New York, April 19.The market
valuation of the buildings in San Fran
cisco, exclusive of municipal and fed
eral buildings, is $260,000,000. The
most conspicuous and beautiful build
ing in the city was the city hall. It
covered four acres, and its dome, 131
feet high by 115 feet in diameter, rose
335 feet above the sidewalk. It cost
nearly $7,000,000, and was one of the
most imposing of public buildings in
the United States.
The depot of the Union ferry, whose
boats connect the city with the lail
Xvay system across the bay, was erected
Authorities Make Dire Predictions
Say Chicago and New
York May Suffer.
Jctrnal Special Service.
Washington, April 19.Gilbert X.
Grosvenor, editoi of the National Geo
graphic Magazine and one of the best
informed scientists in the United States
on seismic disturbances, dictated the
The earthquake which brought ruin
to so manv in San Francisco was caused
bv an invisible settling or breaking in
of the earth's crust somewhere not
many miles from that city. It is not
very likely that the earthquake had any
connection with the eruption of Mount
Manv of the mountains in that part
of the world are still voung,' as the
geologist would say. They are as much
unlike the old, gentle and softened Blue
ridge as a great, overgrown, husky bov
is unlike a fully developed and "hard
"They are expanding in some places
and contracting in others, tho this
process is so slow that the changes
cannot be measured in many genera
tions. But every now and then some
thing gives way in the bowels of the
earth, an immense mass settles, and
tho the fall may be only a foot or a
few inches, the iar is so tremendous
that great buildings miles distant are
shaken like ^aekstraws.
"This is probably the explanation
for the cause of the terrible catastro
php in San Francisco. If the earth
quake had happened in Venezuela or
in the West Indies we would, with good
leason, attribute it to volcanic agencies,
but San Francisco is too far away from
volcanic influences. It has been noticed
that volcanic disturbances of anv kind
are usually accompanied bv magnetic
or electrical disturbances, which, in
waves, encircle the earth.''
QUAKE FOR LAYMEN
SHOCK FELT IN GREAT BRITAIN
Area of Disturbance Was
London, April 19.Professor Milne,
the leading expert on seismic phenome
na, says his seismograph at Shide, Isle
of Wight, recorded the San Francisco
earthquake with such clearness that he
vas able to almost immediately ask
where the disturbance occurred.
Asked his opinion as to the causes
of the catastrophe. Milne said:
"The first question to be asked is of
astronomers, for it is generally believed
that earthquakes are to a large extent
caused by the failure of the earth to
swing perfectly true. Sometimes it
gets a little bit off its course and the
reaction in swinging back to its true
position involves a tremendous strain
on the center. This is said to be so
great that it results in twisting or
breaking earth's crust. Therefore, to
find the present disturbance you must
get astronomers to tell you if they have
noticed any deviation in the earth's
axis within the past few days. The
recent eruption of Vesuvius is probably
due to the same cause."
VOLCANIC ACTION IN PROSPECT
Head of. Carnegie Institute Tells of
^Recent Study of Pacific Conditions,
journal Special Service.
Philadelphia, April 19.Dr. W. J.
Holland, head of the Carnegie Insti
tute at Pittsburg, here as a delegate to
the Franklin bicentennial, said that
the recent volcanic activity of Mount
Tacoma is most probably responsible
for the San Francisco disaster that
Vesuvius has nothing to do with it,
and that the entire Pacific coast is in
in 1896, at a cost of $1,000,000. It was
659 feet long, 156 feet wide, and housed,
beside the ticket office and waiting
rooms, the California State Board 01
Trade, Pacific Commercial Museum and
the state mining department, all filled
with papers and documents of almost
The United States government build
ings in San Francisco consist of the
mint, which was second the country,
and the United States appraiser's build
ing, which contains the internal revenue
office, secret service and marine offices,
the United States circuit and district
danger of subsidence beneath the wa
ters of the Pacific.
Dr. Holland has recently returned
from a long trip in which he devoted
his time to an exhaustive study oi
volcanoes and earthquakes in Japan and
along the western coast of this country.
"There are series of what might be
called cracks the earth's surface ex
tending along the western coast line
from Patagonia to Alaska," he says.
"The stretch of earth between the
mountain ranges and the coast is con
stantly uplifting or sinking, and it is
not impossible that it all may sink.
Coincident with such lines of fault
ing there is always found in proximity
to an ocean volcanic disturbances ac
companied by earthquakes. Volcanoes
are due to the fact that the water of
the ocean settles down and peicolates
to deeper strata, which are heated by
the internal heat of the earth. Steam
is thus generated, lava is formed and
there follows explosions and seismic
"There is no doubt that there has
been a breakdown and a shifting of
strata, perhaps at a great depth, in the
region of San Francisco. There is cer
tainly great connection between this
earthquake and recent private reports
which have come to me of intense vol
canic activity on the part of Mount
Tacoma. I would say that it is not
possible to connect the disturbances in
San Francisco with the activity of
courts, the court of appeals and the
coast and geodetic survey. The two
cost about $2,100,000.
The number of industrial establish
ments recorded in the last census was
4,002. In the last five years this list
has grown to 4,400, employing 43,000
wage earners. Sugar and molasses re
fining are the largest single industries.
There are fifty-nine hotels, of which
the most famous was the Palace hotel,
which occupied an entire block on Mar
ket street 158 churches, 16 theaters, 18
hospitals, 21 orphan asvlums, 69 clubs
and 22 homes for the aged.
i CHRONICLE BUILDING, KEARNEY A ND MARKET STREETS badly raekad.
"There has been tremendous poten
tial activity along the whole western
coast. This potential energy is being
changed into actual energy and the
whole coast is in danger of subsidence.'
This, to my mind, is the beginning of
a great volcanic action."
DISASTER LONG EXPECTED
President Van Hise of Wisconsin "U,"
Comments on Earthquake.
Madison, Wis., April 19.President
Charles E. Van Hise of the University
of Wisconsin, one of the best-geolo
gists in the country, formerly of the
United States geological survey, says a
disaster at San Farncisco has long been
expected by scientists. In a signed
statement he says:
"Scientists have known for many
years that San Francisco is dangerously
located and would probably, sooner or
later, be subject to severe shocks.
"The fear has been repeatedly ex
pressed that San Francisco would be
the first to show the effect of an earth
quake upon such structure, for it has
been well understood that San.Fran
cisco has the most dangerous location
with reference to earthquakes of any
large city in the United States."
CHICAGO IN DANGEB
Geologic Formations There May Pres
age an Earthquake.
Chicago, April 19.There are slight
indications that Chicago may experi
ence an earthquake within a few years,
according to Professor Goode of the
University of Chicago geology faculty.
The presence of crispies of rock in the
earth inside or near the city limits, he
believes is an indication of a condition
A BIRDSEY E VIEW OF? SAN.FRANCISCOfANDfTHEfGOLDEN GATE
Like ancient Rome, San Francisco is
a city of hills. It is situated on a
tongue of land about six miles broad,
between the Bay of San Francisco and
the narrow strait, called the Golden
Gate. It has forty-seven square miles
of territory within its municipal area.
The business district is in part on made
ground, facing the harbor on the east
ern side of the peninsula, and on the
comparatively level ground to the
southeast. It is bi-seeted diagonally
by Market street and the streets south
of that thorofare are occupied prinei
pally by manufacturing establishments
that might result in the dismantling of
a portion of the city.
"There is no absolute geological
proof that Ghicago may. have an earth
quake in the next few years," Profes
sor Goode declared. "One can detect
slight symptoms, however. Certain for
mations of certain kinds of rock under
neath Chicago might be taken as an in
dication. An earthquake is as simple
as the breaking of a timber.
I believHB that the seat of the dis
turbance at San Francisco was about
seven miles below *the surface- of the
earth. It was quit* probably a slip
ping of the crust *&f the earth. One
block of the crusts! slips up while the
other slips down. Tjhe focus
Prof. Tarr Tells of Changing Physical
Conditions on Pacific Coast.
New York, April 19.The Times to
day prints a statement from Ralph
Stockman Tarr, professor of dynamatic
geology and physical geography at Cor
nell university on the subject of the
San Francisco earthquake. Professor
Tarr was formerly connected with the
United States geological survey and the
Smithsonian institute at Washington.
He is considered an authority on seismic
disturbances. He says:
"It is too early to pronounce a final
opinion upon nature and cause of the
San Francisco earthquake, but from
what has been said it will be seen that
it is probable that this shock is the
result of movements along one or more
fault lines in the course of the natural
growth of the coast ranges, which geolo
gists have long known to be still in
progress thruout the entire extent of
California. That the coast ranges are
growing is proved by numerous evi
dences. There are upraised shore lines
at various points along the California
coast, proving recent uplift. The very
bay of San Francisco is the result of a
geologically recent subsidence of this
part of the coast which has admitted
the sea into the gorge that the Sacra
mento river formerly cut across the
coast ranges. This forms the Golden
Gate and in the broader mountain val
ley behind the sea has spread out to
form the bay.
"Whether the center of greatest dis
turbance of the present shock is in or
near the city cannot yet be told, tho
the meager reports so far received indi
cate this. If it is, San Francisco is in
danger of future disasters."
UNIVERSE IN FOR DISASTER
Terrible Forecast by Professor Totten,
the ex-Yale Prophet.
Journal Special Service.
New Haven, Apiil 19."The worst
is yet to come," said Professor Totten,
the ex-Yale prophet, when asked about
the San Francisco disaster. I
wouldn't be surprised if the same thing
struck Chicago tomorrow and New
York the next day. What I look for
next is a comet, *a portent of greater
The whole universe is wound up for
disaster. Every cycle works out to
ward zero. Look at the conditions
prevailing in Naples, ,San Francisco.
Chicago and New York. Naples and
San Francisco have had their share.
Next the two others. After them Rus
sia will meet her fate for consummating
her deviltries upon a people whom the
Lord has sworn shall be vindicated
against any hand raised against them.
Then look for the universal war, which
the Bible calls a/h earthquake with its
overwhelming of the tall cedars and the
great princes and the stars of heaven."
All California in Danger.
Journal Special Service.
New York, April 19.Professor
Louis Pierson and Arthur Wright of
Yale, authorities on physiography,
agree tljat at any time all of California
may be shattered by earthquakes. Pro
fessor Pierson said: "The whole con
figuration of California shows that
there will continue to' be earthquakes
on that region. Buildings thru the
state should, be constructed with that
fact in view."
CONSIDER REPLY O OPERATORS.
Wilkesbarre, Pa., April 19.President
Mitchell and District Presidents Nicholas
Dettrey and Fahey of the. United Mine
Workers, will meet here next Tuesday
to consider the reply of the coal mine,
operators, made'public Tuesday.
THtt lIWWlEAFtrjt,l JUUKNAJL. April 19, 1906.
vof the dis
turbance may be nifted by the .direction
of the cracks in the wrecked buildings.
"The Sierra Madre mountains are
voung and are growing slowly, and no
doubt their growing was the cause of
OTHER QUAKES MAT FOLLOW
and the homes of laborers. The terri
tory north of Market street is devoted
to retail shops of the better class and
the homes of merchants and capitalists.
Rearing its tall walls in the center of
the business* section was the lofty
Spreckels building, occupied by the San
On the other side of the corner of
Kearney avenue and Market street
stood the Chronicle and Examiner
buildings, and to the east close by the
Palace hotel, was the building occupied
by the Postal Telegraph company.
Behind the business district, extend-
OF THE DISASTER
Former Geodetic Survey Official
Says 'Twas Like Terrier
Shaking a Rat.
Oakland, ^Cal., April 19.Professor
George Davidson of the University of
Caliiornia, formerly connected with
the United States geodetic survey, said
"The earthquake came from north
to south, and the only description 1 am
able to give of its effect to me is that
it seemed like a terrier shaking a rat.
I Was in bed but was awakened at the
first shock. I began to count the gec
onds as I went towards the table where
my watch was, being able, thru much
practice, to closely approximate the
time in that manner. The shock came
at 5:12 o'clock. The first sixty sec
onds were the most severe. From that
time on it decreased gradually for about
thirty seconds. There was then the
slightest perceptible lull, then the shock
continued for sixty seconds longer, be
ing slighter in degree in this minute
than in any part of the preceding min
ute and a half. There were two very
slight shocks, after which I did not
time. At 5:14 o'clock I recorded a
shock of five seconds' duration and one
.PACIFiQ: CONSERVATIVE LIFE BUILDING, MONTGOMERY
MENTO STREETS badly racked.
ing to the southwest on the high ground
called Knob Hill, stood the mansions of
the millionaires, the Golden Gate park
and the suburb, Richmond Hill residen
tial section, approach to which is by
streets so steep that cars climbing the
hill appear to the spectator on the low
ground to be on end.
San Francisco has twenty-eight pub
lie parks. The largest and most beau
tiful is^.the Golden Gate park, which
contains 1,014 acres. Its broad sweep
to the ocean on the west is of rare
beauty. At the northwest corner of
the peninsula are the Sutro heights,
at 5:15 of two seconds. There were
slight shocks which I did not record at
5:17 and 5:27 at 6:50 p.m. there was
a sharp shock of several seconds.
"Regarding the cause, I maintain,
'as I have always, that it is the earth
cooling on the inside. Cooling brings
about contraction, which is bound to
create a readjustment of the earth's
I have" heard talk that the eruption
of Vesuvius had connection with this
disaster, but that is rank nonsense. My
seismograph was twisted out of shape
by the shock so that I have no record
"As to telling whether there will be
a repetition of the earthquake I can
no more predict that than I could have
predicted the earthquake of today."
ITALY SHOCKED, TOO
Violent Disturbance Was Recorded
Borne, April 19.The seismographs in
the observatories thruout Italy yester
day recorded distinct earth ehocks.
Those of the observatory at Florence,
whieh has the most perfect instruments,
indicated that an earthquake had been
felt at a distance of over 7,000 miles.
The shocks were so severe that they
injured the instruments.
The director of the Florence obser
vatory is of the opinion that the earth
quake in California, viewed in connec
tion with the outbreak of Mount
Vesuvius and the earthquake in Cala
bria in September last, indicates the
approach of further terrestrial convul
sions. King Victor Emmanuel was most
impressed with the news from Cali
fornia following so soon after the
Calabria disaster and the eruption of
Vesuvius. He said that no one can
and on the rocky shore, a few hundred
yards away is the celebrated Cliff
The Presideo, the military reserva
tion of the United States, is the north
eastern corner of the peninsula.
The population of San Francisco is
400,000. The site was first occupied
by Europeans in 1679. It attracted
world-wide notice in 1848, when gold
was discovered in California. Since
then it has grown steadily, until it
finally attained the rank of the largest
city in the United States west of the
Mississippi river, except St. Louis.
sympathize more than the Italians with
the sufferers in and about San Fran
cisco, adding that he felt most anxious
for the thousands of Italian emigrants
The Pope Hears the News.
The news was communicated to the
pope by Cardinal Merry del Val, the
papal secretary of state. The pontiff
gave orders that he be kept informed
of all the developments, especially in
regard to the safety of Archbishop
Riordan and of the clergy of San Fran
PROFESSOR HICKS* PROPHECY
fa. Says Mississippi Valley Will Be
Journal Special Serrice.
St. Louis, April 19.Professor Ira
R. Hicks, the scientist, declares the
earthquake which spread disaster in
San Francisco will be felt in St. Louis
and the Mississippi valley in a few
days. Mr. Hicks said that the seismia*
disturbance in Frisco was a direct re
sult of a violent convulsion of the plan
etary system, a cause that superinduced
the recent eruption off Vesuvius.
These disturbances, he said, would
continue at intervals until June or
until the end of the summer solstice.
I look for a trembling at any
time," he said, for the disturbances
are bound to take place thruout the
world. Spots on the sun that can now
be seen with the naked eve signify the
perturbation now manifestecT in 'the
solar system. They are the effects of
great upheavals, which are bound to
affect all the other planets."
HEARD FOR MILES
Great Blasts Used to Check Fire'i
March in Frisco Shake
New York, April 19.With a tele-
raph instrument in the New York of
of the Western Union company con
nected directly with anothefinstrumenl
in Oakland, Cai., whose operator sat
looking across the harbor to San Fran
cisco, a vivid description of the appear
ance of the burning of California's me
tropolis, with its buildings tossed int
the air by dynamite, was received here.
"The roar of dynamite from the
other side of the harbor is almost deaf
ening at timps," ticked the Oakland op
erator. "They are attempting to blast
out pathways in the city blocks, where
ever the fire threatens, in order to
check its spread.
San Francisco is at times enveloped
in smoke and when it lifts we can see
the flames of burning buildings and
occasionally the timbers flying froin a
dynamite explosion. Almost all activ
ity, except that of dynamite appears to
have ceased. The ferry boats have
stopped running between Oakland and
San Francisco, and no one is allowed to
enter the burning city.
"The shocks here are continuous, som
of them being quite severe. They hav
gotten on the people's nerves so that
whenever the earth trembles, -almost
everyone who is under a roof rushes out
of doors. Many of the buildings in
San Francisco were so badly damaged
by this morning's shock that they art
a peril to whoever enters them.
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