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8 THE JOURNAL JUNIOR, MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY' 28, - 1903.
ORIGIN OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES. THE SOUVENIR BUTTONS. '. ' Interesting Folk-lore and Traditions of the Indians Sug .gested by Appropriate Epithets. - The bulletin of the geographical survey, prepared, by Henry Gannett, on the origin of many of the names of places in the United States is an important contribution to geo graphic knowledge. Its circulation will doubtless-go far to awaken interest in matters of local history, tradition, and folk-lore, and so stimulate greater discrimination in the se lection of new names as occasions arise. There are too many 2klt. Pleasants, Riversides and High streets, and not enough. names which arc distinctive and informing. Perhaps the best idea of the contents of the bulletin may be conveyed by Quoting some of its paragraphs, Absecon (bay and town in Atlantic county, New Jersey) The name is derived from the Indian words wabisse, "swan." and ong, "a place," and was given because of the number of swans which resorted there. Adirondack (mountains in New York and village in War ren county of the same state)Indian word compounded from doran, "a. people "who eat bark," and dak, "trees ," -with the French particle "la" prefixed. Alaska (territory of the United States)An Indian word meaning "great country," "continent," "great land." Anthony's Nose (promotory on the Hudson river. New York)Said by Irving to have been named so in reference to Anthony Van Corlear's nose Lossing says, "Anthony de Hooges, secretary of Rensselaer wick, had an enormous nose, and the promotory was named in honor of that feature." Appomattox (river and county in Virginia)An Indian word, meaning "a tobacco plant country." Bad Lands (term applied to a region in South Dakota) It is said that the old French voyageurs described the region as "mauvaise terres pour traverser," meaning that it was a difficult country to travel through from this the term has been carelessly shortened and translated into the present misnomer. Brooklyn (city in New York)Corruption of the Dutch name of Breuckelen, from a village in the province of Ut recht, Holland. The name signifies broken up land, or marshy land. Buncombe (county in North Carolina and several places In the southern states)Named for Colonel Edward Bun combe of the continental army. Catskill (creek, mountains and town in Greene county, New. York):The Dutch, from t!0 number of wildcats found in them, and the creek, which hows from the mountains, Katerskill, "tom cats' creek." Chicago (city and river in Illinois)The origin of the word is from the Indian, being a, derivation from the word Chi-kaug-ong. Colonel Samuel A. Starrow used the name in a letter to General Jacob Brown in 1816, as follows: "The river Chicago (or in the English 'Wild Onion river')." School craft in 1820 said: "Its banks \ . . stated to produce abundantly . . . the wild species of cepa or leek." Bishop Baraga gives: "From Chiag, or Sikag, 'skunk,* a kind of wild- cat." John Turner defines sKunk as she-gahg onion, she-gau ga-wiozhe, "skunk weed." When the word first appeared the country was inhabited by a tribe of Miamis, in whose dialect the word for skunk was "se-kaw-kwaw." It is said that the wildcat, or skunk, was named from the plant. ' Communipaw (village in Bergen county, New Jersey) Named for the original grantee, Michael Pauw, director of the Dutch West India company. The word is a compound of "the Commune of Pauw." Hiram (town in Oxford county, Maine)Named for "Hiram. King of Tyre." ' - Le Mars (city in Plymouth county, Iowa)The name is composed of the initials of the women who accompanied its founder on his first visit to the spot. Manhattan fan Island in' New York)An Indian word,' said by some authorities to mean "little island" others think it means "the people of the whirlpool," referring to Hell Gate, and another authority gives its origin as from the word Manna-ha-ta, "place of drunkenness," since Varrazani landed upon the lower extremity of Manhattan island, and grave the / Indians liquor, on which they became drunk. Massachusetts (one of the thirteen original states)An Indian word, meaning "at or near the great hills." According to other authorities, "the hill in the shape of an arrow-head," "great hill mouth," "th e blue hills." - \ : Nauvoo (city in Hancock county, Illinois)Named in obedience to a "revelation" made to Joseph Smith, one of its Mormon foundei's. . Newport News (city in Warwick county, Virginia) Named for Captain Christopher Newport and Captain (or Sir William) Nawce. Ninety-six (town in Greenwood county. .South Carolina) So named because it was ninety-six miles fiom the Cherokee Indian trading town of Keowee. Penn Yan (village in .Yates county, New York)The name is formed by a compound, of the names of the two classes of settlersPennsylvanians and Yankees. Shenandoah (country and river in Virginia, city in Page county, Iowa borough in Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania. and town in Page county, Virginia)An Indian word said by some to mean "the spruey stream," by others, "a river flow ing alongside of high hills and mountains," and still another authority states that it means "daughter of the stars." Tarrytown (village In "Westchester county. New York) Modification of its former, name of Terwen, "wheat town," given on account of its large crops of that cereal. Tombstone (town in Pima county, Arizona)So named by its founder, because when starting out on his prospecting tour he was assured he would "find his tombstone." Vandalia (city in Fayette county, Illinois)Giving name to city in Missouri and village in Cass county, Michigan, the town In Illinois having been so named at the suggestion of a wag, Who told the story of. the Goths and "Vandals to the com missioners, jokingly giving them to understand that the se lected townsite was the scene of their encounters. Ypsilanti (city in Michigan)Named for a Greek prince. Evening Post. ISLANDS BUILT BY OYSTERS. Reafs Are Transformed Into Miniature Continents by the Action of the Elements. Dr. Grave, of tKe United States fish commission, has re cently been studying the islands found-in Newport river and Beaufort harbor in North Carolina. The Islands, which are in various stages of growth, are shown to be built up of gen eral Ions" upon generations of oysters, and appear to grow in very much the same way as the coral islands of the Pacific. The original reefs grow across the river, because the, swift current keeps the edges clean, and thus makes a favorable surface for the attachment of the young spat. In course of time, by the action of wind, waves and vegetable growth on the accumulating generation of oysters, the reef eventually becomes established as a_n island, i -' , islands o-oysters are by no means rare. There is every reason to believe that the islands at the mouth of the Tagii** mountains were called Katsbergs by the A Junior button is given to every contributor for his first paper printed, provided it is neither a prize winner nor an 'honorable mention." Only one Junior button Is given a year, and this is sent without application. The new year began September 3, 1902. An Honor Button is awarded for an "honorable mention" and is sent without application. An Honor Button Is awarded to every Junior who has three papers printed which are neither prize winners nor hon orahle mentions. These must be claimed by the winner, giv ing dates of publication. An Honor Button is awarded for an accepted contribution to the Storyteller column, and is sent without application, to gether with an order for a book. . - Any number of Honor Buttons may be won. - A Prize Button is awarded for every prize paper, without 'application. Two picture prizes only in one year may be won. All of these, except the Honor Buttons awarded for three papers printed, are sent out the Monday evening following publication, and all notices of failure to-receive them must be sent to the editor within the week following publication. The High School Credit Contests. These contests are for writers in and above the ninth grade. Two prizes of $15 and $7.50 fdf pictures or books for the school are awarded every three months to the two high schools winning the highest number of credits. The first prize of $15 may be won but once during* the school year. Winners of. the second prize of ?7.50 are not barred from winning the first prize. '-.='.' No school in Minneapolis and no town in the northwest will be given more than one credit a week. At least four papers must be sent in on a. topic for a high school to be con sidered in the contest, and there must be at least twelve pa -pers a month. A Journal Junior prize "button is sent for the first high school credit paper of each competitor during the quarter. The first quart er begins December 12 and ends February 7, 1903, inclusive. i The pictures which are given as prizes, during the scmo year become the exclusive property of the schoolrooms upon whose walla they are hung. TJiey are to remain permanently in the room which the winner attended when he or she won the prize and under no circumstances are they to be removed to another room in the same school, to another school or to a private house. Express charges on all prize pictures are prepaid by The Journal. j Write in ink, on one side only of the paper. Leave a space of three inches at the top of the first page. Use no headlines. Put the number of words m the upper left-hand corner of the first page. Sign the name and residence at the end at the right, the grade and school at the end at the left." The Storyteller. Any pupil o~f a public school, in any part of the United States, who is in or above the fifth grade, may contribute to the Storyteller. These stories may be true or fiction, and upon any subject preferred by the writer. . They must not be less than 500 Words in length, nor more than 1,000. Binders. You cannot keep your copies of The Journal Junior in good, shape -without a binder. There are a few substantial, = binders now at the office, at the very reasonable rate of 50 cents each. in Portugal, owe their origin to reefs of oysters. Th e mouth of the river Tagus is comparatively narrow, but widens into a vast natural pond several miles wide, and in this pond im mense deposits of oysters of the well-known Portuguese va riety accumulate. The area is studded with reefs of these : oysters formed of generation growing upon generation, with iiere and there islands which were no doubt formed in the same way as those in the Newport river, U. S. A. . ' -It must not be considered that the Tagus basin is io a fossilized condition. Oysters flourish there vigorously. Con siderable quantities are brought to England every year and relaid in beds for fattening. It is said that 100,000,000 could be taken from these beds annually and their absence be hardly noticeable, so abundantly do they flourish.Fish Trades Gazette. . . - - - A,College in China. - The work oh the college building at Soo-chow is pro gressing favorably. The contractor has undertaken to have it finished by .the first of April. Plans are being laid for the improvement of the mission property in Shanghai. WHER E THESE fElfu| ARECdlNG? VH/TeGiMTERVr B/SayiNSGRCCERit* ATWHtLESALE PRICES! 6iMTgCR*SyQ 13 5iXTH8ES . Design by Dora Piero*. B 8th Grade, Mdi9B Scbool*- The Prize Pictures. , . How to Prepare the Papers. IRUy-l\AY- HOUSE FINISHING 5 AT HE BRANCH AW.DMMEA RIG SAVING flOThESTKH THKTPAY - AND KEEP NO BETfCRWCOS A G EMTSw&**/ a -J A.., ' FOR: .Design oy rreu^n'ua ^. ivuiyi 1778 Fremont Av. S. A F T E R FEB R U A R Y 1 HEHUSKINS WILL ADD A COHPLETJ LINE Or MENS. SUIT^ AND rURNis HiNOS TPTHCIR LARdt LINE^ OP MENS AM D BOYS HATS , SHOES At* C j OVERCOATS IT W*t L L " THEN BECOME! A COMPLETE Design by Thomas H . Foley! '.. 1534 B Twenty-second St. FIRST SMOE.-Wku dotttheHamtTiadeSto* Shire set) mo*boy'a4 dtris I Sttwoi V* TtvMvfeny other Store in the cil^ SECOND SHO Virtu jnu one **Ukow,WecaiS tktu are the best d^Sfioe for school cHiRtT*\,-nor* t^tn^,jrv most durable Design by Armsby Hart,, 272* fremont -A.-V. S. ' 3*-f *-m 8i.n UWue, '*^3 1 L A 8th Grade. Holy Rosary School. B 9 th Grade, Central Higrh School. ,r* 4* n$\ ~._-2 - I