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The Minneapolis journal. [volume] (Minneapolis, Minn.) 1888-1939, June 16, 1903, Image 5

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The System of Alphonse Bertillon in Successful Use in Many Countries
w It Has Depleted the Ranks of "Professional" Criminals by Ren*
* dering Detection Much More Easy Than Before Its Adoption
The System as Applied to Its Author.
Harry Beardsley in Leslie's Weekly. -
Crime as a "profession" in the United
States is declining. The distinguished
criminals are passing, and no others are
arising to take their places. The reason
for this is the perfection of detective
methods. And foremost among the forces
against the criminal is the system of iden
tification devised by Alphonse Bertillon of
Paris and adopted largely thruout the
United States.
M. Bertillon who is now only 50 years
old, was not a detective from the begin
ning, but a scientist. His father was a
physician and a botanist) and the son
studied the science of, ethnology. His re
searches and his studies of the character
istics of the different races of mankind
resulted in the publication by him of sev
eral-books on the subject and Anally to
the introduction of his curious system for
the lndentiftcation of criminals. Before
his advent into the Held of criminal work,
identification was most uncertain. The
police and prison officials took some gen
eral .'measurements of the bodies of crim
inals, photographed them and described
their scars or other physical blemishes or
peculiarities. Upon this latter descrip
tion and the photograph depended almost
entirely the identification. The various
ways in which criminals defeated these
records of the police are interesting. For
means of apprehension the photograph
was of small use, for the fugitive could
easily disguise himself by a change of
beard by the iise of dye on the hair of
head or face. /Criminals even alter scars
and other blemishes. Tattoo marks, when
ever they could be found, were depended
upon for identification. But the criminal
changes the tattoos as well. For instance,
one well-known offender wore in the skin
of hla forearm, in colored ink, the figure
of a boy holding in both hands above his
head a stiak, as tho he were preparing
to jump over it. The next time the crim-
wn -
/long- .iS.^V
.voet* **
par M. . Jt)9uiAM} .
VStll# l -..- ''- -. pr
Reproduced by Permission From Leslie's Weekly. Copyright, 1903.
lnal was caught, this boy had been trans
formed into a dancing girl with short
skirt, and the stick above the head had
become a wreath of flowers. So the old
methods of Identification were crude and
The Bertillon system is, however, very
simple. It is based on two fundamental
assumptionsthat the human frame un
dergoes no perceptible change after the
age of twenty years and that nature has
no duplicates. The measurement depends
upon the bones of the body, the Instru
ments of measurement being very exact
and devices being used to prevent the
subject from distorting his body so that
the measurements made would be Inac
The height is first taken. This is the
most susceptible to variation for a person
by drawing himself up to the utmost or
by relaxing his muscles when standing
can produce an apparent difference in
height of one to two inches. The next
measurement is the "stretch," commonly
called the "reach," the distance from the
finger tips of one hand to the finger tipst
of the other when both arms are stretched
out horizontally at the sides of the body.
The length of the trunk is takenin other
words, the height of the subject sitting.
The head-length is a measurement which
the prisoner cannot vary. This is found
with an instrument like a compass, which
tells the distance from a point at the root
of the nose to the back of the head. With
the same instrument the head-width is
taken, being the greatest /width of the
head, usually between two points just
above the ears. The breadth of the face,
from the outside of the cheek bones is
found, and then the right ear is meas
ured, which concludes the record of meas
urements for the head. The length of the
left foot is taken, and the middle finger
and the little finger on the left hand and
the left "cubit." This last is the dis
tance from the bend of the elbow to the
tip of the outstretched fingers. These
shorter measurements do not vary, and in
no two men. It seems, are they exactly
similar and corresponding.
But the description of the subject goes
further. All the unusual marks of the
bodymoles, warts, - scars, tattooing
and all deformities are noted and finally
there is what is called the descriptive
signalment, the mental and moral traits
apparent being noted, and the characteris
tic features, the forehead, the nose, color
of hair and beard, the complexion, the
teeth, chin, and the ear, all being de
scribed. The subject is weighed and his
general physical make-up observed. The
ear. by the way, is, according to Mr.
Baker, of the New York department of
prisons, the most important feature for
detection and identification.
In addition to conducting the bureau
of identification of the Paris police force,
M. Bertillon has a school for detectives.
One of the most important branches of the
course that is given to students of this
school is that called "mental photo
graphy" or "spoken photographs." "The
detectives," said Mr. Baker, "are taught
by M. Bertillon a system for fixing in
their own minds the features of any one
whom they wish particularly to remember.
It is important for a detective to know a
'professional' criminal at a glance when he
sees him on the street. And the feature
which is given particular attention in this
course is the ear. There are no two per
sons of all the millions of the earth whose
ears are exactly alike. Just look around
for yourself and see the variety of ears.
Of the same general form, they always
differ strikingly in detail. Even the eye,
is seems, is not as important, altho eyes
are classified under the Bertillon system,
the first class being the clear blue eye
without spots of any other color.
"In the school for detectives in which
Alphonse Bertillon lectures, the student is
shown the photograph of some one of the
clerks in the many offices and depart
ments of the building where the identifi
cation bureau is located. Then he is sent
out for practice, to And the subject of the
photograph. The beginner will return in
nearly every instance with the wrong per
son but before he has finished the course
p'td g. ^JeJlt nr
trpff, !- 8 1
S/larc -tfiu.S,.
nrfdiua ff. X t.,.9~
* |s{parl" Y-. -
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oreitle dr. Jo...'7
coudde g.
SMg~....'*n. _
fprt "
DttMC k Parit. to &T...I7.... . .
it*- o&fcufcttl
\part" ... ____
Food Did It.
After using laxative and cathartic
medicines from childhood a case of chronic
and apparently incurable constipation
yielded to the scientific food Grape-Nuts
in a few days. "From early childhood T
suffered with such terrible constipation
that I had to use laxatives continuously
going from one drug to another and suf
fering more or less all the time.
"A prominent physician, whom I con
sulted told me the muscles of the digest
ive organs were partially paralyzed and
could not perform their work without help
of some kind, so I have tried at different
times about every laxative and cathar
tic known but found no help that was at
all permanent. I had finally become dis
couraged and had given my case up as
hopeless when I began to use the pre
digested food Grape-Nuts..
"Although I had not expected this food
to help my troi'.ble to my great surprise
Grape-Nuts digested immediately from the
first and in a few days I was convinced.
u that this was, just what my system
- * needed.
* "The bowels performed their functions
* regularly and I am now completely and
''/ permanently cured of this awful trouble.
V "Truly the power of scientific food must
"*\ be unlimited." Name given by Postum
"l Co . Battle Creek, Mich. IV
is a feason.
$' ^Healthful desserts are just as easy as
xi the bad kind. For further particulars see
1 the little recipe book In each package of
' Grape-Nuts..
A :
dlo t AnnoUIre droit* i
and when he has learned 'mental photog
raphy,' the detective will return In near
ly every case with the right person. Two
photographs are a part of the Bertillon
description. One is the direct front view,
the other profile. From these a good
mental photograph may be made.
"M. Bertillon has contrived other sys
tems for the detection of criminals. One
of these is the identification of handwrit
ing by a series of measurements but most
curious of all are his experiments for
identification' of criminals by their thumb
and finger marks. For instance, suppose
that a man has been murdered by chok
ing. A chemical preparation, devised by
Bertillon, when applied to the skin of
the victim's throat, would bring out clear
ly the prints of ,the murderer's fingers,
showing the fine parallel ridges which
are at the ends of the thumbs and fingers
and if the lines in the finger marks on the
throat of the victim correspond to the
same sort of impression made by the
fingers of the suspected person, then this
would be considered good evidence of
guilt. For the swirling lines in the sur
face of the skin at the ends of ttte thumb
and finger vary with each individual just,
as the ears differ. In England, where the
Bertillon system is not used, the thumb
and finger impressions of criminals are
taken and are used for identification. Be
sides being employed in France and the
United States, the Bertillon system has
been adopted in Germany, Austria, Switz
erland, Belgium, Holland and Roumania."
In another way France has taken the
lead in the treatment of criminals. This
is in the isolation of its short-term pris
onersthe class including those serving
sentence for their first crime, or those in
prison awaiting trial. In the prisons of
the United States such persons are usually
crowded promiscuously together in jails
where each may see all of the others or
be seen by them. As has been pointed out
by Superintendent Collins, of the prison
department of New York, such prisons
become schools of crime for beginners,
where those who have committed their
first offense are brought under the in
fluence of hardened criminals. It is to
avoid this that short-term prisoners in
French prisons are entirely isolated.
One important feature of the Bertillon
system, making it practically discouraging
to the "professional" criminal is the keep
ing of the record of each convict on the
Same card which bears his photograph and
description. This record of crimes has
been useful In preserving the classification
of the inmates of the state penal institu
tions in New York. Convicts are now di
vided Into four groupsA. B, C and D.
Group A contains those who are serving
their first term and who appear by their
conduct in prison to be less vicious and
more suspectible to reformatory influences
than the others. In Group B are the bet
ter class of those who are serving their
second term in prison. In the third group,
C, are prisoners serving their third term.
And in the last group, D, are all convicts
who appear to be incorrigible and who
have vicious habits and criminal tenden
cies. The purpose of the classification Is
to prevent prisoners from associations that
would tend to fur fier degrade them or dis
courage reformation, and also to deter
mine which should be given the most fa
vorable treatment and most pleasant labor
during their period of incarceration, the
preference being given always to the first
term convicts. Until the Bertillon system
In New York determined so definitely the
records of criminals the grouping of pris
oners was often unfair, those whohad
served the greatest number of terms, by
their very knowledge and experience of
prison methods, being able to put them
selves in the first qlass and secure the
most favorable positions. The Bertlllon
record prevents this.
u ,7" HIS INTEREST. ... _- . , .
Washington Star." - - '
"Are yon Interested in these captains of indus
try of 'whom A\e read so much?" _
"I don't know." responded Senator Sorghum,
reflectively, "that I am as much Interested in the
captains as I am in the paymasters."
A Sample Bottle Sent Free by Mail.
Dr. Kilmer's Swamp-Root, the great kid
ney remedy, fulfils every wish in prompt
ly curing kidney, bladder and uric acid
troubles, rheumatism and pain in the
back. It Corrects inability to hold water
and scalding pain in passing it, or bad
effects following use of liquor, wine or
beer, and overcomes that unpleasant ne
cessity of being compelled to go often
during the day and to get up many times
during the night. The mild and the ex
traordinary effect of Swamp-Root is soon
realized. It stands, the highest for its
wonderful cures of the most distressing
Swamp-Root is not recommended for
everything, but if you' have kidney,. liver,
bladder or uric acid trouble, you will find
it just the remedy you need.
If you need a medicine you should have
the best. J3old by druggists in fifty-cent
and one-dollar sizea. You may have a
sample bottle of this great kidney remedy,
Swamp-Root, and a book that tells all
about it and its great cures, both sent
absolutely free by mail. Address Dr. Kil
mer & Co., Blnghamton, N. Y. When
writing, be sure to mention that you read
this generous offer In The Minneapolis
Daily Journal. Don't make any mistake,
but remember the name, Swamp-Root, Dr.
Kilmer's Swamp-Root, and the address,
Blnghamton, N. Y., on every bottle.
Writ in Beet Sugar Case Issued by
the Supreme Court. .
Argument on Validity of the Law
of 1899 May Be Heard
The supreme court has Issued the writ
of certiorari prayed for by the Minnesota
Sugar Beet company, directing State Aud
itor Ivercon to furnish the records in the
case for the court's review. The writ is
issued on the theory that the auditor's
course in refusing to pay the 1900 bounty
was a judicial act, and the court in re
viewing It will decide whether the law
of 1899 was constitutional. The writ has
been served on Mr. Iverson. After quoting
the statement of facts set forth in the
petition, the writ says:
You are hereby commanded without delay to
send us in our supreme court certified copies of
tho record, proceedings and papers made, had or
received in your,office relating to the matters
above recited and referred to, wherein you have
refused to issue a warrp.nt upon the state treas
urer in favor of said petitioner for certain
money claimed by said petitioner to be due it
from the state on account of sugar manufac
tured by said petitioner, so that having the same
In our supreme court we may cause to be done
thereupon whta of right we shall deem proper in
the premises.
The writ does not fix a time for the re
turn but the records will be furnished to
the court this week. The court will then
consider the constitutionality of the
bounty law. H. W. Childs and Judge Ell
Torrance will uphoild the law, and Attor
ney General Douglas will oppose it. The
counsel for the company are anxious to
have it settled at this term of court, and
the question may be submitted on briefs,
as the attorney general is going away on
legal business in a few days, and would
not be here to take part in oral argu
ment of the case.
The amount of the claim Is $19,523.31.
The bounty paid in 1900 was $19,925.36,
from which is deducted $402.15, which
the state paid for the services of an in
spector at the iactory.
hgi da
MP' ..._iv.
age epp* -^.
A. K. Taylor a Victim of Apoplexy
on Excursion Yesterday.
A. K. Taylor, a passenger on the excur
sion steamer J. J. Hill, dropped from his
chair, afflicted with apoplexy, just as
the boat was nearing the St. Paul landing
last evening. Mr. Taylor was a delegate
to the A. 0.U. W. convention and had
gone on a trip down the river with the
other delegates. ^ He was apparently in
the best of health and up until the very,
moment he fell there were no symptoms
of sidkness whatever. Mr. Taylor fell
from his chair at 7:45 o'clock and died
half an hour later at St. Joseph's hospital.
His home was in Houston, Texas, and
members of the order will take the re
mains as far as, Burlington, Iowa, where
they will be met by friends and relatives.
The deceased was 62 years old and is
survived by a wife and three children.
One of the Most Important Problems Be
fore A. O. U. W.
The fact that members under 46 years
old are paying 20 per cent over the cost
of their insurance, while those above that
age are paying less than cost, was the
matter to which particular attention was
directed by the A. O. U. W. beneficial
commission in its report to the supreme
lodge yesterday. Some readjustment to
offset this inequality is felt to be imper
ative. Several ways out of the difficulty
have been suggested, all of which will be
fully considered by the supreme lodge be
fore action is taken.
An editorial association of the A. O.
U. W. was formed yesterday. It includes
the editors of forty-flye official publica
tions of the order thruout the United
States. There were sixteen editors pres
ent at the oganization meeting, the offi
cers being: President, A. E. Pierce, Den
ver, Col. vice-president, Mrs. Francls
Buell Olson, St. Paul secretary and treas
urer, Thomas D. Osborn, Louisville, Ky.
A movement was launched yesterday
for the organization of a grand lodge in
the Canadian northwest, where the order
ha3 grown rapidly in recent years.
Hereafter prospective members will be
balloted upon before payment of the med
ical examiner's fees, which were formerly
forfeited if the application was rejected.
The supreme lodge rejected the resolu
tion providing for the admission of dis
trict grand masters.
The supreme lodge and remaining vis
iting delegates were the guests of the St.
Paul entertainment committee last eve
ning in a moonlight excursion on the
Missisippi and Minnesota rivers.
Miss Dora (to Major Putter, -who is
playing an important match, and has just
lost his ball)"Oh, major do come and
take your horrid ball away from my little
dog. He won't let me touch it, and I
know he must be ruining his teeth!" -
London Answers.
Mrs. HomerHow do you manage to get
your carpets so clean? D o you hire a pro
fessional carpet beater? ,
Mrs. NeighborNo my husband beats
them, and I always do something to make
him angry just before he begins the job.
"'- "' Philadelphia Press.
"My boy tells me you discharged him,"
said the late office boy's mother. "You
advertised for a strong boy, and I cer
tainly thought he was strong .enough."
"Madam," replied the merchant, "he was
too strong. H e broke all the rules of the
office and some of the furniture in the
two days he was with us."
-'-'? ,- -, Tonkers Statesman. "* ***.. '...'
The City GirlSo you think a tramp In
the country always brings an appetite?
The Country GirlI never saw one at
our back door without an appetite.
& . '
Fancy Rocker, $9.75.
Gents' large arm
latest Version of Securities Dissolu
tion StoryWall Street's View
of the Tale.
Special to The Journal.
ing their outfits for -.Housekeeping
We are offerings special inducements to newly married
people - inf the shape of Bargains of Special Easy
Terms o#Payment this month.
We will place on sale Wednesday 20 of the cele
brated Karpen Couches, all covered in genu
ine leather, with Karpen Construction, in oak
and mahogany frames with and without
fringe. You can buy one for 835,
840, 346, S50, S5t, 860. A chance
to secure a Karpen Couch at a bargain.
bers of the disintegrated Securities com
NEW $20,000,000 COMPANY
Denver Men Organize to Build Line in
$. Mexico.
Denver, June 16.Papers are being pre
pared here to be filed in Wyoming for the
operation of the Sonora, Chihuahua &
Monterey railroad, capital $20,000,000. The
promoters are mostly residents of Denver
and Include Former Justice Luther. M.
Goddard of the supreme court, Former
Governor James B. Ormari, Frank P.
/Bertschey, head auditor of the Woodmen
of tho World, and other well known capi
talists. The Mexican government has
given the company valuable concessions
and will materially assist in '1uildin the
road,"-.. ,-.....,: '-,-,, ,- --/''_'.'_ . - ...'.-.
Tho Rio Yaqui .International Trans
portation & Metallurgical company, which
was recently incorporated in Arizona with
$20,000,000 capital, is ah adjunct Company.
It has just completed arrangements for
a $10,000,000 gold bond issue for the pur
pose of building smelting works and de
veloping the mining properties it now
controls. "
New York, June - 16.Altho the story
that the Northern Securities company is
about .to be dissolved, received scant at
tention on Wall street, it seems Inevit
able that some ruhio&of that kind should
have found. its way into circulation: It
is regarded' as^focufeh t/ look for such an,
event until.. ther^/s^reme cptlrt of ' the
United States ,W3iaride .down a. decision
in the federal suit now pending on ap
peal. In '.the . first,place, the promoters'
company are supremely confident that the
decision of. the circuit court will be re
versed and they do not intend to take
steps to dissolve the company. until it
has been demonstrated that their confi
dence is misplaced.. The argument on the
appeal will not be heard until December,
and it is doubtful whether a decision will
be handed down before the end of Janu
ary or early February. The result of an
adverse decision wlould be the necessity
of placing the company in liquidation, and
In the meantime the question at issue
would have been clearly defined by "the
court. *
Apropos of the Securities dissolution
story, an alleged skeleton of the. prospec
tive plans of the company found its way
into circulation t0-day. It is to the ef
fect that, with the passing of the Securi
ties company, the Great Northern will be
operated. in" connection with the Burling
ton to the exclusion of the Northern Pa
cific, whether this will mean that the
Northern Pacific'. will surrender the half
of the controlling interest which it holds
or not is not stated. The Northern Pa
cific, so the story goes, will be operated
independently, and rumor also brings in
the Erie, but neglects to specify its ex
act relation to the various other mem -
Rate Slashing Possibilities.
Cleveland, Ohio, June 16.Rate clerks of the
Central Passenger Association will meet in Cin
cinnati next Thursday to try and have the Lake
Shore' abandon its rate announced from. Cleve
land to San, Francisco for the Grand Army en
campment, The rate named is' said to be an
Infringement on differentials by other lines and
unless the Lake Shore complies with the wish
of the clerks a general overturning' of rates to
the Pacific coast, is probable.
- ' . To Escape Snowslides.
Special to The Journal.
Taeoma, Wash., June 16.E. J. Coyle, general
western passenger" agent of the Canadian Pacific
railway, on his last visit to Taeoma said that
it was the Intention of Us company to undertake
important work at' Summit Lake, west of Bev
elstoke, to escape snowslides every spring. It
bus decided to change the course of the track
from the south to the north side of the lake. The
work will Involve the construction of three tun
nels and the building of a mile track, but the
saving will be worth the expenditure. This
pieceof road is in a dangerous conditions as it
is now. . ,
. nm 16,"1903 . -.f*^ S
Th e Store That Saves You Money.
Fifth St. and First Ave. S.
. . Lustige Welt. .
"No offense, old man, but those plc
-tuires your wife paints are execrable."
"Well it's not so bad as 'twas she
used to do the cooking." * .
Men live by custom nations by cus
Cured to stay cured. NEVER RETURN.
Cause eliinincted. Constitution changed.
Nerves reconstructed. Health restored. Our
constitutional treatment is a radical depar
ture, absolutely different from all smokes,
sprays and "specifics," Our patients enjoy
life without the slightest return of symp
toms. Pollen, heat, dust, exertioq, smoke,
odors or auy other cause cannot bring back
attacks. We have already treated over 52,000
Hay Fever and Asthma sufferers.
f3Df?p No matter how much wealth or
* *X*-- influence may be at your com
mand, you cannot obtain complete relief and
permanent freedom from Hay Fever or Asth
ma except through our constitutional treat
ment. Doubt and deny this all you please
It remains a proven fact. Write for BOOK
89 FREE, explaining the principles of our
treatment, with reports of many interesting
rases. Address
P. HAROLD HAYES. Buffalo, N. Y.
Gasolene Stoves
We are sole agents for the Celebrated
Insurance Gasolene Stoves, the only
absolutely safe and economical stove
on the market. We have them at
8 8.00
$ 8.00
S 12.00
$20.00 $22.00
Extension Table, $8.85.
A lady's rat-
tan rocker,
made of best
quality of
bleached rat-
tan, all finished
in shellac.
A neat rocker
and well
worth $6. Made of oak. Finished in golden, and pol
ished. Six foot long. Has 42x42 top. Heavy
twisted legs, and is worth in the regular way
not less than $13.00.
Made of golden oak. Polished. Has fancy
turned legs. Size of top 20x38. Worth$12.00.
Tonkers Statesman.
ChurchI seem a Jersey man is com-'
plaining': because his wife thought more
of a dog than she did of him.
Gotham-Well, perhaps the dog growled
There was a young lady from Gloucester
Who married a man, and he Boucester,
Which the girl wouldn't stand,
So she went to the strand
And jumped into the ocean, which
Baltimore News.
ir! J
Six-foot round dining room table with 45-inch
top, and. is worth $13.00. Same as above, only
Library Table, $6.50.
Thesebeers are incom
parable in quality and
possess hop and malt J
purity that is in evidence
in. every bottle. It's a
well known fact that
Blatz Beer never varies.
Always the same Good
Old Blatz.
1316 6th St. S., telephone 206.
Non-IntoxicantFor Tonic Purposes.
M /J 1
' 3 $
H. \i
D I mm,
.SUITE 3, 4 AND 6.
230 Hen. av, Minneapolis.
The Oldest and Most Reliable
Specialist in the Northwest
. for the cure of
EN suffering from evil effects of youthfutf
Indiscretion, later excesses, recent expos
ure, - nervous debility, varicocele, unnatural
discharges, lost vitality, failing memory, unfit
ness to marry, blood, skin, kidney or private dis
eases are speedily cured. Dr. Wyatt employs,
the most approved methods, and will 'attend'
you personally, and complete a perfect cure. In
strict confidence, at moderate expense.
ADIEB suffering from any form of Female
Weakness, Painful or Irregular Sickness
are permanently restored to health.
Dr. Wyatt has bad 30 years' experience, and
been located In present offices 17 years, prov
ing himself an honorable, reliable and skillful'
E.EE Consultation. Call or write tor list
of questions. Home treatment safe and.'.
No exposure. No delay from business.
OFFICE HOURS9 a. m. to
Sunday, 10 a. m. to 12.
8' p. m.
A prominent physician of New'
York City, discussing the merits of
Ripans Tabules, said: "I have as
serted that if a man wished to be
come a philanthropist and do a be
neficent deedone that would help
the whole human racenothing
could be. better than t procure the
prescription which is the basis of
Ripans Tabules, and cause it to be
put up in cheap form and distributed
among the poor."
D. M. Cbute,
" vH
At Druggists.
The FlTe-Cent packag* U enough for
rdlnary occasion. Th family bottle, SO
mats, contains a supply for a year.
Emerson Cole,
Oeo. B. Cols
sec'y & Treas
Collar Lake See
-3 Company. '
834-Honnmpfn Avhum, Tamplm Ooamt
,*, - ? i i, Both TelephonestlS. -^ i
^ -% & -
Household good* a specialty.
equaled twrnltlea ana lowest rate*.Uu
by experienced
BoydPMkiog Transfer & Storagemen,. Co, 46So,34SI
Xlpfcon Main W
1 both rronwgci. m

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