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TUB TIMKS. Kounded 1SSS THE DISPATCH. Pounded 1 S.-jO Publlwliert rvcrr ?lj?y In tlir rcnr l?y Thr " Tlmrn-ninpnteli I'iiIiMmIiIiiiz Ciinipniij, Inr. Ad ?'rui nil riinimiiiili'ndiins to Till-? TI>H-*S-IHS V PATCH. Tlnipn-mniiiitcli IlulldinK. >'? South ] Tfnlli Strert. It lehmnii il. An. TKLniMlOVK. 11 VNDOM'II 1 Publication dfllrr 1(1 South Tenth Street South Klehmond.... 1020 Hull Street Petrrdlitirg lO!t \ortli Sycnmorp Street iieliliiirp: -is Klphtli Street lIASIlltnOK. STOHV It HOOKS, IXC-., Speelnl tOvcrtlninit llepcenentntl vm. Nen York 2IK) 1'lftli Avenue Philadelphia .... Mutual I.lfe IlulldinK Chlt'.ifrn I'eople"* ?;n* lltiildlnu si iiscitiPTiov hates n\ 1UII.. One Sl\ Three One POST \C.i: l'\ll? Venr, Mo*. Mo*. Mo. Dally nnil Sun<ln .r. . S0 .OO ?,nin .?! 511 ? .55 Dull y onl> . I <M> 2.00 I.OO . :i5 Sundny only - no i oil .511 .25 Tlr Tlmes-IUKpateh farrier Delivery Service In Itlelimnud mint Mihtirlm) nml Petersburg: Dtillv nltli Sunday, one ?erk 15 eentn l>nil> Trillion! "?inula*, one ?eel? Kl cent* Sun dn j on I > 5 ceul.s I filtered .lanunr? 27. IIMI5. n? It leli nmiid. Vn? on *cennd-cliiN?? mutter under net of emigre** of March :t. |s7?). Manuscript* nnil cntiifnuulcntiniiM Kuhinltted for publication i 1 i noi he relurned utile** ne oompnnied l?J postime sljimp*. PKIPAY, ATC. UST 13. 1?15. Is Allied Strategy Revealed? CONTEMPORANEOUSLY with descriptions of a Gorman drive against the Russian i fortress at Kovno and of a strong Gorman at;- j gresrive all along the eastern line, with i Petrograd as its apparent objective, come re- i ports from France and Flanders of the actual appearance of detachments of Kitchener's ' "now army" on the western battle front. Apparently, there is reality in these re- | port--, carefully guarded as they are. The J training camps of England are beginning, or i so it would seem, to empty themselves of j part of the three million. These additions j to the allies' lighting forces are not mere re- ! placements <>f losses from death or injury, i but act uk 1 military units in themselves. Perhaps the allied strategy is beginning to reveal itself, '^ho Russians are drawing the i invader.1-- into the interior of the empire, and j Britain is sending her millions to the firing j line. Aiso there is new activity in the Par- I danelles. It is possible to draw interesting ' deductions from this concatenation of cir- | cumstances. but we shall not hazard them, j The experts, however, will not hesitate. Th< cable reports a dearth of soap in Bnda- j pe:-t. A similar condition in Constantinople would create no excitement. Vniillicr "I'llimy Man" Poml 1-HF. croator of "Old Si wash" is no morn, j t'.corpo Fitch (1 iocl in r\ sanatorium in . IV r'.<? !- y <"a 1.. the other day. Ho had made j . r< i utation a? an American humorist in the storii h< wrote of Olo Skjarssen, the uncon- : ij. rod full had;, and tiio doings of tho Kta [ Mita Pi Fraternity of Knox College, Cinlos I? 11r. Ml., tho college which started Eugenn I*"ol?! on his way. All of tho incidents in j Fitch's tirst stories were culled from Knox. i '>f course. ho wont from liis alma mater to | ;otirnr lis in. It is tho first road otit for ! ; inioris's. They must havo tho training of ? ;he ?.ew-.papor shop. In order to prove that i it" s ? i joke. one must conic in contact with tliat which is the antithesis of the Joke. One go- . this contact in the newspaper business. V"h> F ??-h went into politics he was in the Illinois Legislature in 1911' he host know. Not hint'. : more pathetic than tho grind of a daily humorist The man who has to ho funny, according to the rule who is ox- j pected to snatch the black from every phase ! and pi? t it r? ! is a subject 'or ctntnisera j tion. Fitch complained of this at one time, and broke away from his bondage. He chose i his own hours ???.>'r lining funny, and died j happy. j Carrant'.a Phows His Teeth.?Headline. That doesn't count for much in the United States, eh. < <>io\> i? i'he Honor of tho Nation THOSF. American newspapers and indi- j vidua'.s t':;.t talk glibly of overlooking Iritif 1 -. it fractions of neutral rights, bocause, j r.s the> s:?; "Britain and her allies are fight ing ?].' ? of civilization and of democracy against :<u* >cracy." give greater hoed to al lied siKt ' !:, Mm- war than to their own coun- i try's honoj .tu: dignity President W'iison has proclaituod tho neu- ] trallty of 1'nited States, and the nation ; thereby has assumed the duties and obliga- j tions that neutrality entails. To the dis charge i f ;hest- obligations, the national faith j is ? Popular sympathy is one thing; tI.e sfa:. ! o: tho Government is another, and the r<>vornt: ? :it itself obey the law and ; require ' eiliu.; rents to obey if i;. would com- I ma: '. at- .? s< rv?- international respect. To hold <.:any to rigid accountability while w:nk::iL at British violations of tho same v. would lie hatneful. President Wilson, despite 'he \a;.- rings of the pro German pr?*-s aid svn:pathi/.ers, has never done so. Whether our neutral rights were invaded by Brita ?. <r c.< rtnany. a protest, commensurate Ait.: the gr. vity of the offense, has been That is the atti'-de loyal Americans should approve. If tiii- ce-sn'rj decide.- :nr any rea son t< declare war against tlermuny, or, by sever ? " diplomatic relations- abandon its neutrality it "ill b<- po.- tide to tak" a lenient view of I'.ritlsh transgression As things are, ihat cour e would t> dishonorable, moan and cowardlj It will never t nd any favor with th" Pre.?id<-:;t and his advisers or wt". the great mass of the American p< p!< l or the bctiefit of any wl.o ? .v j-,.. curious, v i ?-x| . i n tliat t :.e A; ricuit r;.! 1 >? ;. trt merit does not make its estimate on tl . rye crop in the sail.*- wa> that the <i is * ler makes his ( banco for \incrb ari Plat \vright> BKFOKK t: European war Am? : can play wrights were wont to complain ?hat man agers and producers in the United State. were so favorab!> impressed with the work of h r .cign writers of plays that tho America: with similar talent was not encouraged to offer the product of his brain. .Managers like the late Charles Frohn.an always denied this, and Mr. Itolas'O, :t if. known, has always been disposed to g.vo an American playwright tho prefer ??nee. Nevertheless, it is a fact that previous to last August t>0 per cent of the dramas, comedies and operettas seen on the American stage had the foreign brand. The statement is made by Augustus Thomas, who adds that playwritiug in Europe being paralyzed, tt is apt to remain so for ten years to come. The golden harvest of the playwright of this country is at hand. If ho has the stuff within him. he has an advan tage which he has not always had in the offer of Mr. Thomas, art director of the Charles Frohman Company, to give any dramatic writer necessary information of the construc tion of a play. The lack of this knowledge has been the death of many otherwise well written dramas. The hydrostatic paradox of controversy is a confab between a wise man and a fool, if we remember Oliver Wendell Holmes. The fool knows that he has a lift he could not otherwise get. This is what ails Frank Buchanan, of the Labor National Peace Council, who thinks he has insulted the President of the United States. Warning to State Troops THAT Virginia will receive 56.000 less than last year's quota of the ?4.000.000 Federal appropriation to aid the organized militia of the States, will cause regret throughout the Commonwealth, but it ought to inspire also a fixed determination that the deficiencies which have resulted in the reduc tion shall be mado good. The Times-Dispatch is so convinced that the military preparedness of this country must be based on the National Guard, that it can not condemn a policy of the War Department which seeks to promote efficiency, even though this policy reduces the funds avail able for the support of the Virginia Vol unteers. Secretary Garrison has based his allotment of the fund on the actual strength of the National Guard at the annual inspections. Special credit was given and special allow ance made for auxiliary companies. The old rule of "to him that hath shall be given" was followed faithfully. There can be no sensible objection to this course. The whole theory of national aid to the organized militia of the States is to make those commands an efficient instrument of national defense. Strength on paper counts and should count for nothing at all. What tho War Department wants to know is whether the volunteer forces of the States are capable actually of bearing arms and ren dering good service, without too much pre liminary training, should they be called on to tight for their country. That is the sort of preparedness that should be encouraged by the liberal uso of Federal appropriations. There are no better citizen soldiers In the country than those of Virginia, so far as most of the commands are concerned. Some regi ments or eompauies, it would seem, have fallen below the mark, or at least have not shown an actual strength that agrees with their papor strength. Those are the com panies or regiments that oucht to receive the attention of tho State authorities, so that next year we may got. hack our lost $fi,000 and pain ground never before occupied. Part of tho blame, it is likoly, belongs to employers, who fall to encourage their em ployees to render military service. They should change this attitude promptly. Either the Cnlted States must develop "a citizenship trained and accustomed to arms" or greatly increase its regular establishment. Tax payers will decide ultimately which course will bo followed, and they might as well be gin now to consider which they would prefor. "This is a good time." says the Lafaypfto. i Ind., Journal, "to think about doing the ] Christmas shopping early." If you have just j returned from your vacation, you have an other think coining. t'njustiflcri Apprehensions BY an authority so trustworthy and vera cious as that of "The Southern States' Woman Suffrage Conference's Press Rulletin." which reaches our desk with pleasing regu larity, we are informed that in the matter of fashions "this year of grace, 1915, sounds a new departure from frills to enhance physical charms." "The Southern States' Woman Suffrage Conference's Tress Bulletin," speaking in mournful retrospect, says that "styles and fashions for women have dealt largely with frills and furbelows in the past. To he hooped like n barrel or confined in a skirt narrow as a pantaloon leg has been seriously discussed in columns of magazines and news papers. Sleeves bouffant or skintight re ceived their share of consideration. Through all the varying swelling and shrinking of frou-frou changes, the feminine note has been doll-like in expression." Of course, we would not undertake to op pose a merely masculine view, on a subject sn intimately feminine, to that of "The South ern States' Woman Conference's Press Bul letin.'' but we do cherish a timid belief that all is not lost. Despite the. influence of war on fashions despite even the influence of | the feminist movement on fashions?we shall continue to expect that whether sleeves shall be bouffant or skintight will receive a fair : share of the attention of the fair sex. The I other matters alluded to by "The Southern I States' Woman Suffrage Conference's Press Bulletin," which we would not dare to dis cuss without the protection of quotation marks, will not be forgotten, either. If they are, we shall be prepared to surrender our pliophetic license and close up that depart ment of the shop. The report that the apple trees in the. coun try. are breaking down under their load ?^f ; fruit makes pleasant reading, but buying an apple from a fruit peddler makes a different kind of thinking. The numerous automobiles that will go to the Kansas harvest by night, combined with the effulgence of the harvest moon, will make the farms of that State look like the Great White Way. Major-General (loethals will go to the Panama Exposition conditionally that he lie treated as a private citizen. The average private ei'izen usually treats himself. Count Oku ma resigned, but will remain in ti.f- .Japanese Cabinet by request This is not the story of all Premiers who resigned. The < upenie woman is to be a brunette and plump. Nevertheless, the blonde was and w.ll be the artist's style of beauty j According to recent reports there are over a million married men In the British army. ' What's lho answer*' SONGS AND SAWS. Simply Awful! Hehold the fierce Carranza, Whoso whiskers fill tho air! No crippled, halting stanza Can tell all ho would daro. His lilacs fairly bristle With valor and with rage, While through thorn mad winds whistle; His wrath naught can assuage; At this poor puny nation He shakes his fist in might And barks at all creation He docs not think will fight. He knows ho is a hero. Whose fame will live for aye, Though others mark him zero And laugh and laugh away. Now, as Carranza dares us. We wait with baited breath. My! how the old boy scares us? He scares us half to death! The PennimlNt Snys: "Faint heart ne'er won fair lady," but stout hearts have been known to become faint after the victory had been achieved. Snnrc for tlie ITnwnry. He ? Why does old Miss Tittletattie use an car trum pet? Is she deaf? She?Not a bit. She em ploys that Instrument as a bluff and to induce people to talk freely In her pres ence. A Tnlented Angler. Grubbs?Is .Tinks a successful fisherman? Stubhs?Eminently so. Why, he can make more of his friends believe his fish stories than can any one else in the club. .Simple Enough. "I suppose you have a great deal of difficulty in creating your heroes," said the ardent ad mirer to the lady novelist. "Not at all," said the great writer, sweetly. "I simple nssemble the attributes of half a dozen young men of my acquaintance and then make niy hero everything those young men aro not.-' TukIi Trugli. A street-car conductor named Hugh Was peeved were his car overdugh. "I just hate," he would say, "To pass folks in this way, But, late, .1 am likely to ruRrh." THE TATTLER. Chats With Virginia Editors Reviewing some of the glories of this great harvest year, the Fredejricksburg Star, never satisfied with good things, says: "Virginia next year should produce, twice as much wheat as was raised this year. If the prediction of the government is not upset between now and the corn harvest by some disaster to that important crop, the American farmer will receive more money for his product this year than ever be fore in the history of the country, and for onre, the Democrats being In power. Nature and the farmers will receive the credit which has here tofore been consistently appropriated in blcr crop years by the Republican party." There you have prosperity and politics combined. Here is a line from tho Danville Register: | "Watermelon days arc at their height. Tho i neprocs are keeping a watch on the rind." Roanoke, taking lessons from Richmond. .South Boston, Danville and some other wide awake Virginia towns, inaugurated a booster train venture, and it was a success all down in the Southwest section of Virginia. The Una-. nok?> World-News says: "When the trade train reaches home it will have a great record to re port. a history of interesting experiences to tell, but the most Impressive recital will be that which relates to the happy greeting's which the boosters received at every point and the cor- I dial understanding that grew and blossomed and fruited in the happy interchange of views." Of course the recent primary election is now old, not to say stale news, but the serenity of the Gordonsville Gazette on the subject is worthy of permanent record. The. Gazette says: "There was little excitement over the primary election held here Tuesday, the present incum bents being returned by a safe majority. Uittle disappointment was manifested by the partisans of the unsuccessful candidates, this being due largely to the fact that they were all good men and the public felt safe in entrusting their interests to whosoever might be the successful candidate." The Portsmouth Star is interested in the vol unteer militia or .State guard and asks editorial ly. "What is the matter with the volunteer mil itary organizations of this State? Commanding officers." it is added, "report that there is great apathy among the class of men they seek to interest in the national defense." In this con nection the Star says: "This organization should not be allowed to become weakened. It is now in such form that the men are paid for much of the service they were formerly called upon to perform gratuitously, and the misuse of the military power by ordering out the forces on the slightest provocation is a thing of the past, as it should he. Governors nowadays thor oughly inform themselves of the need of the military, which must be imperative, and too ap parent to be disregarded, before the civil power is supplanted by arms." Tho moral and indirect aid f'nrrnn/.a's be given by the United Time States government is quite suflici .. . to establish a new govern llns I assod mf.nt provided It Is composed of men entitled to the confidence of the Mexican people. Huerta was stronger than t'arranza, a better soldier and a more experienced administrator. !>ut he found the intangible oppo sition of the t.'nitod States loo strong to stand up against, Carranza would not last long as an enemy of a decent Mexican government, and | there is no reason why the United States or Mexico should waste time In trying to mollify him. lie had his opportunity, and, through stupidity, threw it away. Now that he is show ing his real colors as an enemy both of his own people and of Americans, his inglorious finish cannot come too soon for the welfare of his countrymen.? Washington I'ost. Courts that decide cases which With may he used later as precedents ,, , t with regard to contraband would , M , . save posterity trouble if they ( ontrnhniul f|jvided their Judgments into live parts, as follows: first. they j should explain that, they aro about to Rive a i decision: second, they should explain the decision they are about to give; third, they should give j the decision: fourth, they should explain that | they have Riven a decision: fifth, they should ex ! plain the decision they have given. In that way I even statesmen might get the drift of the court's Intention a feu years later.?New York Kvening ; Sun. Housekeepers who have re Whv Fond contly bad tho periodical experi ' U 'tiunvn Pno? of Pa>'lnK full prices for " ' ? produce while reading of crops Pear j0ft to rot ors tjie farms because there was no profit In market ; ing thein have naturally put the blame on the : dealer. No doubt that is where much of it ' belongs. Under an equitable system of mer , chandiHlng the dealor .should bo taking advan j tago of low prices at the farm and giving cus j tomers some benefit of them. But blaming the dealer doc.a not aoquit the housckccpor of com pllclty. An inquiry by tho World as to why farm produce is nearly always higher in New York than elsewhere shows that housekeepers are in large measure responsible. They aro indisposed to patronize tho municipal markets, where produce is always cheaper. They will not bind themselves to support co-operative methods of distribution. They are unable to take advantage of wholesalo prices for luck of home-storage facilities, and generally they havO not the ready money to buy In bulk. But tho vital point is their disinclination to go to tho inconvenienoe of buying whero prices aro lowest. If mora women shopped for food as they shop for dress goods, they could quickly correct many of the abuses of extortion.?New York World. It is true emigration has not Tho Demand hff0n as large as in past years; for Higher " ,s immigration has been below tho million mark of past WOgO yeara; jt ;s niso true Bome forget it takes 1,000.000 immigrants a year to make our wheels go 'round. It is neither immigration nor emigration which is the labor markets' safety valve. It is the difference be tween the two, the net sain. and this is woefully below past years. If the present ratio continues, we are at a standstill, and the wave of industrial prosperity must, as it rolls along, bring further labor troubles and additional demands for higher wages.?Wall Street Journal. News of Fifty Years Ago (Prom Newspaper Files. August 13. ) General Grant, while in Quebec. Canada, the other day. said?or is reported to have said? that ihe Mexican situation was getting acute, and in consequence he. as general commander of all of the armies of the United States, had placed 100,000 men on the Rio Grande, acting as an army of observation. General Grant added ] that the French would have to leave Mexico. I peaceably If they chose, but forcibly, if they , preferred, and if need be. This expression on j the part of fJeneral Grant may account for h'.s short stay in Quebec, which, be it remembered, j is much of a French town. A Washington dispatch states that there were j 1.050,000 men In the United States armies on ; tho 1st of May last, since which time some- ? thing more than 700,000 men have been dis- 1 charged, leaving still In the military service 1 SfiO.OOO men or more. Fifty thousand more than 1.OOP.000 men. and all well armed, well equipped and well fed. Of course, the South could not. stand tip against that kind of a force. A report comes to Richmond that Colonel John Singleton Mosby has been arrested by order of Major-Gencral Augur, the commandant of what Is at present called the Washington Military Din- j trict. On what charge Mosby has been called ! for no one knows, and he does not know himself. ? | He heard that his arrest had been ordered, and j without waiting for any explanation he left his j home In Culpeper and hurried to Alexandria, where he went through tho ridiculous form of ' surrendering himself, and requested ;he Feder.il authorities to "crack their whip." It remains to be seen what the "cracking" will mean. The New York Times says: "The friends of Mr. Davis in Washington, and especially the friends of Mrs. Davis, the wife of th?' President of the late Confederacy, are circulating a sub scription list for the benefit of Mrs. Davis, it being intimated that she Is in reduced circum stances. Mrs. Davis recently made application at the War Department for permission to visit her husband at Fortress Monroe, but her re quest has not yet been granted. Among the applications for pardon that re cently went before the President of the United States was that of Ilershel V. Johnson, of ("ieorfiia, who was th" candidate for the position of Vice-President of the United States on the ticket headed by Stephen A. Doustlas in ISfirt The application m-as presented in person by , Mrs. Stephen A. Douglas, and President John- | son granted It promptly. The work on tho Norfolk and Petersburg ? railroad Is said to b<- progressing wonderfully, j and It is now announced that trains will be running through from Norfolk straight to Pe tersburg within two weeks. General F.well and his wife have, reached their home in Prince William County and settled down to th?- good old country life. The old Rolllngbrooke Hotel, of Petersburg, ? has been reopened. The war s?-ars are still on the walls, both inside and outside, but the j nollinpbtv?oke, sort)' thing like a century old, i is still the fjreat hotel, and none of the bullets j or cannon balls have disarranged the grand old j kitchen, where the best of cooking has always | been done. There are now in Richmond 1S5 licensed bar rooms where the dealers are privileged to sell by the drink. There are also lfi^ retail stores in which the proprietors can sell in any retail quantity, the same "not to be drunk where sold." The Voice of the People HuftKln1* Pnrt In the Wnr. To thr t'riitor of The Times-Pispntch: Sir.?I: spf-ms to me that Russia in the hour of her hitter shame and humiliation is scarcely receiving the credit and sympathy which she deserves. I think it Is plain to Intelligent ob server.- i>f this war that Russia saved Paris Inst fall?the victory of the Marne hei|g a mere tie lion of the British press agent Russia was I the first of F.neland's allies to take the offensive. The rapidity of her mobilization and the sud denness of hf'r Invasion of East Prussia spoiled the German plan for the sudden overwhelming of France The Russian soldier, poorly equipped, poorly trained and poorly led. Invaded Germany and fought several great. but disastrous, bat tles upon German soli. She overran Galictn, i,apf;ir('d its great fortified Vieies, and Inst spring was knocking at the Carpathian passes and threatening the plain of Hungary. That she has l<".*t the fruits of her heroic sacrifice and is now hurled in confusion and overwhelming disaster across her own borders Is due not so much to her own fault as to the total inactivity and inaptitude of England in the west. Russia has lost mor? men than all the rest of England's allies combined France has made the bravest effort, as her great losses plainly show, hut France Kicks the physical power for the final punch. The ridiculous ens'* with which Ger many has heU| Kngland nnd her allies hy the throat with one hand in the west while thrash ing Russia with the other shows plainly what little assistance Kngland has given her allies. AVith the extinction of Russia passed the last glirnrnerinc: liope of England's allies. The re cent report from Petrograd?patently false though it is?that Germany has offered Russia peace is highly significant. Russia is looking for a soft place to fall. Tt will soothe Russian pride to have it appear that the offer of peace came not from her. Your correspondent. "E. T. K.," In your ii-sue of the 10th instant enume rates with great apparent pride "the things that England has not <lor.e." T dispute with no man England's primacy In the realm of things not done. The chief thing. however, that England has not done, cannot posslblv do. is?Germany. THOMAS LOMAX IIUXTER. King George. Va.. August 11. 1015. Queries ancl Answers fiencrn 1 ntz l.e'r. Please tell me when General Kit as L<co was born and died, what years he was Governor, the family name of Mrs. I zee and how many children are now llvltjg. T. H. E. November 10, M3n. April 28. 100R. From January, 188(1 to January, 1800. Fowle. Five. Siunnc. Referring to your recent statement about sumac, I write to say that there are sumac buyers In Farmville, Va., who pay 75 cents per 100 for clean, well-cured leaves. S. If our correspondent will do so, we Khali he glad to have him send address of such buyers for the benefit of persons who may write for it. Poll Tot. Are veterans legally bound to pay poll tax? W. C. G. They are except those on the State pension rolls. Tnoy are explicitly exempted. JVnmc of lldttle. Can you tell me what battle it was the name of which begins "Prlmol." the Inst letters being Illegible In the old lotter? If possible, give ? late, the letter being dated October 1, 170f>. PETERSBURG. The dictionaries give but one title which fits i yrtur letters, tho battlo of Primolano, of Napo leon's Italian campaigns, fought September 7, 1706, when he surprised and routed tho van of ' tho AustrlAne* undor Wurmucr. The First Exponent of the Theory of "Unpreparedness" Ono of tlio Day's Best Cartoons. ?AYDTTB JJ.YEAI, iHiarEVDANT. THE AMF.IUCAN PACIFICIST ROMANCE OF THE KOHINOOR nv GARiinrr i\ Not lonpc ago a friend asked me to I rtnommcnd to him a pood story, f'.ill of mystery and romance, with which lie could while away the tedium of nn <ntlre day of solitude, during which he would "not have a soul (o jrpeak to." Concealing my opinion of the desper ate state of the humnn being who can not. find sufficient material in his own i mind to carry lum through a sincrle diurnal period, I replied: "Then read Wllkio Collins'? 'Mofin Stone.'" "By Jove'" he said. slapplnsr his l"c, "the name alone takes me' Is i? about the adventure? of some famous dia* ] mond or other pern?" "Yes." "Then I'll sure read it. Much ohlieed." The enthusiasm of my friend for the romance of precious stones expresses a curious passion that lies deep in hu nnn nature. We all like to hear about diamonds rubies, emeralds and o'hep rare gems. even in the abstract; *nd when it mm's to particular stone-* that have centered the fates of kingdoms about themselves, have inspired |>?ot:? involving Queens and Kinps. have made the fortunes or caused the fr\H of prent officers of Ftate. and have even led to wars and other public calamities, the interest becomes in tense. In fact, the sober histories of not a few famous previous stones are more lnterestlnp than any invented f t orv. Take, for instance, that, great dln mond whose fame Js dimly present in everybody's memory. tin- Kohinoor. "The Mountain of Lif?ht," as the In dian imnplnation pictured it in its name The story of the Kohinoor runs through the history of India, in its most romantic and trapic days. like a thread of fire, pleamlnp frequentlj with the color of blood' When its wonderful rays first shone into the eyes of men ve do not know with anv certainty, but tradition savs It was already famous r.,ooo years ago, and played a part In the heroic scenes described in the Indian epic, the Ma habharata. It may have been as hip as nn "tR originally, for it is said to have weitrhed 793 carats when it made Its first nppearnnce in recorded history, In the time of Ala-ed-Dln, the Ottoman conqueror, who took It to Delhi in th" fourteenth century. He Is said to have obtained it from a rajah named Ma'.wa. whose family had possessed it for aces In 162fi Baber, descendant of Tamer lane and Oenphls, captured it at A era. ?\ccordlnp to historical statements. It had, by that time been greatly diminished in size by the operations of diamond cutters. socking to improve Its form and brilliance. In lfi73 the Grand Mogul showed it to the celebrated traveler, Tavernier, and then it weighed 273 carat*. In 1733 the Persian usurper. Nadir Shah, narked Delhi and hunted for the famous diamond amor.? the spoils. It had he.en cunningly con. coaled, but a member of the Mogul Kmpernr's harem revealed Its hiding place She said her m after had It sewed uj> inside hiB turban. Nadir Shah took a humorous Instead of a bloody way to obtain It. He Invited his prisoner to exchange turbans with him and insisted upon It as a token of the high personal regard which he felt for the unfortunate monarch-. After various adventures in Persia the groat diamond was taken to Kabul, again ns the spoil of war, ami Unman Shah was Its proud possessor for a few years until his brother, Shujah Shah, put out his eyes and took his kingdom. Rut the Kohinoor had disappeared, and Shujah could not find It. until one day an officer happened to scratch his hand on the plaster wall of the room In which Raman was con fine'! He looked closely and saw a pierrlnjj gleam. Further examination r< vealcd the Kohinoor where Raman had imbedded It. From Kabul the diamond went by devious and sometimes bloody ways to Lahore, and it was there when the infant monarch Dhuleep Singh in 1M1* surrendered his crown and kingdom to the Rtiglish and sen' the Kohinoor as a token of his submission to Queen Victoria. The famous stone was found to be badly cut, according to Kuropean tdeis. and it contained flaws It was sent, under guard, to Amsterdam, a ppeclril machine was made to rccut It. and aft er a few weeks of crlndlng, the Duke of Wellington having started th<* mill, the great Kohinoor was transformed, so that It would no longer have been re<-o^nlzed bv the Klnss. Rmperors and conquerors who. during so many cen turies, had fought and plotted for its possession Th? Kohinoor Is now an oblong, many-faceted brilliant, about an Inch and three-eighths in length, and weighing about 106 carats. Queen Victoria had it In a brooch. Rs model, looking like a real diamond, Is to be seen in the exhibition of royal jewel* in the Tower of London. There is no set value for these great stones, but. Judging from the prlcos that have sometimes been paid, the Kohinoor must he worth at least hnlf a million dollars, and perhaps much more. The Cullir.an. found in South Africa and split into nine big gems, exceeds the Kohinoor In size, but the lattfcr's historical Interest, is unique. AN AMERICAN In Bryn Athyn, a village about fifteen miles from Philadelphia, a cathedrnl is being nuilt which promises to stand unique among the buildings of its kind. The village got its name from n col ony composed of members of the Swe denborjsian church, who settled there about twenty years ago. Tn 1S54 this church established a college In Phila delphia for the purpose of training ministers. Hut in 1S!>5 it was moved to the newly founded colony, and the village has been built round the col lege. A few years ago it was decided to build a new chapel for the college, and out of this need grow the cathe dral Idea, which promises to set a new standard of church building in this country. "Wealthy members of the col ony agreed to furnish funds to erect a cathedral which would stand, not as a monument to the builders or the donors or the churoh, but as a monument to the architectural skill of the age. The first plans included the importation of skilled workmen from Kuropean coun tries, but this was abandoned, when it bccamo evident that there were men in this country qualified to do the work. Thi first step was to build a road from the sito of the cathedral to a quarry about a mile distant, from which all the stone Is taken. All the wood used In the. cathedral is also taken from the woods lying about the village. Then the country was searched for skilled artisans, who were suited to the needs of the architects. They responded eagerly, and from the large number of applicants enough men of unusual ability wcro selected to carry the work forward. The foundation is of con crete, extending down to bedrock, but the concretc work stops with the foun dation. A set of preliminary plans was prepared by a prominent Arm of New York architccts, and several models of the structure were made from the plans. Two shops were built near the site of the building, and then the ac tual work of construction was begun. This was two years ago, and to-day it Is announced, -in a description of the building printed In the New Tork Sun, that the work Is littlo more than well under way. No account of time is taken. The men are impressed with the fact that they are not pounding CATHEDRAL stone so much an hour, but are work ing on a specimen of cathedral art which will stand for generations as something their descendants can be proud of. One of the shops is given over to the preparation of models of the details of the cathedral. Small models are first prepared, and after they seem to suit their purpose full size models In plas ter of Paris or clay are made and placed in position in the building. The carving: is traced in pencil, and the effect is studied by the committee hav ing the work in charge. When the model is pronounced correct it is taken to the other shop and made into stone or wood, as the work requires, and then made a part of the building. It was in this manner that the cathedrals of roedievtal times were built, and this plan will he followed until the Sweden borgian cathedral stands a completed work. The builders never lose sight of the finished appearance of the building, and its relation to its surroundings, and so determined are they to make it In truth a work of art that they have declared that if the finished building does not come up to expectations it will be razed and done over. No two of the windows are alike in detail. There is a general resemblance, but the carving and other details are the work of different men and made from different designs. Softness of line has been obtained by employing the old Greek scheme of curving the walls. The church Is wider by ten inches at the center than at the ends, and the great columns which mark the aisles are not in straight line. A winding stairway has been completed which was recently pronounced by about 100 architects who inspected it to bo the. finest piece of Gothic in this country. The height of the roof called for in the original plans has been raised three times, each time to accommodate some now project for adding to the beauty of the whole church. The feature that has encour aged the efforts of the builders more than anything else, however, is the in terest displayed by the stonecutters, who had never before had an oppor tunity to give expression to their latent talent. They have been so im pressed with the workmanship that they do not hesitate to advance the opinion that the way has been pre pared for a new era In church building in this country.