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1?1CLI MONO TI M KS-DISPATCH: SUNDAY, OCTOBER 31. 1915.
Can Hear and Locate a Submarine way; the Nets That Catch It, Like a Fish Bombs of the Submersible? ?6 ?An I p-to-lhe-Minute French Soldier, Who Looks Very Different Indeed from Any Other Soldier of Any Other War. On Mis Head Is the Skull Cap of Steel Which Protects Him from Glancing Shrapnel And Bullets. Across His Chest, Protecting His itnl Organ?, Is a Fairly Serviceable "Bullet Proof" Cuirass. He Carries in His Hands Gren ades, and Grenades of Another Type Are Fastened About His Waist. His Revolver Is Siting from Hip Left Wrist. Hanging Down His Back, Slung from His Neck. Is His Respirator Mask, Which Protects Him Against Poisonous Gases. WIIK'MKVKIt side wins or whichever side loses in 'ho groat war now being fought in the battle (if'ds of Kurope, generals, admirals, wise gen rirl stalls and even the fighting men will not l>" respon sible for either victory or defeat. Victory or defeat v. ill come from the laboratories of the scientists ot the nations now struggling with e.tch other. From tiie first It was apparent th:it tills war was to be not only the greatest the world has ever known, but thai it was to be fought on entirely different lines than any other war. During the lorty year, of peace which preceded the great conflict science had developed with astonishing rapidity and ruled the world When peace ended science stepped naturally m as the genius of av;ir as it had been of peace. Men became secondary?agents only to wield the de ? rueiivr forces that science put into their hands, or "iiiiits" 10 Ijp destroyed hy otlu i destructive forces w|ii.-h tlie science of their opponents directed against 1 tiejj, Science put into the field poisonous gases, liquid fire. r::-pliy\iai;ng bombs and shells, electrically charged do ff uses which slay like lightning, new engine:, of war? tlx gun-bearing, bomb-dropping, scouting aeroplanes ?nd the venomous submarines. Moving done this, science necessarily iad to devise imv.ns of combating Pie deadly things sin );;.<! invented Vir* : o we now have the ;?:.:oni.>!ri,^ >?;,< < ta< I. of M'icicf continually fighting science in the most cruelly ' ientjfjc war the world has ever known. And therefore it is that for the hrst time, perhaps, history generals, admirals and. as has been said, ' ?n the fighting men themselves arc .subordinate in war they are waging. Not even Nelson standing is bridge could have devised way?- to combat the ? rine. But a little palefaced, spectacled man who not know onn naval gun from another, working quiet of his laboratory, is the one to be called devise ways to destroy the submarine, en Napoleon could have gained vi. icy in the ic poisonous gases, liquid fire and the asphyxi ts. Put a .sioopcd-.shouldercd, weak-eyed little ' v ho would collapse at the first sound of the he one to be called upon to devise defenses nd liquid flames, and perhaps invent far r ''' ' * in retaliation. x : war on land and 30a are not ihe ones that lli?? nations call now lo dptcnd (Item or to destroy their pnemles. It Is the expert who Is consulted. and of whose discoveries and inventions the men of war are equally the servants and the prey. And at any moment, from one laboratory or another, may come a discovery or invention which will he so far in advance of anything now being employed in the way of offensive or defensive equipment that the war will bp hroupht to a speedy conclusion. Certainly ar. sensationally scientific as anything the ?ar has brought forth has been the submarine as it has been used by Germany in her warfare against Eng land. Germany's avowed intention was to cut off Eng land from the rest of the world by a ring of lmder b"r boats thrown around the islands, sinking every \essel that they could, and. if possible, starving out the entire population of Great Britain. At first it*seemed as though Germany had a fair chance to succeed. The battleships, the destroyers and nil the complex assortment of Sighting ships that go lo make up a navy were more or less helpless. Then science, which hail created the submarine to destroy, began to seek means to destroy the submarine. II Is certain that within the last six months front seventy to eighty of Germany's I-boats as these under sea rovers are called, have been destroyed by means of various devices which the scientists of the allies have found and put into practise. These devices are many- the steel nets which catch the submarines like fish, the final inn obstructions, the mines, but the most scientific of all and the most efficient is a little elec trical device which can be carried in one's hand and which has been described for t'tis newspaper by Pr. William Dubillier. an American electrical engineer. who has attained great scientific distinction through his achievements in wi relets research, whose aid v.as sought by the allies to perfect the instrument in ques tion and who has just returned to America after in stalling the device along ihe coasts of France and of England. This device is known as the "submarine detector." lis object i.s to discover the approach of a submarine and to locate it definitely. 11 i.<, in fact, a mechanical ear which catches and magnifies sounds cr vibratiojis that the human ear cannot catch. In its present state of development it can "hear" over an area of twenty-five miles, but it is quite probable that before long the approach of a submarine one hundred miles away may be definitely revealed and Us exact location fixed by this mechanism. What Makes the "Detector" Possible The submarine detector Is made possible by the fact that every onjeel in motion sends forth, by its vibra tions, a definite and dominant note. This note is the sum total of all the factors which contribute to the vibrations. An instance will make this clear. If you li\o near a railroad you will notice that every train has its distinctive "rush and roar" as it approaches and passes the head of your street. Tills roar or note is made up of every particle o? the train?the lo comotive. the cars, the wheels?while it is ener gized and in motion. This sound is developed and modified by the rai's, the character of the roadbed, tho character of the country, and even the structure and height of the buildings which are proximate to the moving train. The express has one sound, the local another, the first milk train another and the second milk train still another. Every trolley car has its own distinctive, dominant note. Objects? such as vessels moving in water each has its own dominant note. Among the vessels the. sub marine's compound of vibrations lias a very dis tinctive note and these vibrations ex tat even when the submarine is deeply submerged. They are carried by the water, which carries sound far more clearly and easier than air, to a great distance. These sounds the submarine detector gathers In, magnifies and transmits to the ear of the listener How the submarine is located after it Is heard will be told later. As has been snld. the principle upon which the "detector" works is very simple and is merely that a ve:-sel in motion transmits sound waves through the water which circulate in all directions. Ear more sensitive than the human ear drum, how ever. is the ordinary microphone which is used in the transmitter of a telephone and which constitutes the basis of (he detector. A noise which would be inaudible to the human ear because too far away would readily set up vibrations in a microphone much further away than the human ear. in connexion wiih the microphone as used In the detector, however, is another remarkable electrical de vice. known as the !>e Forest audion. which amplifies the sound waves communicated (o the microphone no less than 10,000 times! The mechanism oi the detector consists primarily of a microphone enclosed in a cylindrical cast-steel casing about twelve inches Ions, which it-- attached to a sta tionary steel rod twenty feet below (he surface of the water. The front of this casing consists of a diaphragm of steel about ono-thlrty-second of an inch thick, which vibrates ar. a result of .sound waves transmitted at any poin( within a radius of twenty-five miles. The vibra tlon of this diaphragm sets up a vibration In another and parallel diaphragm fronting a resonance tube, and that vibrating diaphragm In turn transmits the Bound wave to a third diaphragm, which cun-les It to the diaphragm of the microphone. The microphone con verts the vibration Into electrical energy and transmits It through elcctrlcal wires to the audlon located In the station above, which amplifies It 10.000 times and repro duces It. In the form of sound. In the diaphragm of the receiving instrument held constantly to the ear of the operator lu charge. These "listening stations," for that Is what thev amount to. are about five miles apart. As soon as a submarine comes within twenty-five mile? of the first station. Its approach Is at once revealed to the operator In charge through a receiver which he holds constantly to his ear like a teHephone operator. By experiments conducted by Dr. Duhelller and his associates, the characteristic vibrations we note of every type of vessel has been standardized. To the operator on watch, w ho has "tuned in" and picked up a submarine, for instance, the sound is that of n shrill whistle. The sound wave of a torpedo-boat destroyer, again. Is longer and. therefore. Its musical note is much lower in the scale. The sound-wave of an ordinary steamship is longer still, and the noise produced In the detector is that of a deep bass note. Having "picked up" a vessel in the offing nnd defin itely ascertained by its characteristic note that it is a submarine, the next thing tor the operator to do Is tn locate it so that one or more of the various means oX submarine attack may be put In motion. The first sten is to notify the operator tn charge of the next station to try to "pick up" the oncoming sub marine. or, in other words, to "tune in'' or listen most attentively for the first faint notes of its characteristic whistle. As soon as two stations have definitely "picked up" the submarine, the problem of ascertaining the sub marine's exact location, its direction and its rate of speed becomes a very simple mathematical problem. The "detector" can be turned in any direction by the operator. As soon as he "picks up" a submarine, there fore. he turns the detector in variuun directions until he gets the loudest noise, an indication that the sub marine is then in direct line. Having obtained that angle of direction, and the operator at the next station having in a similar way obtained the ans;le of direction from his station, the known distance between the two stations makes it a simple matter to complete and measure the triangle, the apex of which represents the submarine. In less time than It takes to tell, an aeroplane is dispatched to the point indicated and a bomb, dropped on the submerged submarine, or, if this is not feasible, a flotilla of speedy motor boats, armed with two-Inch guns. is.sent after the submarine to trail it and either destroy it when It comes to the surface or drive it into the specially-devised nets which have been installed in the English Channel and whu h will hereafter be described. So far It has been possible to use the detector only at land stations. Its maximum of usefulness will not be attained, of course, until it can be carried and ope rated from every battleship as well, but so far the scien tists have been unable to overcome the obstacle pre sented on vessels by the noise and vibration of the vessels themselves. How the "Mechanical Ear" Has Crashed Submarine War As It Is, however, the "detector" has accomplished wonders. A glance at the map of Europe will show that there are only two ways by wftich German sub marines can reach the Atlantic Ocean and the sea lanes traversed by the bulk of England's maritime commerce. One is to the south of England by way of the English Channel and the other Is to the north of Scotland through tlie-North Sea. either between the Orkney and Shetland Islands or north of the latter. The most direct route, of course, is the former. That avenue has now been absolutely closed to Germany by means of the "submarine detector." The passageway to the north still remains open, but here too the won derful little instrument has been used to good purpose. It has been installed on the Orkney and Shetland Islands and no hostile submarine can now safely pass between them, and It has so narrowed the passageway between the Shetland Islands and the Danish coast that the al lies' patrol boats have now but a very restricted area to cover. It has been asked how an aeroplane can destroy a submerged ?.submarine, the point being made that a bomb dropped from the air would strike the water with such force that the impact would be sufficient to ex plode the bomb on the surface before it ever reached the submarine, perhaps thirty or forty feet below. "There Is little difficulty in that direction." Dr. Du billt. r explained. "In the first place, the explosion of a powerful bomb on the surface of the water would prob ably be sufficient in itself to crush a submarine as if it were an eggshell, even though It were submerged thirty or forty feet below the surface. "Hut, as <e matter of fact, they are using In Europe a specially constructed bomb, which is designed to over come the very condition referred to, and It works splendidly. This bomb If pear-shaped. and falls with the more bulky end downward. The lower end of th<? bomb is provided with a cap or nose, which unscrews when It strikes the water and exposoe a needle or per cussion pin. The bomb cannot explode utiiil that per cussion pin Is struck a heavy blow such as follows from contact with ? heavy object The bomb Is equipped with fins, which carry It downward through the water at n greut speed and cause It to strike what ^ ever It encounters with great force. "The principal reliance of the allies In guarding thp English Channel against hostile submarines, after they ^ have been located. Is a fleet of speedy motor boats armed with 2-Inch guns. Ab soon as a submerged submarine has been located by means of the "detector" a flotilla of the-je boats Is sent out to trail the intruder until it comes up for air or to generate energy for lt? storage battery, or is driven Into one of the nets which have been strung across the Channel at various points. "Jt might be explained here that a submarine Is pro pelled while on ?lie surface by an internal combustlou engine, hut while submerged it receives its power from a storage battery, which is charged by the combustion engine when the boat is above the water. "When a submarine's storage battery runs out. there fore, tlie vessel must eith? r remain motion! : s he neath the water or come up to replenish the battery by means of its internal combustion ?ngfne In the (its' event the motor boats have only to wait, and in the. second event ihev can tnak." short work of the sub marine with I heir 2-inch projectiles. How Submarines Are "Netted" Like Fish "The nets which have been referred to as guarding the Channel are attached to floating buoys, which pre more or less stationary. While they do no* completely close the Channel to submarine navigation, the open ings or passageways in the net? are known only to the Admiralty otfieinls. and it is impossible for a submarine to navigate the Channel -.afeiv without the aid of an Admiralty pilot, who knows just where the openings .ire. "Capturing a submarine which has become en-narcd in one of the Channel nets is a very simple matter. The nets are made of s'eel and ah.o of rope abo it one and a hall inches thick. If a piece of this rope gets around a submarine's propeller, the submarine Is doomed, even though the vessel succeed in extricating itself from the net. "As a matter of fact, howpfer. the vessel usually re mains in the net like a fly in a spider's web. the fact be ing made known.to 'he Allies' petrol boats by the con sequent disarrangement of the surface-buoys from which the netting is suspended." Another way of netting ?he submarine, quite different from that practiced in the channel. Is being carried on in the open sea. The submarine's great weakness is its dependence for sight upon its periscope. The greatest range of the periscope when it is running flush with the surface Is about eleven miles. There are all about the submarine ^one a number of swift destroyers. As these boats ride higher In the water, the lookout can see a suh marine much further ofT than the submarine can see the boats. It would be impossible, however, for the de stroyers to creep up on the submarine into effective firing distance without being seen. The destroyers, do not try tc. instead, they carry strong steel nets with meshes about twenty feet apart. These nets are attached to buoys, and when the sub marine Is sighted its course is at once charted. The de stroyers, working in pairs, then carefully steam around the submarine toward the point where it is bound, being careful to keep out of range of the periscope eye. When they reach a certain distance ahead of the course the. undersea boat is plainly following, the nets, which have been suspended from special booms between the two vessels, are dropped. By the time the undersea hoat gets to the place where the nets have been dropped the weight of the wire has carried the nets down to about the depth that the sub marine Is travelling. The undersea boat runs Into them, and. Inextricably tangled, turns turtle and sinks. Of course, the submarine .will somelimes change Its course, and In that case the destroyers patiently chart the new course and throw over still other nets. Diagram Illustrating the Mechanism of the Microphone Portion of the "Submarine Detector.'* PiEEC T i ^ P-OD iHI.Of SONUNCf , lusr v.; s i :a- t.tcr.t.o WIT" t.'F ?rcf ivinc, >PASfc 1 US How Color and Optical Effects Are Used to Lure, to Ambush and to Protect T ATURE uses many ruses 'o protect its creatureG. " protective roloralion A large number of ani mals whleh?infest 'ho jungle, for instance, arc colored and patterned in sifbh a way that !.h??y naturally blend with the landscape and thus escape the observation of their enemies. This is true also of many birds, flsh, reptiles and insert ?. .Science lias taken !'.s cue from nature in thin re spect in many of the ruvrs which it has introduced into the present war in Europe. A* has been explained elsewhere on this nage, science is playing an important, although Inconspicuous?, part in the conduct 01' the great conflict. and one of the directions in which u has proved most valuable is in devising new color and optical ef fects to confound the enemy. Both on sfa and land, the employment of such ruses has proven very effective on both sides. Obsolete mer chant vessels have, been rigged up and painted to re semble war vessels with varying purposes. In the first One of the most common among wild animals is place, (hoy have boon used as decoys (o invite attack from enemy submarines in the event of which a supe rior naval force in immediately notified by wireless and rapidly brought to the scene, and, in the second place, these vessels have been used as "scare crows" to frighten off approaching enemy vessels. Karly In the war, for instance, the German cruiser Emden accomplished a most spectacular feat by adding an extra funnel and making various other changes In its general appearance so that it very closely resembled a Japanese war vessel. Under this guise, it calmly sailed into an Asiatic port and before the deception was noticed destroyed a French and a Russian war vessel and made its escape unscathed. The English navy has used similar ruses with great effect against German submarines. The principal ob stacle in the way of meetiiv# the submarine menace, of course, lies in locating these vessels, and to induce them to come to the surface England has tried various plan$. One of the. cleverest was suggested by an English scientist who has made a particular study of color and optical efforts. A British battleship was so painted and its sky line so disguised that at a distance of severnl miles it would readily be mistaken for a merchant ves sel. In this way enemy submarines were lured Into coming within range of Its big guns long before they discovered the trap into which they were headed. On land, tho effects of color and form have proveu of even greater value. The Germans gave us the first indications of their reliance upon this phase of modern warfare by clothing their men In a light-green uniform, whoso color easily blended with the prevailing land scape, and tho French soon followed their adversary's example by abandoning their traditional red trousers and dark blue tunics for a uniform of sky blue. These things are of particular importance, in view of the vitally important part which tho aeroplane scout is playing in the war. To keep out of range of tho -ntl-aircraft guns, these scouts, who besides spying upon A Diagram Must an Un the enemy's movemei the gun-fire during er paratively great hefg' To confuse the ei of the country, and t* munitions and the lot portance, and the scl been repeatedly call these lines. To render valuele enemy, whole forests localities, and famon and reconstructed on covered so that to t above they resemble and streams his map Flylrtg at a comp very distorted