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8 THE JOURNAL JUNIOR, MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY' 28, - 1903.
ORIGIN OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES. THE SOUVENIR BUTTONS. '. '
Interesting Folk-lore and Traditions of the Indians Sug
.gested by Appropriate Epithets. -
The bulletin of the geographical survey, prepared, by
Henry Gannett, on the origin of many of the names of places
in the United States is an important contribution to geo
graphic knowledge. Its circulation will doubtless-go far to
awaken interest in matters of local history, tradition, and
folk-lore, and so stimulate greater discrimination in the se
lection of new names as occasions arise. There are too many
2klt. Pleasants, Riversides and High streets, and not enough.
names which arc distinctive and informing. Perhaps the best
idea of the contents of the bulletin may be conveyed by
Quoting some of its paragraphs,
Absecon (bay and town in Atlantic county, New Jersey)
The name is derived from the Indian words wabisse,
"swan." and ong, "a place," and was given because of the
number of swans which resorted there.
Adirondack (mountains in New York and village in War
ren county of the same state)Indian word compounded
from doran, "a. people "who eat bark," and dak, "trees ," -with
the French particle "la" prefixed.
Alaska (territory of the United States)An Indian word
meaning "great country," "continent," "great land."
Anthony's Nose (promotory on the Hudson river. New
York)Said by Irving to have been named so in reference
to Anthony Van Corlear's nose Lossing says, "Anthony de
Hooges, secretary of Rensselaer wick, had an enormous nose,
and the promotory was named in honor of that feature."
Appomattox (river and county in Virginia)An Indian
word, meaning "a tobacco plant country."
Bad Lands (term applied to a region in South Dakota)
It is said that the old French voyageurs described the region
as "mauvaise terres pour traverser," meaning that it was
a difficult country to travel through from this the term has
been carelessly shortened and translated into the present
Brooklyn (city in New York)Corruption of the Dutch
name of Breuckelen, from a village in the province of Ut
recht, Holland. The name signifies broken up land, or
Buncombe (county in North Carolina and several places
In the southern states)Named for Colonel Edward Bun
combe of the continental army.
Catskill (creek, mountains and town in Greene county,
Dutch, from t!0 number of wildcats found in them, and the
creek, which hows from the mountains, Katerskill, "tom
Chicago (city and river in Illinois)The origin of the
word is from the Indian, being a, derivation from the word
Chi-kaug-ong. Colonel Samuel A. Starrow used the name
in a letter to General Jacob Brown in 1816, as follows: "The
river Chicago (or in the English 'Wild Onion river')." School
craft in 1820 said: "Its banks \ . . stated to produce
abundantly . . . the wild species of cepa or leek." Bishop
Baraga gives: "From Chiag, or Sikag, 'skunk,* a kind of wild-
cat." John Turner defines sKunk as she-gahg onion, she-gau
ga-wiozhe, "skunk weed." When the word first appeared
the country was inhabited by a tribe of Miamis, in whose
dialect the word for skunk was "se-kaw-kwaw." It is said
that the wildcat, or skunk, was named from the plant. '
Communipaw (village in Bergen county, New Jersey)
Named for the original grantee, Michael Pauw, director of
the Dutch West India company. The word is a compound
of "the Commune of Pauw."
Hiram (town in Oxford county, Maine)Named for
"Hiram. King of Tyre." ' -
Le Mars (city in Plymouth county, Iowa)The name is
composed of the initials of the women who accompanied its
founder on his first visit to the spot.
Manhattan fan Island in' New York)An Indian word,'
said by some authorities to mean "little island" others think
it means "the people of the whirlpool," referring to Hell Gate,
and another authority gives its origin as from the word
Manna-ha-ta, "place of drunkenness," since Varrazani landed
upon the lower extremity of Manhattan island, and grave the /
Indians liquor, on which they became drunk.
Massachusetts (one of the thirteen original states)An
Indian word, meaning "at or near the great hills." According
to other authorities, "the hill in the shape of an arrow-head,"
"great hill mouth," "th e blue hills." - \ :
Nauvoo (city in Hancock county, Illinois)Named in
obedience to a "revelation" made to Joseph Smith, one of
its Mormon foundei's. .
Newport News (city in Warwick county, Virginia)
Named for Captain Christopher Newport and Captain (or Sir
Ninety-six (town in Greenwood county. .South Carolina)
So named because it was ninety-six miles fiom the Cherokee
Indian trading town of Keowee.
Penn Yan (village in .Yates county, New York)The
name is formed by a compound, of the names of the two
classes of settlersPennsylvanians and Yankees.
Shenandoah (country and river in Virginia, city in Page
county, Iowa borough in Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania.
and town in Page county, Virginia)An Indian word said by
some to mean "the spruey stream," by others, "a river flow
ing alongside of high hills and mountains," and still another
authority states that it means "daughter of the stars."
Tarrytown (village In "Westchester county. New York)
Modification of its former, name of Terwen, "wheat town,"
given on account of its large crops of that cereal.
Tombstone (town in Pima county, Arizona)So named
by its founder, because when starting out on his prospecting
tour he was assured he would "find his tombstone."
Vandalia (city in Fayette county, Illinois)Giving name
to city in Missouri and village in Cass county, Michigan, the
town In Illinois having been so named at the suggestion of a
wag, Who told the story of. the Goths and "Vandals to the com
missioners, jokingly giving them to understand that the se
lected townsite was the scene of their encounters.
Ypsilanti (city in Michigan)Named for a Greek prince.
ISLANDS BUILT BY OYSTERS.
Reafs Are Transformed Into Miniature Continents by the
Action of the Elements.
Dr. Grave, of tKe United States fish commission, has re
cently been studying the islands found-in Newport river and
Beaufort harbor in North Carolina. The Islands, which are in
various stages of growth, are shown to be built up of gen
eral Ions" upon generations of oysters, and appear to grow in
very much the same way as the coral islands of the Pacific.
The original reefs grow across the river, because the, swift
current keeps the edges clean, and thus makes a favorable
surface for the attachment of the young spat. In course of
time, by the action of wind, waves and vegetable growth on
the accumulating generation of oysters, the reef eventually
becomes established as a_n island, i -' ,
islands o-oysters are by no means rare. There is every
reason to believe that the islands at the mouth of the Tagii**
mountains were called Katsbergs by the
A Junior button is given to every contributor for his first
paper printed, provided it is neither a prize winner nor an
'honorable mention." Only one Junior button Is given a year,
and this is sent without application. The new year began
September 3, 1902.
An Honor Button is awarded for an "honorable mention"
and is sent without application.
An Honor Button Is awarded to every Junior who has
three papers printed which are neither prize winners nor hon
orahle mentions. These must be claimed by the winner, giv
ing dates of publication.
An Honor Button is awarded for an accepted contribution
to the Storyteller column, and is sent without application, to
gether with an order for a book. . -
Any number of Honor Buttons may be won. -
A Prize Button is awarded for every prize paper, without
'application. Two picture prizes only in one year may be won.
All of these, except the Honor Buttons awarded for three
papers printed, are sent out the Monday evening following
publication, and all notices of failure to-receive them must be
sent to the editor within the week following publication.
The High School Credit Contests.
These contests are for writers in and above the ninth
Two prizes of $15 and $7.50 fdf pictures or books for the
school are awarded every three months to the two high
schools winning the highest number of credits.
The first prize of $15 may be won but once during* the
Winners of. the second prize of ?7.50 are not barred from
winning the first prize. '-.='.'
No school in Minneapolis and no town in the northwest
will be given more than one credit a week. At least four
papers must be sent in on a. topic for a high school to be con
sidered in the contest, and there must be at least twelve pa
-pers a month.
A Journal Junior prize "button is sent for the first high
school credit paper of each competitor during the quarter.
The first quart er begins December 12 and ends February
7, 1903, inclusive.
i The pictures which are given as prizes, during the scmo
year become the exclusive property of the schoolrooms upon
whose walla they are hung. TJiey are to remain permanently
in the room which the winner attended when he or she won
the prize and under no circumstances are they to be removed
to another room in the same school, to another school or to
a private house.
Express charges on all prize pictures are prepaid by The
Write in ink, on one side only of the paper. Leave a
space of three inches at the top of the first page. Use no
headlines. Put the number of words m the upper left-hand
corner of the first page. Sign the name and residence at the
end at the right, the grade and school at the end at the left."
Any pupil o~f a public school, in any part of the United
States, who is in or above the fifth grade, may contribute to
the Storyteller. These stories may be true or fiction, and
upon any subject preferred by the writer. . They must not be
less than 500 Words in length, nor more than 1,000.
You cannot keep your copies of The Journal Junior in
good, shape -without a binder. There are a few substantial, =
binders now at the office, at the very reasonable rate of 50
in Portugal, owe their origin to reefs of oysters. Th e mouth
of the river Tagus is comparatively narrow, but widens into a
vast natural pond several miles wide, and in this pond im
mense deposits of oysters of the well-known Portuguese va
riety accumulate. The area is studded with reefs of these
: oysters formed of generation growing upon generation, with
iiere and there islands which were no doubt formed in the
same way as those in the Newport river, U. S. A.
. ' -It must not be considered that the Tagus basin is io a
fossilized condition. Oysters flourish there vigorously. Con
siderable quantities are brought to England every year and
relaid in beds for fattening. It is said that 100,000,000 could
be taken from these beds annually and their absence be
hardly noticeable, so abundantly do they flourish.Fish Trades
Gazette. . . -
- - A,College in China. -
The work oh the college building at Soo-chow is pro
gressing favorably. The contractor has undertaken to have
it finished by .the first of April. Plans are being laid for the
improvement of the mission property in Shanghai.
WHER E THESE fElfu|
6iMTgCR*SyQ 13 5iXTH8ES .
Design by Dora Piero*. B 8th Grade,
The Prize Pictures. , .
How to Prepare the Papers.
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1778 Fremont Av. S.
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OP MENS AM D BOYS
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OVERCOATS IT W*t L L "
THEN BECOME! A COMPLETE
Design by Thomas H . Foley! '..
1534 B Twenty-second St.
FIRST SMOE.-Wku dotttheHamtTiadeSto* Shire set) mo*boy'a4 dtris
I Sttwoi V* TtvMvfeny other Store in the cil^
SECOND SHO Virtu jnu one **Ukow,WecaiS tktu are the best
d^Sfioe for school cHiRtT*\,-nor* t^tn^,jrv most durable
Design by Armsby Hart,,
272* fremont -A.-V. S. '
8i.n UWue, '*^3
A 8th Grade.
Holy Rosary School.
B 9 th Grade,
Central Higrh School.
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