.' of the county attorney's office," to use the language of Deputy Koerner. As to Schedule B, the sheriff charged $1 for failing to serve papers, while the law only alo,wed 50 cents for effective service. The most that should be allowed for conveying prisoners to the workhouse is mileage, 96 cents. Megaarden has charged $3 and the public examiner compromises at $2, but suggests that all such removals could be made free by the Black Maria, Schedule D is charges for deputies at tending grand juries at night, and there is no record to show that any such serv ice was ever performed. On this item It is recommended that such bills be audited by the county com missioners. Schedule E shows charges for attending municipal court. All prisoners are taken charge of by city police officers, and the charge of $2 for each case, says the re port, "is false and illegal, and only an other way of looting the county treasury, as his attention was called to these charges in a former report." Schedule F consists of duplicate charges for compliments. "It would seem," says the report, "that in a county office where perquisites are so large a single payment would satisfy tte incumbent." Schedule G consists of charges that are properly claims upon the state, but have been paid by the county illegally. Schedule H shows charges for railroad fares and team hire, which are covered in the mileage allowed. Schedule I consists of charges allowed, tout not legal, for patrolling cycle paths, looking up evidence, watching insane and hauling confiscated gambling parapher nalia. Schedule J consists of charges for va rious services, which should be paid di rect to the parties rendering the service. There Is nothing to show how much was furnished, and for whom, and a dupli cate bill might have been allowed. Next comes a series of schedules show ing overcharges for conveying prisoners or children to state institutions. In most cases deputies did not go at all. Full fare is charged for small children, and a deputy for each child, though several were taken at once. Says the report: Shows Wilful Fraud. The foregoing should convince the most skeptical that these acts on the part of the sheriff are not unintentional mistakes or over sights, but are deliberate, wilful, malicious, fraudulent acts, permeated with corruption and designed to rob the taxpayers for the pur pose of gratifying the greed of ene in whom they have reposed confidence. Such acts are considered not only a betrayal of trust, but the official committing the same is guilty un der the laws of the state of perjury and felony. Schedule O consists of personal prop erty taxes paid before September, 1900, and not covered into the county treas- Contlnued on Second Pane. 12 PAGES-FIVE O'CLOCK CAUGHT A PAL OF LONGBADGH Another of the Great Northern Train Robbers Is Taken, This Time in Montana. Suffered From Nervous Prostration and Permitted His Secret to Leak Out—lt's Hanks. Special to The Journal. Great Falls, Mont., Nov. 27.—A man go ing under the name of Bob Collins, who has been employed since July 9 in the Neihart concentrator, was arrested yes terday at that camp by Deputy Sheriff David Ledbetter, and is believed to be none other than O. C. Hanks, alias Cam illa Hanks, alias Charley Jones, alias "Deaf Charlie," the partner of "Kid" Curry, Harry Longbaugh and George Parker in the Great Northern hold-up at Malta, on July 3, last. While he has not admitted his identity, he has told of his participation in that affair, where the plan for the robbery was concocted here in Great Falls and that he has $12,500 of the stolen money cached. He is now ill, and physicians say he ia suffering from nervous prostration and is worrying over something. He was kept under a strong guard last night in the Neihart hotel, and to-morrow morning will be brought to Great Falls. Corresponds to Hanks. The weight, complexion and general ap pearance of Hanks correspond to Collins so well as to make the authorities believe they have the right man, even had he not said anything to convict himself. In one way his capture is due to the taking of Longbaugh at St. Louis a month ago. Prior to the arrest of Longbaugh, Collins had been at work in the Neihart concen trator. The day the news of his arrest was made public in Neihart, Collins be gan to be nervous. His condition was no ticed by several of his companions, and they asked him if he was feeling ill. He replied he was not, and for two days more kept at work* At the end of two days he was in such a condition that he was forced to quit work. He -went to the shack he was occupying and a physician had to be called. He at once noted that the man was suffering from nervous prostration, and that he had something weighing on his mind. It was decided to give him a hypodermic injec tion to quiet his nerves, and this was done. While he was in delirum he began to rave. WH. ROACH Former Senator From North Dakota Probably Dying of Cancer. New York, Nov. 27.—Former Senator William Roach of North Dakota lies in a critical condition in the private hos pital of Dr. H. W. Carter in this city. He was brought there recently suffering from a cancer, and an operation was performed. An unusual feature was in troduced in this operation, Dr. Carter administering gas and oxygen as an anaesthetic. The whole operation was in charge of Dr. Frederick Peterson and Dr. Bently Squier, who pronounced it a severe one and would make no promises of Roach's recovery. During all his trouble his wife has been constantly at his side. WILL NOT HANG Sentence of Milton Howell Commuted to Life Imprisonment. Helena, Mont., Nov. 27.—Governor Toole has commuted to life imprisonment the sentence ot death that was to have been carried out Dec. 13 in the case of Milton Howell, who killed Thomas Rose ling July 23, 1898. Tenney Votes to Incorporate. Special to The Journal. Tenney, Minn., Nov. 27.—At the special election held here yesterday, incorporation carried, there being but one dissenting cote. Having Sown, Germany Reaps liondon, Nov. 27.—The Daily Mail, which has been inquiring into the cause of th« trade depression in Germany, says that many of the great merchants of yesterday stand to-day ruined. Manufacturing cities are full or hungry men; numbers of works are closed altogether and others are greatly reducing their output, and the stocks of German iron works are being sold In Belgium and England for what they will bring. Germany attempted too much and is reaping the inevitable result. Bad financiering, over-capitalization and excess of credit are mentioned as the enemies which even the ingenuity and skill of German over-workers could not overcome. In England the general trade outlook is now worse than at any time since 1894 and the revelations of British trade union tyranny are consequently causing much irritation. Rumors of Another Challenger London, Nov. 27. —Telegrams from Glas gow intimate that there may be an earlier challenge for the America's cup than Sir Thomas Upton's, but yachtsmen here are skeptical. The Dennys, builders of Sham rock 11., are again reported to be prepar ing for the construction of a yacht of their own design, ■_- if certain results are at tained. They hope to secure the co-opera tion of some club In Issuing a challenge. "Longbaugh, Longibaugh, where did I meet you? Oh, yes, I know," he said. Then for the first time it was remem bered the interest he had shown in the ar rest of Lcngfoaugh. He would ask for the papers while he was lying in bed. When these were given to him he would, scan them over as though looking lor some thing in particular. He improved after several days, and has been aJble to be out of his shack, tout seems to be -wasting away und«r a strain. After a few days Collins, who had here tofore worn a smooth face, began to grow a small mustache. This came out sandy, just like Hanks' mustache when he weara one. After this Deputy Ledbetter con cluded to call to his assistance another ma nto whom he had confidence. He brought this man and Collins together without introducing them himself, and since that time they have been together a great portion of the time. Story Wrested From Kirn. It was during this companionship that Collins told his story. According to what he confided to this supposed friend, h© came to Great Palls the latter part of June. He had no musiness here then, ha says, but simply came to look about the city for a few days. The day after his arrival he says he was in the Mint saloon, where he waß intro duced to Harvey Logan alias "Kid" Curry and Harry Longbaugh. ITe cannot re member the name of the man who intro duced him, but says the fellow seemed to know them well. After the introduction he says they stood about the saloon for some time and then went upstairs into the second story, where they sat down and talked over matters. They had several drinks up there, and the two men quizzed him about his habits. After awhile they asked him if he would be willing to take a hand in something that would get him. a little money—probably make him wealthy. Plot All Fixed Ip. At first Collins says he did not under stand the men or what they meant, but as sured them that he was in for anything there was money in. Then he says they took him in their confidence and the robbery was planned. He says Curry and Longbaugh told him they had positive in formation that there would be a large amount of money on a train arriving at Malta on July 3, and they then asked him to go in with them and get his share of the loot. He says he consented and from that time until after the robbery and di* vision of the booty they were never sepa rated. FIGHTING TURKS Declaration That the Entire- Blame Rests With the ■ ' Armenians. Mmw Torfc Sun Somo/af Sai-vlom. London, Nov. 27.Dispatches from Con stantinople briefly report fighting in th« Sassun district between Armenians and Turkish troops. The Turkish embassy here has received an official account of the affair, according to which a party of Armenian brigands from Sassun barri caded themselves in a monastery at Arak, near Mush, with sixty captured women and children, . intending to extort money from the neighboring inhabitants. Troop* surrounded the monastery and fighting fol lowed, the brigands firing first. It is added that the Russian and British consuls have arirved at Constantinople and tes tified to the good behavior of the troops. They say the Armenians are responsible for the fighting. D. H. WAITE DEAD Former Populist Governor of Color ado Had Heart Trouble. . Aspen, Col., Nov. 27.Former Governor Davis H. Waite of Colorado fell dead this morning. He had been in good health up to the moment of his death. It is believed that the cause was heart trouble. ■■ ..... Neither Sir Thomas Llpton nor G-sorge L. Watson,.the designer, has any knowl edge of the matter. Sir Thomas con siders it useless for any one to attempt to challenge for 1902 owing to the im possibility of properly tuning up a boat, but he says the Shamrocks are at the dis posal , of. any one ;as trial boats who may want to try for the cup. ■