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TIKE TIME*. Founded I85W 1 T1IK I)ISIV\TIII. Foiiuded I8S0 I 1'nlilNlieil rvi-ry ilny In tlie jriir l?y 'I'hr Tliiien- . Dlxpnfdi I'nlitlNhliiif ( nni|iiiiiy, Inc. Aililrcs-i till riimKMiitcHlloiiN (o I'lll. 'I'HIICS - KISl'ATl II, 't'lmpn-llKpn t<li lltalldiiiK. M) Sou Hi 'IViilli Street, I Klchnioiiil, \ II. ti:i,ki'iiom:. iiamximmi i J'ubllentIon Odli'i* Id Snutli Tenth Street S??uth lltelimond Iiiiitt Kull Street I'eterMliurtr |(l!l Nurtli *?> t-rtuiorc Strevt I,j neliluirK -IN Diulitli Sir--! ii.vsimoii -,, it\ mtotiKs, inc., Sjirelnl A?lvertlnl:i. 1 . ;>re*entntlvea. .Vet Vurk 1:1 M) Firth Avenue l'htlndel|ihln 'iuliuil I.lie iiIIiIIhk CiilenK<> >Vu|i!*''n <>hh lliill?"-,-c srnst it 1 i'tio> it \ rns nv M A II,, Due Six Three One I'OSTAtii: PAID Venr. >!????. M _w. Mo. Dntly nnd Stititlny . . . .91, on .?:! 00 $1 .ftt> S Unllj only . , t ill) 2.111) I .in) .H*? Sunday oil.? ... ivnn 1 tio .f.o .?*? By Tlnir*-DI?prtteli ( rrrler Delivery Servlee In j IMeltrnoiul (mill >.ii'iiirl>? I nml I'eterstiiir;;; Dntly nidi Siindny, iiui1 week 15 eentu llnlly without Siiinliiy. one week 10 renin Snuilny only. 5 centn I'mrreil .Inisuiirv U'T. iS<or>. ;it Itlelinmml, Vn? 11* peeunil-eltiNM iiintle. 1 1 i!?t net of ( tiinfress u( Mnreh X I^TH. Mnnu ierl|?ts mill coiiiiuuriletitionN nuhiiiit ted for publication iilJI no! .??? returiieii utile** iioeotnpnnlI'll li> |>o-'ii;c sl'i SATL"I: I 'A V, I'IClliJL'A l!Y "7, I'gly Charges Distress Richmond PROMPT action by the Administrative lJoard in investigating charges, or sug gestions, that the pay rolls of the hands and c.irts force of tho City Engineer's Depart lurnt have been padded was demanded by : a proper consideration of Richmond's good., name. It has been a good long while sineo tlie ugly imputation of graft has been leveled at the municipal government. There has been <?. feeling in the community that the operation of the city departments I was attended by rather more waste and dupli cated eiTor; than was necessary, even in the charitable Anuiicnn view of municipal ef ficiency. Tlu* city has believed, however, that there was no actual and gross dishonesty, nnd the intimation that this feeling of satis faction has been ill-grounded excites a de gree of apprehension altogether out of pro portion to the particular case in point. Russia and Constantinople SINCE Turkey's entrance, on the side of Germany, into the great war, it has been apparent that one necessary result of an al lied victory would be Turkey's permanent, ex pulsion from Europe, and the more or less complete occupation of Constantinople by Russia. This would mean, in effect, a Rus sian port on the Mediterranean, and uninter- , rupted passage for its products to the Atlantic i in every month of the year. How vital this is lo Russia ss made plain by a consideration of the present situation. Millions of bushels of Russian grain, that may become exigently needed by France and Great Britain, are locked up in the Black Sea, and Russian armies are less ellicient than they might otherwise be because, of the inability to import arms and ammunition from this country or from Russia's allies. 1 he passage to Archangel is locked by the ice; Germany's cruisers, submarines and mine fields make dinicult the navigation of the Baltic, and Russia must receive her supplies from the Pacitie and transport them across Asia to her armies in the Held. If the allies win, Constantinople will be pan of Russia's booty. Reduction of the Dardanelles forts seems the first step toward the attainment of this ambition. Shntterinj; Political Precedents JAY E. llOI'Sj^.. candidate for Mayor of i Topoka, . !>'" probably the most j original politician known to the country. Mr. House, who is everything from poet-tramp to 1 actual manual worker, has completely defied all recognized political canons. Although women vote early anil on - a in Kansas, he lias announced that, in ease of election, he will lire the two policewomen on the Topcka force. This is impolitic enough. but Candi date House has pone much further than defy ing the betier half of Kan a:- public senti ment?he has dot hired thai he js after t iie job of Mayor solely for the salary! The history books do not record his like. . Ofllcea are sometimes fairly remunerative, hut, before the advent of House, when was a politician over in pur: nit ot a salary The talary was accepted- t-> keep wife and chil <lren from starving while tl.< statesman . ;?*? rillced his leisure for the public weal. Ser vice of country, party or humanity the uplift of the downtrodden mas.-,e>. the triumph of Democracy, the reform of abuses, the execu tion of justice lor ill ; 11 ? ? purposes pub lic men have . >tu-:.? < ?!,: ati.i .til! se< It, out never for alar.- - It is aln >> t v :th r- -ire! that we r< member how far aw :y Topi ka i. It would be worth while to be naturalize.! in Kansas '<? vote t >r the strictly i : na! II >use The chief vice , of politicians . t:..ir .mit'orm attachment to thP. highest i<i< :is They are always pure j idealist! , fjui'e div.rv. ?! : ? ? ri; any thoiu'lit of f-elf. '1 he r virtue i >.i monotonous that we should 1 iV.? a cliar.Therefore, tile one j and only s. I: ? ? I:*: ? candidate is a joy and a delight. M :y he 1 i\ ? loir.' and draw a | salary! Making Your Own llrcad A1JAKI.U. irritated bv the charge that his ? lass had raised the price (if brei^l to make money out ot a hard situation, retorted recently tha* il v < :nei wmhi run hi. bakery for two weeks they < <. ild have any profit coming out, for tin :I- 1. verite charity One woman promptly n.. t )]? ? hale-iii'.? by declar ing ihat she had always mad" bread at home far cheaper than she could buy it, weight for weight and quality f? >r <iuality So the dispute rt-.ted. Th< question was raised whether women could ot could not economize by cutting the baker lor tlje period of high-priced loaves. This leads to a far more interesting <inei,tion: what has become of tho old-fashioned woman who took pride in her bread, and whose hands wi re the only hands that touched it? l.et the price of bread go to the winds; where is the good old fashioned broadmaker of the American home? This query applies not. only to bread, but to cakes and pies, and to good old hash, and to the leftovers of a meal that uned to go Into & dclecuiblo dl*?h lor tho neat day, Christ mas turkey in former days used to make a line hash or croquette after the lirst meal, and the bones went into a splendid soup. To-day Hie meat scraps go into tlio garbage to enrich rats and stray dogs and cats. Why must everything be bought that used to be made? Why do women to-day order by telephone, whose mothers formerly went to market with a basket and made sure they were getting the greatest possible values for their money? Isn't it true that a dollar used to go twice as far as it does to-day? Ad mitting that, for the sake of argument, which of tin' two ages produced the better and happier families? Fifty Years Ago?and Now THAT very interesting department of this page, "War News Fifty Years Ago." which is reprinted from the war-time issues of the Richmond Dispatch, begins to tell the reluctant story of the Confederacy's impend ing fall. Sherman has marched through Georgia to the sea, Savannah and Charleston have fallen, and ,the conquest of the Caro linas has been begun. Grant is massing his forces for a new attack on the Army of Northern Virginia. The old Dispatch does not yield readily. In the midst of the gloom and depression that enveloped the Southland, it whistles to keep up its own courage and that of its readers. Hut despondency is apparent, despite all these valiant efforts?and the principal cause of despondency quite as well. Take, for example, this extract, from to-day's in stallment: The markets arc very poorly supplied with eatables, there being no vegetables in sight. ami very little meat or brend of any kind, and all of these that show up are li<*Id at very extortionate figures. Starvation, actual aud menacing, walked abroad over the South. Soldiers were quit ting their posts without leave, because of news that members of their families lacked the bare necessities of life. General Lee's army Ik fore Petersburg had a paper strength of 130.000 men, but wounds, illness and ab senteeism had actually reduced the number present and available for duty to below f.0,000. Colonel Taylor has described in moving phrases the terrible choice that was presented to many of "Lee's Miserables" in those days that tried men's souls. He says: Tlio condition of affairs throughout the South at that period?the winter of IStH-i'.fi?was thoroughly deplorable. Hundreds of letters addressed to soldiers were intercepted and sent to the army headquarters, in which mothers, wives at>l sisters told of their inability to respond to the appeals of hungry chil dren for bread, or to provide proper care and remedies for the sick; and in the name of all that was true appealed to the men to come home am/ rescue them from the ills which they suffered and the starvation that threatened them. Surely never was devotion to one's country and to one's duty more sorely tested than was the case with the sol diers of Lee's army during the last year of the war. These are the sufferings that Great Britain and Germany are trying to-day to inflict ou ! each other's civilian population. Such hor- ! rors move the soul to anguish, but they are 1 a part of war as it has always been practiced ' ?certainly after the lirsi line blush of ? chivalry and consideration for the enemy has i been blotted out in the battle's smoke and bloody shock. Perhaps there is no particular use in re hearsing these facts, save as they uitty Indi cate to critics of Britain and Germany, eapo* I dally in the Northern States, soino kindliness ; of judgment and some curtailment of the use i of llorid rhetoric. General Sherman knew what he was talking about when he pub lished his celebrated definition, civilization lias not revised it, and, in essence, there is not much difference between war news to day and "War News Fifty Years Ago." Got Kid of Worthless Dogs'. SlIKKP raisiug is a particularly valuable industry at the present time, ana one for which Virginia is well adapted. We liavo much hilly land of light soila which should tie covered now with great flocks of sheep?a source of wealth. Why are our landscapes uot v.hite with sheep? The answer is easy enough. Dogs. Vir ginia is; one of the worst dog-ridden States in the Union, if it does not enjoy the proud pre-eminence of being the worst. The malign presence of the ubiquitous and half-fed cur has killed our wool and mutton industry. A dog or two on a farm may be of use, but our farmers lean towards good-sized packs, ) which they are olten unable to feed properly. These ill nourished beasts must roam to live, and their natural and ready prey are the sheep, which no guarding can long protect, from the astute robbers. In fact, many of our dogs revert to the semiwoif state. They do more than destroy sheep; lhe>' men tee us. Hydrophobia is on the increase in Virginia; a number of deaths have oc curred from this dread disease in the last few years, and at the present time the dogs in ; some ?>f our towns are muzzled as a precau tion. Something should be done in the case. 1'he ileg question is one of the oldest and most vi xed of all our local questions, but it ought to be settled on a basis of common sense. The Assembly will meet again soon to complete the tax program. No better lav. could be passed than one imposing a heavy tax on dogs; with a heavy line for infraction i a tax so heavy that the lean packs would have to go. This law might meet with some ; grumbling at first, but public opinion would soon support it strongly. The passing of that wretched, wandering brute, that four tooted bandit which infests all our fields and roads, would mean added prosperity for the State and the removal of a grave danger to our lives. Every little bit helps. A burglar in Newark, finishing ransacking a house without arousing the occupants, tore something 011 a nail getting out the window, went hack to the second floor in his stocking feet for a safety pin, stepped on a tuck, made such a noise the family awoke and began yelling, and lie had to dive for liberty, leaving his loot lit hind. Hritish newspapers call the air raids over Essex "the crowning joke of the war." The liritis^i sense of humor is peculiar. Nothing less than a death dealing, home-breaking, bank-wrecking war seelus to bring it out. Russia says the German reports of tho complete destruction of its armies in North Poland are lil<e Mark Twain's comment on a premature announcement of his denise? "greatly exaggerated." President Wilson ban Joined Iho r;*nks of those who approve the purchase of Motitieello ? by the national government, Tho coun'.ry J fcela tho uamo way about it. SONGS AND SAWS Hlglit to Have. Young Ikey Short, whoso mount has (led. Keels lie's been treated badly, And that is why he shakes his flat And talks of things so madly. "1 would not mind at all," ho v says. "This almost painless spill ing. Except that on that ugly plug I'd hoped to make a k 111 ing. "He dumped me when ho might have won This horse raco in a eanter? It certainly Is not the tlmo Kor Jesting or for banter." The IVN?linlNt Snjnti Th'-re may bo no sui-h word as "fall" in the bright lexicon of youth, but the word has had a conspicuous and profitable place in the diction aries of many highly successful business men. ' ('<11111 trrlrrl ( ut Ion. "Do you derive any pleasure," asked little Johnny's long-sulTerlng father, "from the- opera tion of twisting that cat's tail'."' "No, sir,"' responded Johnny, respectfullyi "I j am Just trying to show sister there are?worse noises than those she makes when she tries to sing." Tlir IMnVrciice. Grubbs?Marriage is a lottery. Stubbs?Well, that operation, while all right in a general way, is not absolutely accurate. You must remember that in a lottery there is at least one grand pri/.e. Every Mope llnnlNhed. "Do you think Titewad will recover from his ?present illness?" "Not a chance of it now. Some fool friend, in an effort to cheer him up, told the old fellow that cemetery lots and collins were cheaper now than they had been for years. Of course, he is not going to neglect a chance to save money." WI*<ioin. The wise man in this vale of tears Knows he must be a learner? He knows tliat Joy ne'er hides her face, Save from the clods who spurn her. Tl-IK TATTLER. Chats With Virginia Editors "The kickers and croakers have no place In a city with the push and progresslvencss of our town," says the Sandy Valley News. "The man who opposes needed public improvements and stands in the way of progress is not a good citizen." Probably the best thing to do for an undesirable of this type Is to get him *.o stand in the way of a sixty-horsepower auto mobile. Sound advice from the Fredericksburg Jour nal: "There is little room for whiskey drink ers in the present civilization?and what lit tle room there is will grow less. Who would employ an intemperate man to-day? The rail roads won't have him, the factories won't have him, the business men have no use for him. The moral is to get on the 'water wagon' and stay there." Well, the whole State Is sup posed to be headed that way. Here speaketh a proud father, in the editorial columns of the Urbanna Sentinel: "The Legis lature must have had some folks around here in mind when it rearranged the State income tax law, so as to allow the single man a $1,200 exemption and the married man $1,800, with $200 additional for each 'child. That lets us out. Much obliged, boys!" What happiness there would have been in Urbanna had the Gen eral Assembly decided to distribute bonuses, graded according to the size of the family! "We do not altogether agree that cakes and pies are luxuries," says the Lawrenceville Times. "To some people they are almost as much of a necessity as bread Is to others. All these eatables are made out of llour. We ?an not expect every one to acquire the same taste, hence we must let them liuve their choice; but we do xiyree with those honest bakers who contend that It would be better to raise the price of a loaf and make it full weight rather than to reduce the weight of the loaf und not the price. In the latter case it would be hard to establish a standard, and the chances for a baker without a conscience would be too great to have the bread full of holes like a Swiss cheese." Current Editorial Comment The superintendent of public Thev Draw welfare In Chicago, a department . " . . thai maintains a labor exchange, , V!110 reports that only last week as at the I'anil niany as liOO inen .a day visited the oflice, seeking "work of any kind." As there were requests from the sur rounding farmers for able-bodied men, these opportunities were presented to the applicants, but in very few instances were they accepted. They drew the line at the farm. Yet farming is a healthy occupation, and the terms that were held out to t hem were such as might well appeal to men of thrifty and independent Ideas. The> would be insured three square meals a day, with lodging, and in some cases wash ing, while the fair wage that accompanied the offer would be practically velvet, since other expenses would be largely of their own making. I'>ut no persuasion could make these offers at tractive. Between back to the soil and back to the soup kitchen, the latter was chosen in an overwhelming majority of instances. It may be admitted that it requires some imagination to enjoy life on the farm, and that is perhaps a quality with which the stolid immigrant is not always abundantly blessed. It might be thought ho would prefer contact with the fresh and fragrant soil to working in the slush and slime of subway or sewr construction, but that does not appear to be the case. Time was when the farmer in New Kngland could go down to New York and pick out as many stalwart new arrivals from the ltritish Isles or (Jerniany as be needed, with perhaps a domestic to assist his hard-working wife. Hut the lure of the cities has constantly grown stronger, and the character of immigration has changed. The newcomers cannot be happy outside groups or gangs. They would rather starve or live by charity than to separate and enjoy health anil independence in nature's own workshops. Kor lack of willingness iti this direction, the farms are languishing or not kept up to the point of etliclency that would otherwise be possible.? lioston Transcript. Vassal* Gains New Charm college for women only during the half century or more of Its existence, has just been granted by its new president. Dr. Henry iN. MacCraeken. What is more, according to the returns from 1'oughkecpsle, the very tlrst open Sunday bVought an attendance of about 200 men. ltoughly speaking, one Vassar girl In . very six had a gentleman friend on the Job. There goes the superstition that a women's college needs to be run on penitentiary principles. Mere comes the revelation that American young women of I college age do not require to be cooped up for safety's sake. Mow far the new idea h.-ts pro gressed Is not sure, but with this impetus at Vassar it ought to extend rapidly until girl students there and at other Institutions of Its kind aro accorded as much social liberty as anybody. The concession, it is true, comes from a man?after generations of Vassar girls, It is fair to presume, had failed to elicit It from his predecessors, either male or female. Itut so do most of the concessions to woman's onward inarch proceed from complacent man. The Sun day fussing' privilege Is no lean a victory of feminism for that, nor for whatever Dr. Mac Craeken may have had in mlrid when he granted It, It hla thought was to rendor tho Institution Vassar girls may now walk out with their beaux on a Sunday afternoon or entertain them of a Sunday evening quite like regular American girls. This privilege, unknown at tho famous moro attractive In the eyes of prospective stu dents, tlijs motive scciiih shrewdly planned. Youiis women with minds open to the cultural advantages of the social phases of college llfo will think better of Vausar?particularly If, Instead of being an exceptional phenomenon oc casioned by morbid curiosity or lovo of adven ture, the llrst Sunday's crowd of trousered callers comes back stronger and stronger on succeeding Sundays, even to the point of need ing excursion trains from Now Haven and New York.?Cleveland Leader. War News Fifty Years Ago (From the Richmond Dispatch, Fob. "7, 1SC5.) General (5rant is again massing his troops at and about Hatcher's Run, on the Confederate extreme right, ten miles southwest of Peters burg, and it is thought that another attempt will be made by his columns to gain possession of the Southside ltailroad. The last attempt along this line was largely prevented by the timely rain that came along to intercept any heavy movement of artillery and cavalry. x There were the usual number of wild rumors from the South yesterday, none of which were authenticated. One of these wild reports was to the effect that Sherman had been killed, and that the onward march of his army had been blocked somewhere in Soutli Carolina. Unfor tunately, both of these reports were sadly lack ing in the matter of confirmation. General Joseph 15. Johnston has assumed en lire command of all of the army forces confront ing Sherman in the Carollnas. Johnston takes the place recently held by General Beauregard. According to the Northern papers, Just re ceived. .Major-General llooker In nt last In Washington to make a filial report to the cum gresslonal Investigating committee of his failure to do tilings at Chtinccllorsvlllo. At last "old | Joe Hooker has come out of the Wilderness," as I he was sj often Invited to do by tlio late General ! Jel> Stuart. President Lincoln has nominated Hugh II. McCulloch to be Secretary of tho Treasury. The State Senate of Kentucky bus rejected tho constitutional amendment abolishing slavery In all of tlie States of the Union. John S. Meade, a son of Major-General M>*ade, of tho Northern army, died in Philadelphia on the 22d of February. General Singleton, of Illinois, and Judge Hughes, of Connecticut, claiming to hold credentials from Lincoln, are said to be on j their way td Richmond on another tomfool j peace mission. It is said that the question of enlisting 200,- : 000 negroes In the soldier service of the Con- [ federate States Is to be brought up again in the ' Confederate States Senate, unci this time will ' be considered In open session. It Is stated, I unotllclally, that General Lee favors the enroll- j nient of the negro troops, and this may have 1 much effort upon the otherwise obdurate Senate. ? Gold has gone down to 200 In New York. In j Richmond very little of the precious metal Is ; being offered for sale, and such as comes to the | front readily brings $30 for one. The markets are very poorly supplied with eatables, there being no vegetables In sight, and very little meat or bread of any kind, and all , of these that show up are held at very extor- I tlonate figures. I The Voice of the People "Keep Out of Unnicer Zonr'." To the Editor of The Times-Dispatch: Sir,?Diplomats of various neutral nations fnr the past week have vigorously discussed the conditions resulting from* the action of Germany In Its attempt to Inaugurate anil establish a danger /.one In the waters of the British Isles, in retaliation for Intercepting foodstuiTs, which, it is claimed by Germany, are designed for the . civil population. He this as it may. both Kng- ' land and Germany are doing great injustice to the neutral nations, which nre using all th<- 1 legitimate means in their power to avoid trouble. As to this country, would it not be well for the government to notify shippers that 1 it will not lie responsible for the loss of life or I property of those who insist in navigating tiie j waters designated by Germany as the danger /.one? i Those who disregard the notification of the government must take the risk of being do- i stroyed by initios or submarines. If shippers coulil be convinced the government would not | be responsible for losses in their hazardous en- j terprises, there would be but few. If any, i disasters. O M S15 R V15 R. Henderson, X. C., February 24, 1S15. Our Duty to Help Ilelglum. To the Kdltor of The Tim?-s-Dlspateh: Sir,?1 noticed your editorial, "Condition of I Belgian Relief," in which you accuse Germany j of starving Belgium by the seizure of all food- ] stntTs. No doubt, It will h?- remembered that the German government seized foodstuffs iri Ger many only a few days ago. not to starve out Ger many, but to keep it alive. In newspapers re ceived from Germany some time ago I find Identically the same propaganda for a "Belgian Relief Fund" as we had it in our papers here, and now they are collecting for the people In East Prussia and Russian Poland, where help is moro needed than in Belgium. It will be well for us to remember that as long as we are send ing guns and ammunition to the warring nations. ; we are helping to destroy houses, homes ami j families. Is it, then, not our solemn duty to 1 alleviate the sufferings caused by this world ? war? FRIED It. W. LUTZ. Richmond, Va? February 2.r>. 1 !?!*?. Queries and Answers A Correction. Acknowledgment is made with thanks for many letters calling attention to tho solution of a recent problem, in which the awkward blunder was made of treating- a variable dif ference as fixed. The problem was to divide si dollar so as to make one part one-third more than the other. A division into parts propor tional as three and four would make the larger ccniain as much kh the smaller and one-third of the smaller more. Dividing 10ft cents by 7 and multiplying the result by :i and by 4 would give 42 0-7 and 57 1-7 as the two parts. Criminal I.hit. May a minor be electrocuted in Virginia? Can one juryman cause a disagreement? May n person be electrocuted for killing If he can prove that when he left home he did not intend to kill any one? E. R. R. The answer to each is "yes." Poem Wanted. Can you print the verses. "The world to-day is better than it ever was before"? M It.S. H. B. M. Will some reader kindly send copy? WE 1IUIL.D TICK I'ADDKIt. [With apnlOKX for the blunder which re duced J. (.!. Holland'." poem In two stunzai in a recent Issue, we print It below In full.] Heaven is not reached at a single bound; Rut we build the ladder by which we rise Krom the lowly earth to the vaulted skies. And we mount to the summit, round by round. I ! I count this thing to be grandly true, ' That a noble deed is a step toward (iod, I s Trifling the soul from the common sod ; To a purer air and a Jjroader view. Wo rise by the things that are under our feet. Hy what we have mastered of greed and gain, Hy the pride deposed and the passions slain, And tho vanquished Mils that we hourly meet. We hope, wo aspire, we resolve, we trust. When the morning calls us to life and light; Hut our hearts grow weary, and, ore tho night. Our lives are trailing tho sordid dust. We hope, wo aspire, we resolve, we pray; And we think that wo mount the air on wings, Heyond the recall of sensual things. While our feet still cling to the heavy clay. Wings for the angels, but feet for men! Wo may borrow tho wings to find tho way; We may hopo and aspire, and resolve and p.ray, Hut oyr foot must rlso or wo fall again. j Only in dreams is a ladder thrown Kroui tho weary earth to the sapphire walla; Rut the dreams'depart, and the vision falls, And the sleeper wakes on his pillow of stone. Heaven Is not reached in a single bound; ^ Hut we build our ladder by which we rise l-'rom the lowly earth to tho vaulted nkles. And we mount to tho summit, round toy round. SAVAGES Ouo ot the Duy's Itcut Cartoons. EASY TO SINK SUBMARINE LONDON, February 10.?The Syren and Shipping explains in its latest issue its offer of ?'i00 (IL'.ROO) to the llrst British merchantman lo sink an enemy submarine and offers suggestions of tlio manner in which it believes the feat may be accomplished. Itritish ship ping is ut g< d to he constantly on the alert to rid Krilish waters of ticrmau craft. The Syren believes that the task in not so ureal as might appear, once a merchantman comes into close quarters with the undersea craft. "It must lie remembered," the paper explains, "that the war vessel does not spring up sud denly from the depths. She must Jirst have ascertained by means of her peri scope that there was a possible quarry in the neighborhood and must then have manoeuvred until she got into the de sired position. "Iii other words, a sharp lookout aboard the merchant vessel would have revealed her presence long before she was ready to strike, for a periscope, small as it in. Is not the sort of thing which any quick-eyed seaman would be likely to overlook. .Not I.lkrl)' to (,'nr (iliim. "If a merchantman refuses to stop when called upon to do so .by a sub marine it is extremely unlikely that the latter will use her guns (suppos ing that she hits any); for the sound of tiring would be certain to attract the netice of Uritish mosquito craft in the neighborhood; and it is even more un likely that she will waste a torpedo on a small cargo boat, more especially If tlie merchant vessel is sulllciently far away to render the prospect of hitting her a doubtful one." Kegarding the legal position of mer chant vessels which engage in hostile operations, the Syren says: "The man who is suddenly confronted does not stop to reflect that he hlm by a footpad armed with a bludgeon self has no ofiiclal standing as a cus todian of tho peace. What he will probably do is lo attack his assailant with all the vigor whicJi ho can com mand and if possible cripple him. His actions may not be strictly in accord ance with the rules which provide for the maintenance of law and order, but if interrogated he would doubtless reply that it is better to break the law and keep one's life than to observe it and be murdered. That in precisely the position of the merchant vessel pur sued by a (iermaii submarine." 10.vplaining its offer in detail, tho Syren says: "We have been asked whether our offer applies to vessels engaged in transport service or other work for the admiralty. The answer is in tho negative. Only merchant vessels en gaged upon their ordinary avocations are eligible. They may carry arms, but the armament must not have been supplied by the government. Our an nouncenient naturally has excited a good deal of debate as to a merchant* maii's chances of dealing successfully with a submarine, and tlx* general con sensus of opinion seems to be that they would not In- all in favor of the latter, (?erinitnn Iteall/r llniiu'T. "Indeed, a fact stated liy the naval correspondent of tin- Times indicates that the Herman submarine command ith thernselfcs realize the possibility of such an attack, and that they by no means dcxpi.se Uie danger. 'It will have been noticed,' says the writer in question, 'that in every case whore the submarine has appeared on the surface to overhaul .1 merchant ship she has been tirst seen on the quarter or some where a baft the beam, tins Intention manifestly being to use n torpedo if the vessel overtaken tried to turn toward her. In other words, tin* submarines seem to have been prepared for any at tempt to ram.' "This is deeply significant. It Is evi dent tiiat if a submarine manoeuvres to 'avoid an attack she not only expects such an attack, but fears its conse quences. It is not to be denied that the | merchant vessel which discovered a submarine close on her quarter would I run a very grent risk If she then took the offensive, but it must be remcin I be red that the war vessel does not spring up suddenly from the depths Into that particularly favorable posi tion. "It should !>?? clearly understood that the power of the submarine rests to a I considerable e xtent upon l?lu(T. That, at ! lease, i.s the case whetl OlMf Nhe has been spotted. She Is formidable enough when slus can creep up and deliver an [attack upon a stationary mark, but w hen her quarry has seen her in time and either runs or turns upon her she | Is the most Ineffectual of war craft. At the first indication of any intention on the part of the merchantumn to take the offensive the submarine would probably become invisible altogether, but it must also be remembered that ' such a craft, although entirely out of sinht, may be by no means entirely | out of reach, more especially If the at ' tacking vessel be of fairly d??ep I draimbt. Although she cannot be seen, - she is there to be rammed, and the slightest touch will probably do the j business very effectively. Vol Offered Much t'bolef. "Those on board the merchantman may well ignore the fact that forcible resistance, if it should be unsuccessful, may entitle the other to deal with them las privateers, for it is practically cer : tain that if they do not resist they will ! he drowned. The choice before them is ! that between lighting and possibly ? winning and submitting and being mur J dered. No man of spirit would waste ' much time in deciding which course to adopt. PETER THE GREAT RULES STILL When the full history of the great war comes to he writtt n. two docu ments will he cited as having been largely responsible for the colossal struggle now raging on tin- Continent, says a l-'uropean correspondent of the Xew York I'ress. One of these is the famous "scrap of paper," the treaty concerning the neutrality of Itelgium, wlille the other is a parchment scroll, yellow and cracked, which lies in the Czar's palace at Petrograd. This amazing document is the will of Peter the Great of Russia, and it contains counsels which for two cen turies are believed to have guided the destinies of Russia. Kvery f'Kar on his accession to the throne has tho will read to him, for it tells how the "Country of the Knows" may become the ruler of the whole world. The present war is one of tho stepping stones to this end. The events which led up to tho mobilization of Russia last July were prophesied by I'eter the Great with almost uncanny ac curacy. In his historical will, which he penned in 1725, he wrote: "In her bid for world supremacy Russia must take pains to establish and maintain an intinutte union with Austria, apparently countenancing its schemes for future aggrandizement and all the while secretly rousing the jealousy of minor states against it. In this way we must bring it to pass that one or another party shall seek aid from Russia, and thus we shall exercise a sort of protectorate over the country, which will pave the way for future supremacy." Austria, according to Peter, was to be considered only a pawn in the diplomatic negotiations by means of which Russia was to force its way to unassailable power. Mis plan was to cajole the nation while It eould be of use to the Russians, arid to strike it a deadly blow when it stood in the way of the country's progress. More than 200 years ago Peter tho Great's failing band laboriously in scribed these prophetic words, prov ing tlint he had tho power to trace the course of llalkan diplomacy with amazing exactitude. Home months ago all that ho anticipated caino to pass. Kerbia and Montenegro wero provoked to war, and they turned to Russia for aid. That furnished the spark which kindled tho European conflagration, and whatever tho outcome of the stTJJgKle, I Russia's lnlluenco In the Kalkan states will be Infinitely greater In the future. As regards Austria, Russia Is now striking with a vengeanc.o. l By means of his will, PctorHho Great I meant to guide the future Czars of his i country, so tlint they might best fur ther i If power of Russia. 111k counsels deal with I'Vi'ry phase anil turn of the i country's diplomatic relations with the nations of Kurope. j "Russian princes should be ennour aged to take Gorman princesses to ! wife," wrote Peter. "Thus will wo | draw their best blood into our nation." The dead C/.ar also hoped that by this means Russian royalties would absorb tho bonellts of Gorman cIvlllKatlon. This was one of the old man's few errors. Ho could not foresee that In i 2('0 years' time German "civilization" would be held up by Knglaml, Francs sand his nation as a tiling to be scorned ' and crushed. The Invincible Trio. German blood is in tho veins of most of tiie leading royalties of Russia. Tho present C/.ar is the son of a Danish princess, who was half German. J.Its wife was a German princess of tho Gor i man State of Hesse. Tho Grand Duko l Cyril married Princess Victoria of Snxe | Coburg, and the Grand Duko Paul j'married Countess llohcnfclsen, who j came of German stock. The power of Holland was not 1 overlooked by Peter tho Great. His I counsels in this direction bade Russia j make. Great liritain a commercial ally. , To-day this has been to a largo extent ! accomplished by tho Triple Kntcnte, : which binds Prance. Russia and Kng land together in commerce as well as In war. Will Russia ('oilfiller the Worldf Peter the Great did not endeavor lo hide the fact that he anticipated Rus sia becoming the world's greatest j vower. His counsels to his successors ion the throne of Jiis country are lengthy and ambitious in the extreme, and they all have in view one goal?tho conquer I ijig of tho world by tho Czar's legions. His plans for the Pinal strugglo for world supremacy consisted of overtures which were to bo made secretly to Vienna and Paris lo share in tho domi 1 nation of tho world. Tiie two powers would bo then forced Into a life-and death struggle, wJJich would ellmlnato ono from the. field. Hussla would then step in and demolish the weakened sUr vivor. 1 "I found Russia a rivulet. I leave It a rlvor," said Peter the Great In con cluding his amnzlng will. "My suc j cessors will mako it a largo sea, des tined to fertilize tho Impoverished lands of lOuroRc, anil Its waters will overllow In spite of opposing dams erected by weak hands, If our descendants only know how to direct Its course,"