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How to Be Your Own Dressmaker
First of a Series of Practical Lessons in Home Dressmaking Prepared Especially for This Newspaper by Mrs. Minnie Berry HE all-important first step for saver of time, patience, ma terial and labor, and one which will , overcome many difficulties and com plications, is to have a reliable and simply constructed pattern. Each part of the pattern has a line of perforations (draw a pencil over each) to show how to lay the part on the material, either length wise or crosswise, before cutting, or some other mark to indicate Cutting in a different way, if required. So Tead carefully before cutting all printed directions that, accompany tho patten. Have gcod pins, needles, thread and scissor. For ordinary sewing use No. 7 needles, for basting use No. C. Make finall knots, when sewing; for bastiig make large knots, so the stitches will not rip out. when the work is handled. Fasten threads with tw? small stitches over each other, uiless knots can be hidden. The ive ordinary but important stitches in sewing are the basting stitch, .he running stitch, the back stitch, the overcasting stitch and the hail and slanting stitch. The basting stitch is used in pre parinf material and joining paris of garments for sewing. Basting stitcl^s may hp! divided intt/) throe clasps: ^ Crosswise, regular and irrepilar. The crosswise are run diagmally, and are be?t for interlin ing', such as canvas. The regular arc formed by long, even stitches, an/ are required on goods that need to be held firm. The irregular con sols of one long and several shorter o?es, and are suitable for hems and jArts that do not require to be firm. Running stitches are good on parts A" he re there is little strain, for tuck Ing, plaiting, cording, shirring or trimmings. the home dressmaker, a Rack stitches take the place of machine sewing. They arc formed by taking a backward stitch on the upper side of the material, and a stitoh on the underside again as long. A half back stitch may be made by taking the back stitch only one-half as long. Overcasting is employed to finish raw edges or seams so as to keep thein from fraying. The ? stitches are made over the edge of the seam from right to left. The slanting or hem stitches are cloth, and be of self or contrasting material. A slip stitch hem is good for woolens, velvet, crepe or silk where stitches should not show at all. The hem is basted and the thread is fastened under , the first fold; then one or two stitches are made on the first fold of the hem, and a little beyond these one or two stitches are made on the material. The stitches, should be straight with the thread of the cloth, so as not to be visible. Some of the Most Important Stitches Used in Sewing made very Binall and slanted, and should not show on the right side. Hems uTe made by folding the ma terial twice, the first fold to be as narrow as possible and the second of a width suitable to the style of the work_ Hems may be faced, rolled, slip stitched or narrow basted. A rolled hem is narrow and need not In* basted. The basted hem may be of auv width, but must be basted, then sewed. A faced hem is made where ma terial is scant, or where not advisa ble to use the material itself. It may be used on straight or bias Now for some hints about cutting and making linings and fitting waists. It is always desirable to cut both pieces of each kind re quired at once (usually one-half of the pattern only is given). Mark all notches, and outline through both thicknesses of materia) the perfora tions for darts, etc. Cut out the ma terial carefully, following the out line of the pattern. Pin the parts together at the waist line, and baste with close even sitches. and with strong thread, from that point to the end of the seam. Then begin again at the waistline and baste to the opposite edge. When alterations are made trace where the pins were placed, repaste as traced and then sew just outside of the hasting. The seama should he notched at and above and below the waistline, with one inch space between the notches. In placing the collar always keep the neck line high, for that will help to make the neck look small. A collar placed too low never lR.s well and gives the neck a large ap pearance. Always fit both sleeves and fioish the sleeves before putting on the collar. In cutting have the warp straight down from the centre of end. Fasten the stitches carefully so they will not rip in fitting. After Beams are basted try tlie garment on wrong side owt. It is well to pin, the waist to position at the proper waistline before making any altera tions, so that the waistline will not be drawn out of place in fitting. If alterations are necessary let out or take in the shoulder and under arm seams. First adjust the under arm seams, then the shoulders. Draw either the front or back, or both parts. For a person a trifle full at the back of the neck keep the shoulder line well to the back. If the waist is too long in back the alteration should be at neck and shoulder. The back shoulder line must be al most half an inch longer than the front. The- back must not be too narrow, and if closed at the back have it a trifle loose at the first three or four inches below the neck tho shoulder to the wrist, and be sure that sleeve is long enough from shoulder to elbow. Alterations very often change the position of the marks given in the pattern for guides in setting the sleeve in properly. In such ca6e fold the arinscyo in half, from the shoul der seam and measure from the lower fold ono ami one-half inches toward the front, which will give the proper place for tho front seam of the sleeves. After having pinned the sleeve in place, hold it over the lingers, with the linger tips toward you, so that the shoulder seam is in the centre, so as to determine whether the fulness at the top of the sleeve has been evenly dis tributed. When sewing the sleeve to the garment hold it so that the inner part of the sleeve faces you. Do not gouge out neck or armscye in fitting: snip the cloth a trifle where there is a tightness, and after ward more if needed. If more ful ness is needed at the arms eye or bust adjust a couple of ruffles of silk to arm seam and to front of lining. In sewing press out all wrinkles before stitching. It is not always necessary to bone linings heavily. For small figures bone only the first front seam or dart and the underarm, and attach an extra stay under hooks and eyes, using the lining material on tho bias for the bone casing; cut the casing wide enough to admit of facing the hooks and eyes witli it. For a stout, figure always stay the first and second front seams from the lower edge of lining to the bust line. This gives strength to the lining and avoids stretching. To keep a garment securely fastened put the hooks and eyes on alternately at each edge of the clos ing. It is only on the outer waist, draped over the lining and on collar and yoke, that all the hooks are served on the right side and all loops on the left. Placket fasteners are now sometimes used in place of hooks and eyes. It is customary (excepting for stout figures) to use only live bones on the waist, one in front, one at the centre, one on each side seam, one in each under arm seam and one at the back. (Next article: "HOW TO MAKE SHIRTWAISTS.") *rrr -v ;.! '' ? ? ' v ' >,1 ; . & a^j ai ,.. i For a Cinder in the /'ye. 'po remove a cinder or other foreign substance, lay . ? a * on which lias been spread the v eaten v in .. of .-.n ".ii sugar and pulverized alum added. For Machine G-rea SS Ot C . . COLD rain water aud a good soap will usually rj ?/.-_? ' ' stains. To Clean Jewelry. QILYER or gold jewelry may be sati:;:';<ct:rily . ?J spoonful of ammonia to a cup of wa; ? and For Old Paint Stains. PAINT stains that arc dry and old may be remov. i fro:.. c : r ? oclen coods with chloroform. It is ;i good plan to first cjvc-r t j jpota with olive oil or butter. To Prevent Appendicitis. OLIVE OIL is excellent for the health. A t:>! I ;:?<> .?> a day Is recommended by many ?phj sicians as a. me:'.: off appendicitis. To "Set" the Color. TO "set" the color in light shades of pink and blue .ron. ~--c x. In salt water with a small lump of alum r ... -vi for the different shades of lilac and violet. After the ? ' :> wash the garments in warm borax icuu.s. which will h ,;p to keep color iu the goods. ? A G-ood Soup Stock. CAVE the water in which fresh green peas have heen boiled. Ir mak*s ? an excellent foundation for soup stock or gravHs. So d lk:ite is it's flavor that some people like it served in bouillon caps wit'.: ...it, popper and a bit of butter. To Clean Leather Furniture. ADD a little vinegar ta some warm w '? r and wash , >? ??th-'T. using a clean cloth or sponge. Wipe with n dry rioth. Then, to v.*-tore the polish, put two teaspoon fills of tun^ir itie v.-i'h the . ? , ' . -r, beat a little and apply with a clean flanm 1 doth. l-ry v : i. ?. iotL. All the cloths used should ba sofi and absolutely clean. To Stop Bleeding. A HEAPING teaspoouful of powdered alum in a rap .>t* v.n er will stqp the (low of blood in any ordinary wound wher< no !;.? ? ; has been severed. Snuffing a similar solution will stop bleeding of the nose. ?'?:rtinioi . of warding More Fatal Diseases sr 1 to 111:50 ?t By Sir Ronald Ross, M.D., D.Sc., K.C.B. FROM the time of the Romans we were aware that the malarial fevers are con nected with marshes end stagnant wa ter !n warm countries. Later, when it was seen that the disease is not confined only to the proximity ot' marshes, the theorists conceived that there is a telluric poison which causes ma laria and is especially abundant in damp places. All tliis was a very general proposition; and in order to prevent the dsease, it was necessary to undertake very extensive drainage. Now, however, the new knowledge obtained enables us to particularize the exact route of infection. We believe no longer that the poi son is spread uniformly in the air of warm countries, but know that it is always contained in the minute bodies of certain insects, and, more than that. In the still more minute salivary glands of those creatures. Here, then, science has given us knowledge which can not fall to be of immense practical importance to the world. The discovery of the full life-cvclo of the parasites enables us, not only to "precise" the route of infection, but to determine exactly which species of mosquitoes are concerned My lailures with numerous undetermined spe cies of the genera culex and stegomyia had shown that these are probably innocuous as regards malanrf* and my ultimate success with certain anophelines mosquitoes had shown that these were inculpated. Since then the work oi many observers has shown that out of about iiuo culioidae only about twenty-five species carry malaria, and that all of these belong to the anophelines. So that for the prevention ot malaria we are not obliged to deal with mos quitoes in general, but only with particular species. Still further, the knowledge so obtained en ables us to study exactly the habits of the culpable species. In fact, 1 necessarily begin such studios during the whole of my researches. The genera culex and ,stegomyia breed most the dapple-winged mosquitoes (anophelines) breed principally in different sites, that is, chiefly in natural collections oi water, such as marshes, puddles, streamlets, and the edges of lakes, ponds and rivers. This has been known before in the case ot certain species, but 1 now saw the great epi demiological and sanitary bearing of the phe nomenon. The reason why malaria is con nected with marshes was now fully estab lished by quite independent work. Humanity had explained the fact by supposing that the poii-on of malaria itself rises from the marsh; it was now seen that it is not the poison itself that rises from the marsh, but the carriers of the poison. The net result was the same? except that we now know not only the source of the poison, but the exact method^ of trans ference. After all, humanity had reached the truth by empirical observations made during thousands of years, but now science, in con commonly in artificial collections of water around houses; hut 1 saw as early as 1897 that -firming these observations, brought them to a fine point of exact tneory. Uut these were by no means the only fruita obtained. The principal function of men of science is not merely to observe, describe -and catalogue phenomena, but, above all, to solve difficult problems; and the solution of one suca problem frequently gives us the solution or many more. Such lias proved to be true also in this case, for as soon as we had solved thri malaria problem we were able to apply the eamc theorem to a number of other diseases. Manson had shown in 1M7 that !h^ embryo? of Filaria Bancrofti can live in certain species of culex, but he had not shown how tlioy pass back from these insects to man. Now, how ever, James and Low, working independently, showed that the embryos enter the insects' proboscis, thus suggesting that they return into the human circulation by a route similar to that which is caused by the parasites of ma laria?and this work has been well followed up by Rahr and many others. Another discovery, concerned with one of the most important of human diseases?namely, yellow fever, was made 4jv Reed, Carroll, La rear and Agramor.te during the last days if last century. Without knowing the causative agent of that disease, they yet showed by di rect experiments on human beings that the infection is carried directly from man to man by another species of mosquito, stegomyia faseiata or calopus. It had long been stated by epidemiologists that malaria differs from yellow fever in ihit the former is connected with damp and de caying vegetation and the latter with unsani tary conditions around houses. The ? former hypothesis was verified by the observation that anophelines breed in terrestrial waters, and the latter was now explained by the fact that stegomyia breed in artificial collections o! wa ter around houses. A little later Graham gave strong evidence in favor of the theory that dengue fever is carried by a species of culex. Thus mosquitoes have now been incriminated as the/carrying agents of no less than four important diseases of man. But this is by no means all. 1 .have mentioned that Bruce incriminated glossina morsitans as the carrying agent <ir nagana; and he and others now showed that the deadly stooping sickness of Africa is car ried by other tsetse ilies. Various spirochao tes, especially that of tick fever, have been shown to be convoyed by ticks. A peculiar type of comparatively mild fever, of which tho cause, like that of yellow fever, is still un known, has been proved to bo conveyed by sand flies. Several diseases of animals have been proved to possess a similar history, and other#, both of animals and men, are suspected to liu in the same category. Perhaps, however, the most important and dramatic result was that obtained in the case of plague?the most ter rible of epidemic diseases, the wonder and tho despair of humanity since tho beginning of history, the scourge which was so often at tributed to tho direct action of (Jod. It is caused really by the rat-ilea. And this discovery signals another advance, 'because plague is, as wo all know, d..e not to an animal, but to a vegetable parasite; and we therefore see that bacteria also may adopt precise routes of entry. A similar case is that of Mediterranean fever, which is earrioi priu ? 0> cipatly by the milk of infect 1 o i ; and leprosy "(anotlior s'li'. ;.:- i .-;.:<nv :i> has baca attributed to thu .>u.; o; ; while some arts even b -.j ..a:..; ni.uc measles is due in Ilea.'. , Wo have seen at least another instinc? of how strongly r a'.. a?'van? ? ??? .<?? := upon medieim -bow r.. ? eon; viously guodsed at. achieve vmto. ? formerly undreamed of, arid e? (::? !i.-a ' .h -..,s which vvili be at' val'.:.- :?> h\::?iairr.. . I-jh;:; ras civilization exists, IJut ;'. e: oiviy the theory and the ti- ... . -nr i I! but, what is peril;:.-* s-.?:l u >.' ? in ; . :i ; ? voutiou; and .1 1* ? i.-.liy ia thi.s lino tiut: tiie tie.v thoor: v. :? t ?: . A whole great epid>-ar.. : :ier.l ^vo:\ i n" (lis cose a has m. ? a . ? i> ir . > i .; d insect-born" di: ??i<e:.- . ad t- y are r :ay'j ort tile whole the most itnpoi"ant. has*. i.i the tropics! Out more than tjiat, t!i ? disi iv ories give its practical methods of prevention! which may lie summed up in two words?n? vermin. We now have a great sanitary id: ai pat b:-> fore us -so to mam: ? our h:!;i*i:; :.s, vil lages. (owns and t-It a ? that tim v ???u in in thfr&i shall be rediic-d to I! (-. ? i ? v. : t ? ! ? !U:ur?>. Scores of entomohvust ?' -ad sr. i ?? r- ir. n are now dealing exactly \v a t!;ts h i. . oi ta ,-js creaturi-s and showing us how to ft: ' tiie r? (paired object, it d uds only intelligence, energy and orfianir: tion on t ?.<? part of ad* ministrators. I": rtunalely, t*n . ?. qualities are not always IV i:iu-o::-inK. ami admmisira tion often In s ye.-rs i> aiml i ::e diete.f s oi science. It i- not the fault of si i?nce that wa do not fully utilize the gifts which she gives lis. By W. H. CAMERON, Secretary National Council for Industrial Safety. NEVER before In history lias mankind demonstrated how violently contrary it can'be. Americans may well sit up and take notice, for theirs is the paradise of an otherwise infernal paradox. While their rage maddened brethren are transforming the eastern hemisphere into one huge and vast slaughter pen at a cost of billions of dollars, enlightened business men of America are sue ces^'ully and heroically striving to alleviato human suffering and misery by accident pre vention work on this side of the water. That such effort is needed and has been needed for years past are singularly proven by government records. This authority states that there were more than 75,000 funerals for accident victims in the United States alone during 101From the same source we learn that 02-1,360 men, women and children have met accidental death in the last ten years in lho "Land (tf the Free." How many more canio to a violent end in the interim between the Spanish-American War and the beginning of that decade has not been recorded, it would be safe to assume, however, that the total num ber of fatal accidents since that memorable conflict amounts to approximately three quarters of a million souls. To that number should be added deaths from careless and thoughtless contractions of malignant diseases, until, the total reaches almost unbelievable -proportions. Another view of the situation may be had from the fact that 2^8 workmon aro killed or injured every hour of every day in this 11 country. Every seven minutes a workman is kilied. Every sixteen seconds a workman is injured. If we reckon on the basis of 300 working days of eight hours each, tho figures mean a man, woman or child killed every ten minutes and another injured every four minutes. In comparison with the foregoing figures the percentage of soldiers who died for the Union in the War of the Rebellion was small, indeed. Just 2.S67.345 of America's sterling manhood went to the front from all States and territories to uphold Uncle Sam in that difference of opinion. The figures just quoted apply to tho United States alone. No doubt, the aggregate number for the entire world is of stupendous magni tude. At any rate it would seem to bear out the oft repeated assertion that more people are killed in times of peace than in times of war. This calamity howling is likely to be proven fallacious in the very near future in this country. Accident prevention is spreading over the land like blazing tinder; and already lias it hewn tremendous inroads in our accident toll. Experts have declared it possible to reduce the number of accidents, injuries and fatalities by 50 per cent. Certain manufacturers have done a great deal better. At the Third Annual Safety Congress held by the National Safety Council (about which more will bo said later) in the La Salle Hotel, October 13 to 15, in elusive, 1!H4, in Chicago, a reduction of 73 pei cent headed a list of the country's leaders in this work, it was reported by the Eastman Kodak Company, which employs about 10,000 people at its works In Rochester, New York. Or. that same list was the statement of the. United Stales Steel Corporation that since 190G it had saved 11,071 men from serious acci Oopyrlffht dent or death. Among the leaders were tho Illinois Steel Company, 70 per cent; the Jones & Langhlin Steel Co., 71 per cent; tlifc 1'ulltr.an Company, 70 per cent; the International Har vester Company, (IS per cet't; the Packard Motor Car Manufacturing Company, <?7 per cent, and the Hausch I.omb Optical Com pany. 55 per cent. Just where this movement originated it would he difficult to establish. At any rate it is now safe in the hands of the National Safety Council, of which the foregoing concerns aro members. Accident Prevention is no longer the hobby of the "passionate few." It' it were, the wonderful results just quoted could not have been accomplished. It may have been the case a year or two ago when the move ment did not have the impetus now provided by workmen's compensation laws. Then tho injured workman or the dependents of the dead victim of an accident had recourse to the courts of law, where, in the event that the negligence of the employer?always a matter of contro versy?could be established, almost any sum from a dollar upward might be recovered as damages. Now, however, conditions more in favor of the employe have arisen through tha < workmen's compensation laws adopted by many States of the Union, and under which laws, without respect to cause, every injured employe receives a fixed and previously determined compensation. As a result the question of efficiency and dollars and cents has combined forces with the appeal of humanitarianism, and the ranks of those who have embraced accident preven tion have increased by leaps and bounds until It is sufe to assume that about 2,000,000 men, women and children (2 per cent of America's vast, population) are now responding to ex hortations for more nersonal care. It can also 1915, by the Star Company. Great Britain Rights He be chronicled, almost without fear of successful contradiction, that a big majority of the re mainder of the population is warming to tlio 'Sa!ot> i'irst" .spirit. The campaign lias oven i;:va'led stanedoin. which is nearly always a barometer of public interest and attention. "Safety First" wheezes from over the foo: lights are not at all uncommon these days. Safety work as conducted and encouraged by the National Safety Council furnishes a good example of the magnitude of the subject and f the thoroughness and farsightedness with which it should be promoted. Its headquarters are in Chicago. 111. It is at the head of I he national movement which is thriving at a great rate under its guidance. Its members are every where. and are the pioneers in the .new effort. They are all actively engaged in promoting Safety First among their employes, numbering about 750.000 nie'ii, women and children, who, in turn, carry the accident prevention gospel into their homes and reach fully one million of others. The country's forenfest. experts aro co-operating in the work of t ho National Council, which is a non-profit organization, so that the /latest in safety work and method;} evolves from within that organization. The National Council maintains u clearing house of information, which Keeps tnembers constantly in touch with the newest and most efficient methods, and any individual or company ia eligible to membership. Next to reducing the great economic waste, accident prevention is a wonderful "efficiency tonic." In other \\ords, if a largo cornoration, employing thousands of men, is successful in curbing the crime of personal earlessness among its employes, just that much more time and raw material are conserved. New help broken in to succeed incapacitated employes annually spoils an aggregate of Hundreds of thousands of dollars .:i niuieri.iis in tin* in duslrier of ti.> I'nited "Sit'.' ? . Accident preventioh among .< largo number of employes is also ;i special (lisp msatioh oi Providence in the <.-r f :* general health and doitu'v.' bill M. ny c- a<: rn.- tnaiU; lain a surpt i>in ,! v < orps e:' . :? n.ns. surgeons and n\n^Oo f?>r c.ci. aaac i; ? it* il supervision of ?.*: ;!? Tl is l: ? not been uncommon in rai)i\ and i: ? i r.( : ? i; ?!;#:? appj'iirins in the p::sv:> iadi; : ;.?! <ir e.s. NoL (Iti- lea a import h/ ta:? o. * * i ntiro campaign is safety jvd'rk a along children and in the sch<!>!s. ii is (!:?? a : L c.ort\f ins generation By ln:.?u.n ; Young Amt: \ witli tin- : ai'ly huidt. the adllior.-. . !:tdu. trial and public and f ' ini v. i.. diminish u> v.ilh.a :v:<tile li .j: . : m ?; tv-xt s-core ot > ? .!!??!. Wit it ' ? ? tin* Natir>": 1 t.'o.inril h -s pr?*;* ' ! :? ?.*?? Iitl< d: " ? . > I'i i ;..??* ' rf.? " which will a i...v tt: ribeu tl ?. r a 1 i :ho country. 'In a. . ?. e ii r >a of the Nat iO'.r.i i }J >y a isa? tth-'o been ? . ! ?'d. A. i*id( nt ii"- ? "ca i l. ' ? ? Ir. l of any particular interest or grpup of interests. It. h:\3 ! c<*n adopted and ? ???nt:.; a ?' d read ('lltho :-iaSt i( all} ? ? til" ('! I , : P'l llt'Sl iiess mo::. pr<lot 1 t. ... v;,.* rn: at and the public. It is Icing .heralded by every cunnin.- to ???;e. , diuti iny: electric si-.rn, 1: p-> . r and the : ? The day is.n.it far ??>...? ,nt i i I j in t he ;?! ?! i .*i:; .<f ? . a ? c: ?.! party; and wori t.v.n ? ? >sen:..u;on v ill federal ??????? ad ? :: :?! t n n .. *vil' no longer t),'~*.* niovetn! ? i. but as mu< h ;? par of our every day life and c* ? ra ;> jo . !ori in fact it is ain'tnl. i; in'm.tfd ? ' "r':a'Mca Chri.itiniiity." It i:> \:rlutr.;^ a new faith.