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Richmond times-dispatch. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1914-current, August 08, 1915, Image 17

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PART
THREE
Second News Section
Industrinl Activities of
Richmond and the South
Second News Section
Editorial, Real Estate
and Want Ad Pages
PART
THREE
65th YEAR
RICHMOND, VA., SUNDAY, AUGUST 8, 1915.
PRICE FIVE CENTS
FRANCE IS UNITED
FOR PURSUING WAR
Germany Is the Only Country
Where Peace Talk Is
Heard.
ALLIES WELDED TOGETHER
Determined to Continue Until
Prussianism Has Been For
ever Crushed.
IIV fiROntiRS IH'KHKSMC.
PARIS. August 7. ? How wi>ll 1 re
member thla 'lay a yrar ngo, when the
preparedness of Germany for war do.vn
to the smallest 'lot all began to 'lawn
upon us while wo tried to make our
selves familiar with the thought that
it was only a question of tlnie wh'n
our government would have to leave
Paris to Its fate and when w>- Hhoulri
have to face, a lonn sle^o! W<- were
not downhearted then, but. on the
other side, were by no means so sure
of final victory as we are to-'iay, when
France 1b unanimous In her d<-slre to
continue the war until the enemy has
been crushed, and this ununimity Ih
Bhared by all our allies. In Ituwala
the Czar expressed the unchangeable
determination of the Russian people a
few days after the loss of Ltmberi;.
In England, Aaqulth. shortly after
wards. In his Guildhall speech, said
that Britain would flight to the last
drop of blood and the last farthing.
Serbia'* determination hau never
?wavered, and Italy, whom Germany
now hates more than she hates any
oth??r nation in the world, fully real
izes that the poison fangs of Germany
mu?t he drawn before we can have
lastim? peace.
In the meantime, unanimousnes* lias
departed from Germany. In Germany
alone we hear talk of peace. It is the
Socialists who have started it. but they
are really tools In the hands of the
Knlser.
The situation is ably summed up in
th* Italian paper. Popolo d'ltalla,
which writes: "People are askine why
Germany should wish to make peace
to-day? Her territory has not h-^on
invaded to any extent, she won vic
tories in Gallcla. she holds the Brit
ish navv In check, she still holds back
the French Invasion and ?h<* occupies
Beltrlum.
"But this Is exactly why she does
want to make peace, because peace to
day would mean victory for Germany
that -would be able to dictate the con
ditions. while in a near future every
th.np might change.
"If Germany's position Is good, the
position of her enemies Is better.
Russia remains as formidable as ever.
England and France are at the helcht
of their strength, and Italy is advanc
ing slowly, hut surely. To-morrow it
may be too late, to-day it Is victory.
"This Is why the imperial Socialists
have been mobilized."
PIECES ARE FOnnil)I)R\
TO SWISS HANDS
It hu been announced that the Swiss
military bands will no long'-r be able
to play the "Sambre ot Mmisp," the
"Marche Lorraine" and the "Trompeter
von Saecklngen." It is not ihe first
time since the war began that the
"Sambre et Mouse" ho* been forbidden
in Switzerland. Rut In this matter the
Swiss censorship can be accommodat
ing at times. A concert was (riven at
Bex-les-Balns, and the march was
played and much applauded. It was in
dicated In the program as the "Rhln et
Rhone." The conductor of the or
chestra had simply changed the title
of the march.
As for the "Trompeter von Saeckln
gen," wrftten by the German poet.
Victor von Scheffel, It has been for
bidden because of the refrain, "May
God keep you, It might have been too
beautiful, may God keep you, the thing
has failed." It appears that the Ger
mans saw In the Ironical fashion In
which the refrain was sunk In certain
Swiss districts an allusion to the march
on Paris, the march on Calais, and so
many other German enterprises which
terminated In a complete fiasco.
German prisoners who were taken in
the recent combats report singular de
tails which their officers pave them of
the battles in Gallcla and Poland. The
men were told that Warsaw had been
taken by assault, that the Russian
army was annihilated, and that the
Grand Duke Nicholas was taken
prisoner with 250,000 men.
These tales were told the soldiers in
order to revive their drooping spirits.
Recently a tralnload of prisoners taken
in the Arras district passed through
Paris. At a suburban station n rail
way official questioned a Wurttem
berger. and received this reply: "What
does It matter If we have yielded a
little ground? Now that Russia is
crushed and demands peace, Hinden
burg is coming with 2,000,000 men to
fight the French."
On hearing these words, the Wurt
temberger's comrades became angry,
and told him to hold his tongue. Not
all the German soldiers believe the
stories told them by their officers. Dur
ing the early stages of the war prison
ers never showed any desire to hear
how the operations were going on.
Now as soon as they are captured they
ask for news. They reallzo that it is
from the enemy they can learn the
truth.
nrnDEN of munition
factories irxderf.stiy, atrn
How greatly the French military au
thorities, like the English, under
estimated the magnitude imposed upon
the munition factories of the country
is revealed by La Matin, one of whose
correspondents writes from Le Creusot:
"Creusot, In popular imagination, is
France's great civil arsenal. It does
not begin to compare with Essen, in
Prussia, but It Is the center of an im
mense factory organization founded by
the Schneiders in various places. In
time of peace it employed 28,000
workers. At I>e Creusot alone there
were 13.000 when tho war broke out.
but on August 15 half of these had
~~ (Continued on Sixth Pago.)
SKULL IS 25,000 YEARS OLD
ilfiutlrii Ovit n* Clft l?? Vnlvrmlljr of
Sydney.
SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, Auprust 7.?
The first truly fossil skull discovered
In Australia was recently handed o^'e?
an a Rift to the University of Sydney
by Joyntott Smith, of the State Legis
lative Council. This is the skull which
caused such a sensation at the Con
gress of the British Association of
Science last September. It is believed
to be 25.000 years old. Since the F'.rit
Ish association's convention the petri
fied Incrustation insirle ami outside the
skull has been removed by Professors
David and Smith, of tin- university.
At the formalities attending the re
ceipt of the skull from the donor, Pro
fessor David explainer! that it belonged
to the Pllstocene period, and was
found after a flood thirty-one years
aero in the be<l nf a creek near Talpai
ranch on the Darllnir Downs, in the
(State of Queensl;ind. by a stockman.
Professor Smith sai'l that the se
quence of teeth in the skull was such
as to show that it was that of a youth
j about fifteen, yet one of the teeth was
i the lari?eHt human tooth yet discovered,
j The extremely primitive characteris
tics of the skull were so Rreat, he said,
; as to warrant its beinu placed with
! such anthropological specimens as the
.prehistoric Heidelberg Jaw and 'he
! 1'lltdown skull.
I *
BELGIAN ARMY IN KHAKI
| ' linnifr Kr<m? Dark-Colored and Con
splclou* I'niform.
DUNKIRK. FRANCE. Aucrust 7?The
Helclan army Is now clothed In khaki
instead of the du rk - colored and con
spicuous uniform of the eRrlier months
of the war. It has been a popular
change, since the khaki of the British
i soldier has been much admired by the
Belgians as both smarter in a mllltnrv
sense and more businesslike than their
own dark blue and jrreen
iThe sanitary situation alone the P.el
?l.in front Is excellent, and the sick re
t port is exceedingly small. The bodies
j of nr.ad horses and men floatine lr. th?
area covered by water have been fished
<?ul and destroved, and the country in
j general cleaned up back of the lines.
Belgian o'Mcers have established lit
tle chicken yards back of the trenches
f'>r fresh cees. and ansrllnfr for carp
j in the canals Is one of the chief recre
ations of olicrp and men when ofT
j duty.
; WATER POWER IN PANAMA
; Ciovrriimriit <Oiinldrrliijt I'lnn* for Ki
IcnHlvr D?* vi'lopmrnt.
PANAMA, August 7.?Plans aro be
I ins considered by the government of
) the republic of Panama for the de
' velopment of .1 number of waterfalls
1 In the Interior for the manufacture of
j electric light an<l power ft pm.
1 posed to invite foreign capital to un
dertake the liphting of several of the
I Important interior towns in the vicinity
of which Ample water power exists.
At both Penonome and Chorrera
; there ar?* excr-ll*nt falls, which would
supply the entire districts in which
1 they are located with light and power,
i The water power at Chorrera is suf
ficiently near both Panama and Colon,
so that electric current could be trans
mitted to thern over a high-tension svs
j tem. considerably decreasing the cost
iof electric 1 itrh 1 In these cities.
In the vicinity of Boquete. Providence
of Chirlqui, there are other falls,
1 which, once harnessed to produce
' hydro-electric power, would make that
district an important industrial center,
as well as lighting a number of im
portant towns on th>? Pacific side.
SUFFER FOR WANT OF NEWS
ForclRnrm In Mexico City Cut Oft From
World ("en tern.
[Correspondence of Associated Press.]
MEXICO CITY. July 2!>.?Eitrht
j months of accumulated mail has just
I been distributed to foreigners and
others. Beside this mail, a batch of
1 some 1.S00 telegrams will also reach
! their owners. These letters have been
I piling up in Vera Cruz for the past
! month, since it was necessary for the
I military to use the only available tele
i graphic lines to the prejudice of the
1 general public while the siecre of the
, capital was heing carried on. It is not
:t'ae want of food of a material kind
that the foreigner feels so keenly here,
I hut the want of that intellectual nour
j Ishment which comes from the news
j centers of the world in the shape of
press dispatches and in the editorial
I comment and magazine articles on the
| same. Papers bearing a date a month
old have been eagerly read here during
the past few weeks. With the large
English, French. German, American
and Spanish colonies here, the dearth
of European war news works a real
hardship.
NEW STUDY COURSE FOR BOYS
Dr. Hecren PolntH to Change* Wlileh Hp
Thinks IVnr Will Cntiae.
RERIjIN, August 7.?The director of
' one of the largest hoys' high schools
j in Germany, Or Heeren, writes from
I the trenches before Rheims that he he.
j lieves the war will cause a complete
I change in the course of studies for hoys
I in schools of the grammar and high
school classes.
"Physical training will have a larger
part in education." Or. Heeren believes.
"School gymnastics of the acrobatic va
riety will be abolished, and long cross
country runs will be practiced, in order
to develop the lungs and heart, which
this war lias shown are the weak points
of our young manhood.
"In the classroom there will he less
dogma and more religion. History
teaching will aim to arouse enthusiasm
for great personalities. In geography
the essential question will be in study
ing each country. What interests has
Germany there?
"Much more importance will ho at
tached to physics and .chemistry.
Knowledge of Russian and Spanish
will be compulsory, since Germany's
economic Interest will, mainly lie in the
Slav countries and in Spanish South
America. English will he taught
merely for practical purposon."
1 USES SOCIALISTS !
AS PEACE DECOYS
Kaiser Said to Be Back of Agita
tion to Bring War to
End.
MOMENT NOW FAVORABLE
I
Never Again May Central Em
pires Be So Powerful as
at Present.
nv nill.l.IP I5VKKKTT.
I/'XDON, August 7.? Ev-r since the
j Vorwaerts, principal organ of the Ger
I man Socialist party. was confiscated for
prematurely announcing the fact that
the German people desire p?are, fol
; lowed by the Kaiser's statement that
i there would be no winter <-a rnpalLrn,
I the opinion has been gaining ground
' in diplomatic circles h?-r<* that i>r
l many, after using Austria as a decoy
to start the war. is now using th* So
cialists to bring about an agitation
for peace before tJie allies shall have
reached th?lr full strength.
There are many reasons that speak
for tnis supposition. In the first place,
j the desire of the misguided Socialists
! for peace has reached alarming propor
I tlons, since it was discovered that the
j German Junkers and Jingoes from the
j very start planned this war as a war
! of conquest. In the tecond place. IJJeth
! mann-Hollweg and other level-headed
German statesmen realize that tine cen
tral powers are never likely to have a
'more favorable moment for making
peace than during the next three
j months, while they have not yet ex
Ihausted the trr<*.it advantage which
military preparedness gave them, and
while only a small corner of Alsace is
j in the hands of the allies What It.ily
has taken so far does not matter, be.
j rnuse it is no more than what Prince
Buelow offered it for Its neutrality.
Germany at the present moment
I would be able to brine forward very
strong arguments in favor of peace,
which they hope would carry great
i .veight in America, but which are sure
to I)*1 wrecked upon the firm resolu
tion of the allies to accomplish their
only purpose, the crushing of German
militarism, no matter at what cost in
I blood and money.
' H AII INTKUKKIinS WI'IU
LCTIIKRAX CKI.KIlll ATION
| <"?n October 31. 1917. it will be <00
1 ycarp since the Kaiser's special friend,
j Martin Luther. nailed his ninety-five'
Latin t h< y-es on the doors nf the Castle
Church at Wittcnberp, and before he
surrendered to the German military J
plotters who started the present war|
the Kaiser had planned a world-wide:
Protestant festival ??u that flay.
The war has hopelessly ruined this'
plan, and the Kreuzzeitunp recently,!
with the Kaiser's sanction, published
\ .*v revised German plan for the festival. :
I "I'nder normal circumstances." says
j the British Weekly, "the event would
j have been celebrated throughout the j
'< entire Protestant world, but. looklnp
| across the pulf of two years and two1
; months. Germany sees herself cut off
j from all Lutherans outside German;
territory, and she now announces that
the quarto-centenary will be observed!
I only on German soil."
"It was originally intended," says the1
j Kreuzzeitunp, "that all the Protestant
churches of the world should hold
j simultaneous services. Owlnp to thej
| altered political situation, tiiis idea has |
been abandoned, and the German peo- ,
i>le alone will commemorate the event!
| in one of the towns specially associ-'
' ated with Lttthfr. All Protestant;
i bodies under the Kaiser's rule will
| have their part in the rejoicinps, and
; a fund is to he raised as 'Jubllaums
i pabe.' The money will be used for two
i purposes?In the first place, 'to repair
, the injury which the war has caused
j to Protestant Germany.' and. in the
? second, to carry out 'the preat tasksl
| which await the churches, both at home!
land abroad, after the conclusion of!
; peace.'
i "Germany, in other words, recopnizes'
| that for years to come she will he'
I solitary amonp the nations of the
' world. Why otherwise should she ex
! elude the men and women of her own
j race in America from their birthright
! In the clorinus lepacy of Luther? Is
j sh? afraid that if American professors
and preachers flocked to Berlin in the
autumn of 1017 the phosts of the Lusl
tania would accompany them? In the
hcipht of the speechmakinp at Worms.
Rlsenach. or Wittenberp. the banquet
inn table mipht fade away and the
j panorama be suddenly dissolved. In
these inland towns, amid the autumn
splendor of palace gardens on the
i Rhine or the Kibe, there would come
a salt chill breath and a moaninp from;
the uttermost seas.
"The United States are shut out, and:
(neutrals in Europe are bidden to stand
aloof. They have had many proofs j
already of the horrors that await the:
[smaller free nations if the Central Ku
. ropean empires triumph. The obsequi
I ous lattery of Sven Medin has not pro
? cured an invitation for Sweden. On
i Holland the War Lord casts his venom
1 ous eyes. Norway's ships have been
! torpedoed by submarines. Any feast
j to which the Kaiser could invite the
i smaller Protestant peoples would be;
like a Rorpia banquet. The wine cup
would pllsten and the strains of music
would resound. The name of Martin
Luther "would be quoted as the puar
antee of piety and pood will. Rut the
footsteps of the men who buried Rel
gt um would be heard at the doors,
executioners waitlnp to carry other
victims away. Germany recopnizes
that her invitations, for many years
to come, will not be sought after.
"She mlpht have had a repetition on
a far prander scale of the Luther fes
tival of 1SS3. The four hundredth an
niversary of the reformer's birth was
observed with rejoicinps in two hemls
pherefj"
ASPHYXIATING GAS
IS FATAL TO 17SI?ltS
i The well-known Russian paper,
Novoe Vremya, quotes the following
(Continued on Sixth Page.)
TO ADVANCE OR NOT TO ADVANCE
STATE HAS REAL CAUSES
FOR DISSATISFACTION
Its Record Is Magnificent, but
Much Has Been Left
I'ndone.
SOME LESSONS FOR FUTURE
Fairfax Harrison Toils Where Vir
ginia Has Fallen Short in Agricul
ture, Manufacturing and Road
making.
[Special to The Times-Dispatch.]
WINCHESTER. VA? August ".?The
annual reunion of Confederate veterans
at Fisher's Hill, near Strasburg, Ya.,
was held to-day on the battle field
where several fierce engagements were
fought more than fifty years ago. The
attendance was up to the average,
about S.OftO people beinp: present from
many sections of the Virginia Valley
and other portions of this and adjoin
ing States. The reunion was held un
der the auspices of Stover Camp of
Confederate Veterans, assisted by the
Daughters of the Confederacy and the |
Sons of Veterans of Strasburg. The j
Southern Railway and the Baltimore j
and Ohio Railroad operated special j
trains, all of which were crowded. I
The principal address was delivered j
by President Fairfax Harrison, of the
Southern Railway, who arrived at
Strasburg last evening from Washing- i
ton in his private car. accompanied by
members of his family.
Mr. Harrison said, in part:
At this historic reunion of survivors
of th*? armies of the South, of their do- i
scendants. and of those from other
sections, who, with true Virginia hos
pitality, have been welcomed to this
happy valley, it is fitting that, while
paying tribute to those who fought
valiantly for the Southern cause, we
should now look forward to the future.
Dissatisfaction with existing condi
tions has ever been one of the most
potent motives of human progress. It
is fitting, therefore, to see in what
respects we may have reason to be
dissatisfied with material things as
they are in Virginia.
Without neglect of manufactures, we
are still eminently an agricultural peo
ple, as Thomas Jefferson hoped we
might ever be. Climate and soil condi
tions throughout the State are favor
able to diversified and profitable agri
culture. The statistics show that we
have availed of these conditions by
largely increasing our farm values.
INCIiKASKD FAII>1 VALUES
THROUGHOUT VIIIGIMA
The. United States Census Bureau
tells us that the value of all farm prop
erty iti Virginia increased from $247,
476.536 in 1S80, to *1125,065,383 In 1910.
On Ita face, an Increase of 152 per cent
In thirty yearn does not look bad, but
should we bo satisfied when we~com
pare It with an incrense of 227 per cent
in the neighboring State of North Caro
lina, and when we appreciate that It
is much less than it would have been
If farm production had been brought up
more nearly to what our natural ad
vantages give us the right to expeot?
Whon we revlow the averago produc
| ~~ (Continued on Seventh Page.)
HE FINDS AMERICANS
KINDLY TOWARD ALLIES
Famous Ivondon Publisher Returns
Home After Trip From Balti
more to California.
REVIEWS HIS OBSERVATION'S
Finds Only One University Man Who
Pronounces Himself Pro-German.
Country's Opinion Thought Out
After Deliberately Counting Cost.
[Special Cable to The Times-Dispatch.]
LONDON, August 7.?John M. Dent,
the famous publisher of educational
and classical works, has just returt.ert
to England. On his trip in America
he visited some fourteen or fifteen of
the leading State and other universities
all the way from Baltimore to Cali
fornia. He found that the professors
of literature and history were much
more ready to talk about the American
aspect of the great war thnn they were
to discuss futures In "Everyman's li
brary."
Without doubt, Mr. Dent1.-* views Cov
ered more widely than has yet been
done the general trend of cultivated
American opinion on the war. One
American professor wrote him on ar
rival: "You'll And it difficult to make
us talk about books. Wo are all ab
sorbed in the war. You will find us
more pro-English than the English
t hemselves."
The publisher continued: "Again, in
Wisconsin I found the sentiment over
whelmingly strong toward a firm stand
in America against the attempt at
domination by Germany. The same
thing obtained in California. Every
where 1 found fierman militarism con
demned. All believed in ideals Great
j Britain is fighting for.
j "Personally, I do not think we have
i ever done full justice to th'.' attitude
of America, seeing her delicate position
In this war. The universities are with
England and the allies almost without
exception. Only in one care did I meet
with a university man who called him
self 'pro-German.' What pleased me
most was that all this conglomeration
of opinion was deliberately thought out
after counting the cost and considering
all the various questions. Another In
teresting point Is that quite the ma
jority of American professors go to
Germany to get their Ph. D. and be
come more or less imbued with German
life and influenced by friendly treat
ment and the sympathy thoy locelve
in no many parte of Germany.
"Yet, I can say from tho many op
portunities I had of observing as well
as conversations from one end of the
Continent to the other that Americans
are Arm in their determination that
only so far and no farther will Amer
ica continue to put up with the in
solent bearing and outrages of the
German government."
FUGITIVES TELL STORY
OP TERRORS IN BELGIUM
Sad nn<l Depressed, English Women
and Children Make Their
Way to London.
GARY DISTRIBUTES KISSES
Dancer Who Kicked Crown From
Head of Portugal's King Receives
Embraces From Each Youth Who
Volunteers to Eight for Allies.
Cable to The Times-Dispatch.1 |
LONDON, August 7.?Tilbury, the J
great landing stage of the Thames, be- j
low London, was the scene of the ar
rival of a large party of English
women and children from the terrors
of Belgium under German rule.
Most of them were sad and depressed i
and very unwilling to be cominuuica- i
tlve. One or two, however, were a
little less reticent than the majority,
and told Interesting tales of their Im
pressions and experiences. They did
not personally complain of their treat
ment by the Germans. The only cases
where the iron hand of the invader was
felt was where the men of the family
had disappeared and Inquiries failed
as to their whereabouts.
"In Brussels," said one. "there was I
no scarcity of food, except in the mat- I
ter of bread. If the war lasts another j
year, the natives are sure to feel the
pinch pretty badly, as the enemy are
even now commandeering provisions In
huge quantities, and the Belgians will
receive scant consideration." Another, '
who witnessed the famous attack of [
Lieutenant Wnrneford on the Zeppelin ,
In midair, described the wreckage of j
the convent school of Amandsberg. j
When the Germans visited the graves
of the nuns and children who were I
killed by the falllnc of the Zeppelin
on the convent, they placed a wreath I
upon them, inscribed with the words: !
"This is what the English have done." j
Even at the graveside they could not I
refrain from lying. "All the refugees,"]
continued the speaker, "are loud in j
their praises of the good work of the \
American embassy at Brussels, who ;
looked after their interests to the day
of their departure."
GAI1Y DICSI.YS IJISTRIIII'TF.S
kissks amo\<; nict nrtTS '
Recruiting by cajolery has almost
reached fever heat. The latest exposl- '
tlon was given at C'amberwell last
night, when the accomplished danseusc.
Gaby Deslys, distributed free kisses at
a Camberwell meeting to every recruit
enrolled. Of course, the greatest ex
citement and enthusiasm prevailed.
The process adopted was simple as
well as exhilarating. One of the now
V, C.'s made a speech, calling on all
present to Join the army. Of course, he
said, he had Just returned from the
trenches, and equally, of course, he had
Just turned up at the meeting quite
unexpectedly. Then a slight pause,
and the beautiful Gahy, looking fas
cinating and pretty, an is her wont,
offered to present a photograph of her
charming self and give a free kiss to
every man who enlisted on the spot.
Recruits began to tumble over each
(Continued on Sixth Page.)
DOES WORLD FACE
SERIES OF WARS?
German Professpr Takes Very
Gloomy View of Events to
Follow Present Conflict.
SEES ENDLESS QUARRELS
Fangs of Naticms So Mixed Up
as to Make Separation
Difficult.
nv FRRDERICK WERNER.
B ICR MX, August 7.?In a very inter
esting article in Die Menschhclt (hu
manity), Professor R. Rroda dismisses
the question. "Are We on the Threshold
of a Series of World Wars?"
"The vivid lessons to be lenrned from
the contemplation of this frightful
struggle," he says, "all the refinement
in war methods, which have forever
laid to rest the legends of the ace of
chivalry, all the terrible sacrifices of
life and treasure which wilt be direct
ly engraven in the personal recollec
tions of every family in Rtirope?nil
this will assuredly hring to maturity
those moral impulses which are en
tirely opposed to a return of similar
wars. But, on the other hand, it must
not be forpcotten that other likewise
very weighty factors operate .to pro
duce a whole series of other wars fol
lowing on the present war, and that It
would he fooli?h to pass over this
frightful possibility?a possibility, so
menacing to thfc existence of humanity
?without doing the utmost in the way
of a systematic resistance to such a
contingency.
HIST<H<I< Ai, Anai,or;ircs of
OTHER FAMOUS WARS
"In the first place, the historical
analogies of the Thirty Years. the
Silesian and the Napoleonic Wars (and
lastly that of the Tripo'Han War.
which inaugurated the Balkan wars
and with them the present epoch of
war)?which, collectively, almost ex
hibit an inductive law?evidence the
possibility, nay, even the probability, of
peculiarly great war crises, each de
veloping out of the other, which can
hardly ever lead to any final solution
of the basic problems involved in them,
and which must create unrest, disturb
the balance of power and draw out the
periods of tension, which are certain
only too easily to eventuate in fresh
wars.
"Then, too, there is a whole series
of quite concrete impulses peculiar to
the present crisis which all tend In the
same direction.
"The object lessons of the war which,
according to strict logic, ought to ex
hibit a regulated impetus towards a
further effect of the same phenomenon,
appear at the same time?by reason of
that deficient intelligence of the masses
which, never before so much in evi
dence. has desperately refuted all our
opinions of the intellectual pinnacle to
which the world of culture has attained
?rather to opernte in the opposite di
rection. The entry of Italy into the
conflict is a striking proof of that fact.
Whoever follows with a calm nnd criti
cal eye the parallelogram of forces in
Italian policy, the varying ratio of
power in the interventionists and the
neutralists, must recognize that the
sober policy of the Sncro ICgoismo, as
the government proclaimed it, or, to
put it into ordinary language, the wish
to derive the greatest possible advan
tage from the troubles of one's neigh
bors, would not of itself have led to
war. Oiolitti, the shrewdest of Ital
ian statesmen, grasped at the begin
ning of May the fact that Austria had
already conceded so much, and that, at
the last moment she would. In order
to preserve peace, certainly concede
such a. considerable part of the residue
of Italian demands that nothing really
essential would remain unfulfilled.
Hoeing that Austria was willing to re
linquish the Trentlno and Oradleka,
and had even palrably given up Gorz
and a few Dalmatian islands, there
remained really nothing but the ques
tion of the degree of autonomy of
Trieste.
"According to nil the dictates of pru
dence, they would never have rushed
to arms merely for the sake of some
constitutional detail relative to a dis
trict the population of which .Is less
thnn will fall on the battle tlelds In the
Italo-Austrian War.
WAIt KOHCKO ON fOUSTRY
nv POPlXAIt CI,AMOR
"The war, therefore, had not Its
1 origin in any such calculations, hut, as
is well known, was forced on the coun
try by the popular demonstrations
against Giolitti. These, however, were
referable less to the special Interest
| of the masses in the details of the Con
stitution of Trieste than to the uni
i versul war fever. The embittered tem
per, owing to the violation of Belgian
neutrality, and the German method of
waging war. regardless of the prin
ciple of compassion?both of which
factors were dally brought home to the
understanding of the masses by tha
French press and the Italian press,
which came under the Influence of the
French?doubtless contributed to this
temper and to the thought that in a
certain measure the German guilt of
the month of August was now making
a belated atonement, may for some peo
ple represent a "solace" in face of the
new disaster. Rut ithat, standing by
Itself, was not the whole matter the
Italian masses intoxicated themselves
on war news; the youth of Italy wanted
to play Its part in the threat adventure,
lit Is true that they foamed in a frenzy
of vengeance on account of our use of
poisoned gases and the sinking of the
: L.usltanla.
"But they never grasped the fact
I that these events follow the natural
line of development of war and of l?s
principle of disseminating the greatest
possible ruin among the enomy. That
the conflict might bring similar mis
fortune on their own land was a thing
to which they gave hut little consld*
eratlon. and. in so fur as it might hap
pen, they were prepared to 'revenge'
themselves In frightful manner. They
?and in Just the same way the masses
(Continued on Sixth Page.)

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