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The Minneapolis journal. (Minneapolis, Minn.) 1888-1939, November 11, 1906, Part II, Editorial Section, Image 18

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045366/1906-11-11/ed-1/seq-18/

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ft Sen.is one of those whom we
call benefactors. He is an
honor to his people," writes Bjorn
stjume Bjorn.-on, whose opinion of mart^
and things Norwegian carries more
weight than that of any other writer in
or out of Norway, of a fellow country
man who is at present in America.
The fame of Magelssen, a sculptor,
whose work is well known turnout Scan
dinavia and who has received the, gold
inedal of the Paris salon, will not long
be confined to Norway, however, says
the New York Herald. His name is
destined to live always in the annals of
the fine arts for, after thirty years of
arduous toil, always under the shadow
of poverty that was embittered by the
ridicule and even the contempt of his
townspeople, he has rediscovered an art
tpat had been lost for more than 2,500
Magelssen's discovery is the process
for making a clay such as was used by
the ancient Greek and Eoman sculptors,
that can be fired at high temperature
without cracking or shrinking, and
whereby a statue may be constructed
over :,n iro- or w'den skeleton from
.which the artist may transfer it to mar
ble or take modellings direct for bronze
without the use of plaster.
This discovery is of great areheologi
cal interest also, since it proves defi
nitely that at the highest period of
ancient art the sculptor used a manu
factured clay, instead of the natural
clay employed for the last twenty-five
The genuineness of Magelssen's dis
covery is attested by among others,
such authorities as Cecil Smith, director
of the department of Greek and Koman
antiquities in the British Museum
Erederico Hermanini. director of the
Itoyal National Museum in Rome G.
Korte, first secretary of the Imperial
German Archeological Institute in
Rome the Danish sculptors Bisson and
Hasselbins, the Italian sculptors Giug
lielini and Monteverdi and the Amer
ican sculptor, Franklin Simmons, now
residing in Rome. These authorities
agree that the Norwegian's discovery
is destined to revolutionize the present
methods of sculpture and to revive the
process by which the ancients made
trusts the most deadly battle in his
tory. "For years," he said to me,
monopolies and monopolists were
called harsh names, sometimes vile
names, but now they are being called
to court. I think they liked the names
iHands in trousers' pockets, the two
tails of his black frockcoat pushed
clear to the hips, William Henry
Moody, attorney general of the United
States, soon to be a justice of the su
preme court, tramped back and forth
over the oriental rug. in front of his
desk. He is singularly like Theodore
Roosevelt in stature, hair, eyes and
complexion. But he is not so heavy.
"In Lynn, my own state, and not far
distant from my own home, a man came
up to me, saying: I have seen and
reeted every president since Lincoln,
am proud to take your hand, Mr.
Roosevelt.' I hadn't the heart to cor
rect him. Let him go home, I thought,
and cherish and elaborate his own de
Caption. I am in more danger, really,
than the president. He is guardea
and I am not."
A pair of spectacles or eyeglasses, a
little impetuosity of manner, and a
display of lips and teeth could carry
the attorney general all over the coun
try on the rear of a railroad train,
and his wildly cheering audiences
would not discover the difference. Cer
tainly, his principles would be the same
as the president's even outside of pub
lic matters and conduct. Furthermore,
he would be doing something all the
I was brought up," he replied in
answer to an inquiry, "in an atmos
phere that was always in motion. My
tamily was neither wealthy nor poor,
but it was busy at work or play. I was
not permitted to sit down and look off
into the distance. My dreams were all
at night, when there was nothing else
to do. My father had a large farm for
Massachusettsbetween 500 and 600
acresand" kept a good- many cows.
When there was no one else to do it, I
drove the milk wagon to Salem and
served our customers from door to aoor.
On such occasions I got up pretty early
in the morning. I was sent to Phillips
academy and prepared for college, and
my way was paid thru Harvard. Nev
ertheless, I was required to work. In
the summer I took my place in the
fields and was glad to be there."
"How did you earn vour first
I was rather good in history and
iohtieal economy, and during my sen
year at Harvard was a private tutor
in those subjects. There was a demand
for my sfrvices, and I thought it to be
my duty to get an honest penny where
I could. I earned several hundred dol
lars and felt all the better for it.
Somehow, if one has a little of his own
money in his pocket he takes more in
terest and pride in himself."
-if "Wheie did you study law?"
4 "At Harvard for a short time and
then in Boston, where I was fortunate to
get into the office of Richard H. Dana,
&igid Investigation and Meat Law
Prove of Vast
py W. W. Jermane, Colorado, Building,
I .Washington, D. C.
^'Washington, Nov. 10.As the figures
rot the export trade of the United States
for the- current year come dribbling in
from month to month it becomes more
and mors apparent that if. the presi
dent will only save the Chicago pack
ing houses a Tfew more write-ups
[American meats will rule the world. The
Christen Daae Magelssen/After Thirty
ears' Labor, Exhumes the Secret,
Buried for 25 Centuries,of thl Medium
Used by Ancient SculptorsMakes an
Artificial Clay that Can BeFired With-
out CrackingMeans Revolution in
the Sculptors' and Other Plastic Arts.
The Doughty Attorney General Who
Is Destined for the Supreme Bench.
Washington, D. C, Nov. 10.
YOUTH who drove a milk
wagon, now become a man,
is giving the railroads and
terra cotta statues and statuettes, that
has been forgotten since 600 years be--
fore Christ.
It was in Rome that Magelssen first
got the idea that the ancients must
have worked in a different material and
by different methods.
I saw it was quite impossible for
me to reach up to Greek art," he says.
I believe that every sculptor who has
studied classic art must allow that no
one since the best period of Greek art
has ever accomplished anything like
the work of that period. There must
have been a cause for their failure, I
thought, when such men as Thorwald
sen, Canova and Michael Angelo could
not attain the results of the ancients,
altho they strove with all their might.
Thorwaldsen confessed this himself. It
is said of him that he once turned over
with his foot the he'ad of a recently
disinterred antique statue in Rome and
sadly remarked that he had never been
able to do as good work as that.
Found by Fragments.
I spoke with several of the most
prominent sculptors in Rome about this
matter, and a few of them believed
with me that the ancients must have"
known other means and materials, but
no one could say what they were, be
cause no traces were left. I happened
to me one day to find the fragment of
the arm of a statue a little larger than
life, and by the appearance of the pec
toral and dorsal muscles and the shape
of the deltoid it was plain that the arm
had been stretched out after it had
been moulded. It was an original work
from the best period of Greek art, and
I was struck by the fact that there was
no sign that it had been stamped in a
mould, which always leaves traces.
Now, the idea came forcibly to me that
there must be a lost technique, because
the arm could not have been stretched
out without having a support of iron or
wood inside, which led naturally to the
conclusion that the arm could not have
been done in common clay, since com
mon clay cracks on being dried over a
hard body, and a material that cracks
cannot be fired.
1 showed this arm to my artists
and scientific men in Rome, but, strange
to relate, no one seemed to take the
one of the organizers of the Free-Soil
party, and author of 'Two Years Before
the Mast.' I was a boy and he an old
man, and so the relations between us
were not intimate, but I profited im
mensely by my contact with him. It
is always well to get near to a man of
genius, even if he never speaks to you.
The very air in which you live is ah in
spiration. You can't analyze itk nor
satisfactorily describe it in words, but
the influence of a strong character,
altho he may be dumb as a Parsee's
tower of silence, is great, and contin
ues with you so long as you live."
"Where did you begin your prac-'
"In Haverhill, where I shared an
office with another young lawyer. My
first fee was $1. A man whom I knew
met me on the street and asked me an
easy question. I suppose I looked very
wise and grave when I gave him my
opinion. Taking out his pocketbook he
paid me on the spot without so much as
dignifying me with the privilege of fix
ing the price. The dollar looked Tather
large, I must admit. But clients didn't
jostle each other in climbing the stairs
to my office. However. was busy.
Every little case I got was studied
back to the foundation of both law and
precedent, and I learned much that has
since been useful. The first vear at
Haverhill I earned $300, not enough to
pay rent and other expenses. My fees
were $400 the second vear. The' third
year I made $1,000, net. Thereafter,
my income grew steadily until I got
into politics and came to congress."
"Had you expected to take up poli
tics as a career?'-*
"At no time. I was elected a mem
ber of the republican campaign com
mittee in my city, and later was made
chairman. General Benjamin F. But
ler ran for governor, and we had an
exciting battle. Well, one thing led
to another, until I was elected district,
or prosecuting attorney. I held that
office six years, and it was the best
single experience of my life. Congress
is full of,lawyers who have servea as
prosecuting attorneys. That kind of
practice to a lawyer is what a surgeon
gets in a hospital. You have no client
at your elbow to make suggestions and
to expect a verdict when you are not
entitled to it. You follow your own
course and learn readiness, thoroness,
and the value of truth."
"You helped to try the case against
Lizzie Borden?"
"YesI was called into it, altho it
was not in my district. I suppose that
case was more fully reported in the
newspapers of this country than any
other in the history of American crim
inal practice. No further light has
been thrown upon the murder of An
drew J. Borden than was brought out
at the time of the trial. The mystery
of fourteen years ago is unbroken to
this day."
You sent several Haverhill alder
men to jail?"
"In Massachusetts licenses to liquor
dealers are apportioned on the basis of
population. Accordingly, they are val
uable. A wholesale whisky merchant
in Boston and his local agent in our
town made an arrangement with cer-
returns show that instead of the ruinous
black eye, which they said the president
was giving them, the packers have rea
lized a far heavier trade than they have
ever before enjoyed. On only one line
of their good's have they suffered any
falling offcanned meatsand this is
fully accounted for by the close of the
war in the far east.
The statistics are really quite start
ling. Thus the various ports report that
the meat and dairy exports for the
month of September of the present year
amounted in value to $16,008,270, while
September. 1905, only showed $12,799,-
893, and September, 1904, $11,894,832.
For the first nine months of 1906 the
exports amounted to $147,7951647,
whereas during the same period of the
very prosperous year of 1905 they "Stere
only $122,544,314, and again for the
first nine months of 1904 only $109,369,-
576. It will-thus be observed that in
spite of the meat inspection law, and
the startling revelations- made by the
president's commissionersor maybe on
-account o themthe meat. and dairy
export trade of the
slightest interest. I, soon found, that it
was futile to try to impress my views
upon others,.and I therefore kepttheih
to myself, ,thp I was perfectely con-,
vinccd-that a different material and'
difforent methods' had been employed*
by the ancients. I was positive,. also,i
that this Jost art was the principal rea--!
son for Jhe superiority of the earlier
Greek and Roman sculptors, so much
the more as
of thqse1
a bad hand
time always ha something
of a grandeur and style unapproach
able by the. most slcilful of .the mod
This was in 1874. I mixed plaster
and clay in various ways, and experi
mented with wax and plasterino. When-
ever-1 found a new plastic material'I
experimented with it on my statue, try
ing the. effect of light, but nothing
would give me the effect I sought."
Magelssen spent eight years in Rome.
In 18/7 he married a beautiful Italian,
for he was then prosperous,- and, with
commissions from visiting Norwegians,
Swedes and Danes, he had been able to
make a comfortable living. Now,' how
ever, hard times came upon him there
was a dearth of foreign visitors to
Rome, and his commissions became
fewer and fewer. Finally, in 1879, he
went back to Christiania with his wife
and two children.
Here his'prospects did not improve,
and the fact that-his mind was always
set on finding the material in which the
ancient sculptors worked was not cal
culated to further them. Continual ex
perimenting took all the money he could
earn, and he seldom finished a commis
sion because he became dissatisfied with
his work and destroyed it. Matters
went from bad to' worse. The people
lost faith in a sculptor who broke up
the statues he made, and they laughed
at him for a crazy man in persisting in
his search for a lost art. Magelssen
says he cannot understand today how
he kept life in his family and himself
during those trying times.
However, altho Magelssen and his
family suffered many- privations, he
managed to keep a roof over their
heads and to continue his experiments.
Then a piece of good fortune came to
him, for he made a practical invention
which brought him in sufficient revenue
to support his family.
After having devoted the best part
of twenty-seven years to the search for
the lost art Magelssen began to despair
and he would have discontinued his ex
periments had he not been dissuaded
by his wife. It was just a this time,
Magelssen says, that he seemed to hear
a voice crying in his ear night and day,
"What is clay? What is clay?" The
elements of common clay are approxi
mately one-fifth aluminia, one-fifth sili
cate and one-fifth water, with lime,
magnesia and oxide of iron ofter pres
ent as impurities.
Then Came the Idea.
The idea came to him to powder
stone for the silicate and combine it
with the other elements to make an ar
tificial clay. His first experiment
showed him that he was on the right
tain of our aldermen to deal in licenses
at Haverhill. I heard of it, went to
work, and got five aldermen and anoth
er man indicted. They were convicted.
The case was carried up, but the con
viction was affirmed. One man fled to
Canada and another to" lEurope. We
waited until they returned and put
them in prison. All of them went to
jail under a sentence pf fifteen months.
"You were elected to congress in
I served seven years in the house
and was elected four times. I paid a
small contribution each campaign to
the republican committee, and that was
all. I spent no money myself. I didn't
have it. Moreover, money was not
necessary. If I had Jjeen a rich man
and in a close district I don't know
more than $25,000,000 over the first nine
months of ^the previous year, and from
the way things are looking the gain will
be in even greater proportion when the
returns for the whole of, 1906 are in.
The commercial experts in the de
partment of commerce have studied this
matter considerably and "they say the
increase is due to two things, one being
the confidence in American meats
caused by the laws congress passed as
the result of the investigation of the
Chicago packing houses last spring," and
the other the remarkable wave of pros
perity which is sweeping over the en
tire civilized world. The good times
which began in this country and' Canada
have gradually spread until they are
practically.everywhere, and.the reports
of the United States consuls-agree that
never ,before has there been such a sit
uation -thruout the world.
f- &-
Hiram Cochran, a California pioneer,' wanting:
to make sure of a good funeral, willed* his' es
tate, consisting of some town lots and other
property, to an undertaker to whom he had made.
known his funeral wisue* and who bad premised'
to carry them out.
track, but altho he was able to make
a modeling stuff that sculptors admit
ted was superior to common clay and
that would stand drying on iron or
wood, it crumbled when subjected to
heat. After three more years of ex
periment, however, he obtained com
plete results, and Scandinavia gave
back to the world an art that southern
Europe had discovered and lost more
than twenty-five centuries before.
Magelssen first exhibited his discov
ery at the British Museum in 1894 and,
on June 24 that year Cecil Smith, di
rector of the department of Greek and
Roman antiquities, wrote to him, with
true British conservatism, as follows:
"In two respects you appear to me
to have made highly important discov
eries: First, with regard to the clay
employed the specimens which you
have shown me of your 'artificial clay'
its elasticity, its non-liability to
shrink or crack under firing at high
temperature, combined with great plas
ticity, certainly represent a material
which, to me at least, was hitherto en-
what I would have done. I can only
hope that I w^uld have been as decent
from choice and principle as I actually
was under the necessities of the case.
I have much sympathy with the rich
man who gets into a het political con
test and opens his pocketbook to save
himself the humiliation, of defeat. Nev
ertheless the use of money in politics
is one of the serious and growing
"The honest or dishonest rich man
spends it for himself. The dishonest
poor man is willing to accept a pur
chased office, and, covered w'ith mort
gages, takes up his public duties in
dishonor and thraldom and with a se
cret determination, perhaps, to make
all he can. We have got to meet this
question. There must be laws on the
Ernest Supplications of Spectators
Fail to Save Historic
-m-- Selby.:.
Special Correspondence of The Journal.
London, Nov. 4.While there is lit
tle-doubt that Selby Abbey, which was
completely gutted by fire the other day,
will be -restored in course of time, it
is acknowledged that much of the dam
age done is irreparable. The $250,000
or more, which will be needed to re
construct the fabric of which little
more than the charred skeleton walls
From the New York Herald.
tirely unknown indeed, I should not
have thought such a combination of
qualities possible to attain in clay. If
the Greek modellers were (as is possi
ble), acquainted with this 'artificial
clay' it would help to explain in some
measure their extraordinary dexterity.
"Secondly, as regards the building
up of the design, especially of large
terra cotta figures. If a material ex
ists such as you claim to have discov
ered, which can be found to answer all
requirements of a core, which will be
plastic and strong, and yet will burn
put under firing, that seems to me an
ideal material for a modeller of hollow
terra cotta work and one which I think
was hitherto entirely unknown.
''From what you' tell me, the traces
which I have remarked on the interior
of Greek terra cotta seem to prove that
you have rediscovered in this material
what the Greeks knewand I must al
low that it is difficult on anv other
theory to explain the process" of the
Greek modeller of terra cotta statues
and statuettes."
subject. I would limit the amount of
money that could be spent in the elec
tion of every candidate, from a city
councilman to the president of the
United States. And then I would com
pel the publication of all expenses,
even to the 'tost of postage stamps. I
would make it unlawful for a corpora
tion to contribute a cent to any party
or any nominee. Corporations may
have a sincere interest in the result
of an election, but their directors have
no right to vote away the money of
their stockholders. If they want to
give, let them go into their' own pock
ets. .and then let the names of all con
tributors be printed for the scrutiny
of the people."
I believe you came to the opinion
that the way to fight the trusts was to
stop the- railroads from giving them
special rates on freight and other ad
vantages not accorded to their" competi-
I thought it would help, in the ef
fort to bring the trusts within the law
and fair practice. My own view is
that trusts and monopolies would never
have grown to be a menace to the wel
fare of this country if they had been
denied preferential treatment by the
railroads. The ink was scarcely dry
on the Elkins law when I came into
this office. Senator Philander C. Knox,
my predecessor, had begun with vigor
and great intelligence the policy since
followed. There is always a man for
any work that needs to be done. Wash
ington and Lincoln, in the mercy and
wisdom of Providence, first created and
then saved the republic. Grover
Cleveland maintained the integrity of
our money, split his party, and ruined
himself. William McKinley's renown
will rest upon his labors for protection
to American industry, and the wisdom
with which he managed the war with
Spain. Monopolies and monopolists
had been called harsh names, some
times vile names, by democrats and
republicans. When Theodore, Roosevelt
came to the presidency he "summoned
them to court. The country and the
occasion were ready so was the man.
There was no abuse. There were no
frenzied shouts of alarm. Mr. Roose
velt had the right man in the right
place at the right time in the person
of Knox, and together they began to
1 was happy in the opportunity
which awaited me when I left the navy
and took the place I have. The rail
roads said: 'There is law enough. We
have ceased to give rebates anyway.'
The statement Was inconsistent, to say
the least. After a time I concluded
that the railroads were right as to there
being law enough and wrong when they
declared that rebates had stopped. Sub
sequent events confirmed my conclu
"How many cases were brought
against the railroads?"
"There have been ninety cases
brought against railroads, persons and
corporations under the interstate com
merce law since,Mr. Roosevelt became
president, sixty-three of which were un
der the Elkins act."
"Were there convictions?"
"Yes. Fines amounting to over
$350,000 have been levied, and in two
now remain standing cannot replace its
historic treasures and ancient architec
ture. New masonry can never inspire
the same enthusiasm as the hoary,
weather-worn stones. No such ecclesias
tical calamity has occurred in the Brit
ish isles since the great fire which de
vastated the Minster at York three
quarters of a century ago.
Selby Abbey was one, of the finest
specimens of Gorman architecture in
the kingdom. It was founded in 1069
by William the Conqueror. William
and hi^ queen visited Selby the year
following with the intention of arrang
ing the endowments, and here, tradi
tion affirms, their youngest son, after
wards Htfnry I. of England, was born.
Various successive kings added great
privileges to the,.abbey, apd adorned
ty with splendid buildings, until it be
came one of the most- famous ecclesi
astical foundations of the north. Its
great cruciform church was built by
Hugh, sheriff of Yorkshire in the
twelfth century.. It continued to grow
in-prosperity until Henry VII. fell out
with the pope and started in to plunder
An incident occurred while Magel
ssen was inspecting the Greek and Ko
marf^atiquities in the British Museum
with, Director Smith that was unex
pected^ 'collateral evidence in support of
the the^iry that the classical sculptors
made, their own clay. Under a case was'
a hollow teira cotta shell, or tube, two
or three inches long.
"What is that?" Magelssen asked.
I don't know," replied Smith.
Similar shells are found in consider
able numbers in Greek and Roman ex
cavations, but we have never been able
to learn to what use they were put.''
I have one like it in my pocket,"
said the Norwegian, and produced it.
"It is a bit of my clay that I tested
by pressing it about a piece of wood
and then putting it in the fire and burn
ing the w3ood out. What is more prob
able than ttyat the shells found in the
excavations are the relics of similar
tests made by the ancients? The sculp
tors made batches of clay, tested the
stuff by burning it over wood, as I did
this piece and, finding that it fired
satisfactorily, threw the pieces awav."
As additional proof that the ancient
sculptors made their own clay Magels
sen points to the famous Tanagra stat
"Of the1
of these," he
says, you will find scarcely more than
five or six that are exactly alike in
color or substance. They vary from
light yellow to dark red in color, and
in hardness from a substance that may
be marked with, the finger nails to that
of marble. These conditions the British
Museum authorities believed to be due
to difference of temperature in firing,
but my clay proves that variation in
color and in degree of hardness may be
obtained even when different clay is
burned at the same temperature. Some
silicates fire hard and some soft, and
this condition, as well as the color, de
pends on the stone used in making the
Before Magelssen returned, from Lon
don information of his reception by the
authorities of the British Museum had
reached Christiania, and he was asked
by the society of sciences to lecture on
his discovery in the university. He did
so and was treated by the press and pub
lic with great respect, tho the munici
pal government that had pulled down
his house and studio because he was be
lieved to be crazy in his search for the
lost art art offered him no redress for
that outrage.
Soon after his return to Christiania
Magelssen received an invitation from
the director of the Capital Museum at
Rome, who had learned of his discov
ery as exhibited at the British Museum,
to visit that institution. It was not
until this summer, however, that he was
able to accept the invitation.
In Rome Magelssen received the
recognition due to his services on be
half of the fine arts. He was given ac
cess to the various museums and per
mitted to take from their pedestals or
cases and to examine at will any of
the exhibits for further proofs of the
genuineness of his discoverya privi
lege never hitherto granted in Rome,
instances sentences of imprisonment
were imposed. So far twenty-three per
sons and corporations have been con
"At your suggestion the law was
changed so that the courts might send
railroad officers to jail?"
"That is true. However, I do not
believe that a money fine is a light or
ineffectual method of punishment. But
the world takes that view. 'What,'
it asks, 'do the officers of railroad
care if they are made to pay $10,000?
They have plenty of money.' They care
a great deal. Usually, they are con
spicuous men in business and society
and even thev.church. They are called
into court, "convicte'd -ot breaking the
law and fined'like a culprit before a
police magistrate:-.
!Dp, 't' tell me they
are indifferent to suck shame and to
such a stigma. They wear the brand
the rest' of their lives and" are buried
with it. But even go, a day in jail is
better still. Imprisonment not only
makes the penalty more drastic, but it
satisfies public opinion and,-better than
all, it is a powerful deterrent. Conse
quently I was in favor of it, and asked
to have it put back into the law."
What have you done to the trusts
We took action against the beef
trust. The civil action succeeded, but
the criminal action was not a success.
The monopoly in print paper, which was
plundering the newspapers of the west,
has been destroyed, and prices have
fallen from 20 to 30 per cent. The ele
vator trust has bef-n broken up, and
suits are pending against the monopo
lies in tobacco, sewer pipe, fertilizers,
drugs, and the bridge privileges over
the Mississippi at St. Louis. Already
the price of fertilizers has been much
reduced in the south, and the tobacco
trust is making concessions to independ
ent manufacturers. A trust has manv
ramifications at times. The monopolists
in tobacco, for instance, got control of
all the licorice in the world. Licorice
is an essential ingredient in plug to
bacco and in some kinds of smoking
tobacco. The trust, by means of an ap
parent outside company, grabbed the
licorice supply. When it discovered that
we had the facts, it-reduced the price
of licorice 20 per cent and made con
tracts with independent manufactur
ers to treat them fairly in the future.
There were trusts also in Alaska and
Hawaii. We have put an end to them.
For some time we have been investigat
ing the hard coal monopoly, and hope
for results in that direction."
"Should there be other laws against
I have a very undramatic sugges
tion to make, one, I fancv, that would
not appeal to the extremist. I think it
would be well if each state in the unio
would compel every business corporatJon
to print, once a year at least, the names
of its shareholders. What good would
it do? Supposeand this is a hypo
thetic illustrationthat nearly all" the
coal in this country was mined, sold,
and distributed by a single corporation
masked under various aliases. Then
suppose there were state laws such as I
have suggested. It would soon be dis
covered that the coal companv of Penn
sylvania, the mining company of Min
nesota, the fuel company of Ohio, and so
and suppress Soman Catholic institu
'-._ Took the Valuables.
He seized the abbey and after help
ing himself to all its portable valuables
granted it to one of his favorites, Sir
Ralph Sadler, for $3,680 and a yearly
rental of $17.76. It was good business
to stand in with the merry monarch in
those days. Sir Ralph sold it to Leon
ard Beckwith for considerably more
than he gave for it, and thence it de
scended to the Walmsleys of Dank
chalgh. By marriage with the heiress
it came into the possession of Lord
Petra and in 1854 was sold to Lord
One result of the fire is likely to be
the adoption of appliances for' coping
with outbreaks or fire in England's
famous historic churches, which are
situated at some distance from the sta
tions of modern fire brigades.
When it was discovered that the
abbey was burning telgraphic requests
for assistance were sent to Leeds and
York, the nearest large towns, and
altho it had been accorded, him in the
British Museum. He read a paper on
his discovery before the Circolo Artis
tico, whose membership-Comprises the
aristocracy of the art world thruout
Europe, and he was given a congratu
latory banquet by the Sculptor's so
ciety, and leading newspapers, the Po
polo Romano, the Tnbuna and the
Giornale d'Italia, sounded his praises
and congratulated the fraternity of
sculptors that since the discovery of
the lost art it will no longer be neces
sary to east in plaster.
Artists and curators of art were
alike in their recognition of the value
of his discovery. First Secretary
Korte, of the Imperial German Archeol
ogical Institute in Rome, wrote to bim:
"In tho first Dlace, it is possible by
means of the clay found by you to pro
duce hollow objects of any shape and
size. You build them over a core which
is destroyed by the burning process
(wooden shavings or the like), and then
merely burn tbem in the oven with the
necessary holes for the gas to escape,
i This is exactly the process which the
ancients must have used for their terra
cotta works. In the second place, iron
rods can be placed in the statuary made
of your clay without the clay cracking
thru the expansion of the iron during
the heating or its contracting during
the cooling process. Thus it will be
possible to shape large statuary with
the interior iron support necessary for
their stability and to burn them in a
sufficiently large oven.
"Neither the one thing nor the other
is possible with the usual clav, which
would burst.
"Consequently, the clay found by
you has the same qualities as the one
that in ancient times was used for hol
low statuary. Also outwardly, in color
and quality (particularly as far as con
cerns the numerous mica particles
mixed in), your samples show a strik
ing similarity with the antique terra
I congratulate vou heartilv upon
your invention, which will be of espe
cial importance for the modern artistic
clay plastique."
Bisson, the Danish sculptor, wrote an
acknowledgment of the importance of
his discovery to Magelssen, to which
Hasselbins had added the following
line, I fully agree with what Profes
sor Bisson has stated above.''
Bisson wrote:Mr. Magelssen has in
vented a new modelling material. It
resembles clay, but has the invaluable
quality of not contracting when it
dries. Thus it is possible to leave a
figure standing with its iron skeleton
without watering it, and yet it will not
crack. If one wishes to begin working
again, this new mass can easily be soft
"The most remarkable thing about it
is that it will be possible to have the
figure burned with the iron skeleton
standing, without its being in any way
damaged. It is, therefore, my convic
tion that this material in many cases
will be of extraordinary importance for
sculptors, as well as "for all clay in
He Doesn't Call Trusts Names
but He Calls Them to Court.
[on thruout the United States were
owned by the coal securities corpor
ation of New Jersey. How long do you
think it would take the separate states
to break up the combination? Why
forty legislatures would be after the
trusts in no time
"Tell me about the hardest dav's
work in your life?"
"Let ine see I've had several that
were rather strenuous, to use an adjec
tive which was something of a favorite
with Macaulay. But the very hardest
was the one that Speaker Cannon in
his bluff but blan way asked me, or
rather ordered me to undertake. He
came to my desk in the house late one
afternoon and said: 'Here is an amend
ment that the senate has hitched on to
one of our appropriation bills. It's
a steal. I wsnt you to kill it at the
session tomorrow. You will find all
the facts in this report.' Whereupon
he walked away and left me with a
book of 900 closely printed pages. The
amendment gave certain western states
about $8,000,000 for claims growing
out of the civil war. I took the book
home, sat up with it all night, and la
bored with it until almost noon the
next day. I had something to eat, but
no sleep. In fact, I didn't even re
move my clothes. So I mastered the
book and the whole question at issue.
When I arose to speak I was thoroly
prepared, and, consequently, had but
little trouble in beating the amendment
by an almost unanimous vote."
"You have the reputation of being
prepared whenever you-speak."
"When I first came to congress I
asked Thomas B. Reed how I could suc
ceed in being useful and in obtaining a
respectable standing among the mem
bers. Oratory won't do it,' he replied
in his shrill voice, "especially the ora
tory which is intended for home con
sumption. But if you will inform your
self first and then speak, being sure to
quit when you are thru, you will not
find it difficult to make an impression
in the house.' And the advice is as
sound now as it was then. The house
will always listen to the facts."
"And what was your best day's
"The argument I made in the su
preme court in the peonage cases. Col
ored men were being held in practical
slavery at the south against the law of
the United States. The constitution
ality of the statute was attacked by
Senator Bacon and Representative
Branley of Georgia. I defended it in
the best argument I could make. There
is more in human libertv than in any
other question that concerns mankind."
A bachelor of 52, his eligibility to
matrimony being grounded in more or
less manly pulchrrtude, exalted public
honors, and good American blood, be
ginning in the year 1634, and coming
downward in the homely virtues which
constitute New England character, the
attorney general has plenty to do in
society when he isn't working. He
likes football and baseball, takes long
tramps in the open air, and keeps a
thorobred for exercise in the saddle.
He walked with me to the sidewalk,
mounted his champing steed and rode
while the flames raged unchecked many
of the pious-minded among the specta
tors united in prayer for the speedy ar
rival of the fire engines. Despite that
the destruction was woefully complete
before they were able to reach the
scene. Wherefore the ecclesiastical au
thorities have decided that it would be
well to supplement their trust in Provi
dence by material safeguards.
Broadway Magazine. A
Anthony Comstock, guardian of
naughty New York's morality, walked
the streets for weeks when he first
came to town looking for work Hii
first job was that of porter in dry
goods house. His nose for crime was
developed early for his first step in the
career which was to make him famous
was to have some of his fellow, workers
arrested for reading improper literature.
-vfi^ Mn
Nearly 6,000 women are employed In thV
mines of Great Britain,-none underground: tow*
ever. *'|gpy#f^gp?se
'&$ 4

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