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yk<y ^.v. V '^V,. /, -V.v?v. v v v ' 4] wVvJk i'lvR 4 v? -i. ;?- -*>;.?& V">???< V/ >c>"iV: - v~.: - When the Big Hoy Says "Lem-me Look in Yer Basket or I'll Punch Yer Face!"?What Should the Smaller Boy Do? Shall He Surrender, Tamely; Whimper and Plead: Drop His Basket and Itun?or Stand His - CJround and Defend His Prop erly at (he Risk of Being Rough ly Handled? Have You Told \our Boy Just What to Do in Such an Emergency? IF .i youncr r.iffnn tries to pick a row wi?h your little boy .Johnny, shouting. "Von humped into me! I am going to i-mash you 111 the no.-e!" what is the correct, thing for little .Johnny to do un der such circumstances? If a neighborhood huliy grabs your lit* * fie Tommy's bag of marble-?what should lift].- Tommy say and do about it? i* soibh strange boy, girl or grown-up person attempts cajoleries with your daughter Mary?what is Mary to do and say under the many different circim stances which may arise? Have you carefully instructed .Johnny and Tommy and Mary on what to do und- ? .1 ; i'es:e various unexpected sit uation - | emergencies which are con fron';:it: boys and girl-'.' How can chil dren ? i xiicct'-d to face intelligently and ari ndvisedly in thes. lmio daily trage dies i ? life unless they arc instructed? Hfn i- a tu-ld of practical instruction which has been overlooked. In ?:ie Japanese schools of Hawaii a clever ?it'< !U|it is made to solve this proh* leti: by nutans <.f colored pictun i illus trating Die model conduct expected of rhil in all sor's <?: fituati'ms and emergencies. The pictures are scattered over the walls of the schoolrooms and at frequent intervals are changed, it is a method of character education. In the schools of the Cnited States thero is n > such thing as character edu cation a fact that is measurably account ah!- tor the large percen'age of young people who grow up into dishonest", law let.'; or otherwise undesirable citizens. Such education is a fundamental need of th" nation, it is impossible for the child to protect its own interests in matters concerning character development. There fore. in matters of the kind it has a right to look to teachers and parents for help and guidance, intelligently given. Mr. Milton Falrchild, of Washington, D. is at the head of an important movement looking to solution of the problem. He. is a man of original ideas, and one of them is represented by a camera of novel construction, made by himself, with which he has already taken. 3.500 snapshots of street scones showing children as actors in just such accidental episodes and emergencies as are here spoken of?for instance, boy fights, at tempted bullying?, little chaps "hooking" things, boys pitching pennies and soon. In no case are the pictures "posed" for the camera. They are scenes front real life, each one of ttiem involving a "char acter problem." The camera used (which ran take thirty-six photographs a min ute) is made to look like a small suit (ase. so that the children who appear in the pictures have no warning that they are being "snapped." For example, one picture shows a small hoy carrying a basket home to his mother. A larger boy wants to look into the basket and grab something. The lit tle I el low has a choice among several courses of procedure. He can yell for "mamma"; lie can bargain; he can whim per and beg; ho can leave the basket and run home. But the picture shows that he docs none of these things. He holds a stick in his hand and confronts tho big ger boy. determined to protect his prop erty. Who can doubt that he has solved the problem rightly? it is a test of char acter. Colored drawings, such as those used in the Hawaiian schools, are well enough, but drawings are dead things. Photo graphs ot tiio kind here described are. alive and real. Children do not get tired of them. When they are thrown on a screen by the stercopticon tas thev aro going to he used in schools ail over the country before long) they instantly gain the most interested and enthusiastic at tention. J hey are. at once recognized ns the "real stuff." and the character les sons they convey produce a correspond ingly vivid impression. Another picture shows a group of boys who have "hooked" a barrel belonging to a poor woman. It. is her ash-barrel, nnd 6he cannot easily replace it. They want, it to make a bonfire. Rut a policeman lias caught them in the act and they are trying to 'lie out of it. It is obvious that the boys have done a mean and un worthy thing and that lying oniv makes it worse. When children understand that they are to receive moral instruction, they ex 4 This hoy and girl are at a dangerous ace, unless their outlook on life is prop erly directed. They are on the verge of manhood and womanhood. If your Mary and the n ighbor's hoy. Jack, are not well-controlled morally, tragic mis chief may result. .lust what have you told your Mary about character educa tion as a vital necessity? peel n "goody-goody" talk. They sus pect it to he more or less humbug and are not much impressed. But throw a picture of an actual boy fight on thA screen and I hey are interested at once It is wonderful to see bow their fares change. They know that they are nor, being fooled. It is the real tiling. One picture shows a boy at the head of his "crowd." crossing a street to pick a fight with another, boy. The other boy makes no response; he goes on home. He is not a coward, hut he sees no oc casion for fighting. It is no reason to fight just because another boy wants to fight. If a fellow i= actually attacked he must, of course, defend himself man fully. Any teacher or mother, once having grasped the idea, ran find pictures in newspapers and magazines?pictures out. of real life?that she ran utilize for char acter instruction. A Sunday school teacher might profitably cut out the pic tures on this page, paste them separately on pieces of cardboard and pass them around among hrr pupils, with a lew words of descriptive comment. Another of Mr. Kairchild's photographs shows a backyard devoted to boyhood in dustry. A hoy. on his knees, is melting iron in a little blast-furnace that he has built himself, lie. is casting wheels for a miniature street car which he is mak ing for the purpose of studying out tho operation of real vehicles of tho kind by electricity. Incidentally, though be does not know it, bis industry is develop ing his character. Can there be a doubt that this boy will succeed in what he un dertakes in life? A child's character grows stronger or weaker according as the right or wrong solution is adopted for the conduct epi sodes that confront him. Pictures that touch on real life?the life of the child? make the problems vital and concrete, and the lesson r? they convey impress chil dren's minds with proportionate strength. One. photograph shows a group of boys pitching pennies "for keeps." It is very bad education for them. For one thing, It means loafing, which weakens char Which one of your boys is iiv this crowd? Of course, vou feci perfectly sure that your Jimmie is not a gambler. But is he a little loafer? And if Jimmie loafs around and keenly watches the gamblers, how long will it be before Jimmie himself is a gambler? Exactly what have you said to him not onlv about gambling but about loafing around among street gamblers? " ' ; *-p- ?:__r_*r*? :**-r'i'?v.?? ??? L-i&ffl&Sffl-. ... _.. 1J Only Two Little Girls Pulling and Hauling and Struggling for the Posses sion of a Skipping Rope. Pretty Soon There Will Be, Perhaps, Scratch ing, Biting. Kicking and Pulling Hair. Have You Explained to Your Little Girl How Foolish It Is to Have a Squabble of This Kind?How Much Belter Time They Would Have if They Compromised on a Possi ble Basis and Played Hope Together Peaceably? actor, just a?, on the other hand, indus try builds it up. Gambling is highly de structive. A person, young or old, who has once acquired the habit wants to vin iiis way by luck or cheating rather than by earnest endeavor. Unfortunately, many boys are addicted to pojty thieving. They call it "hook ing things." and are often rather proud of their skill at it. That it is a disgrace ful thing to do does not occur to them. Vet stealing make? a sneak, and th? thief-hoy. even though inspired by mere mischief in such operations, is in danger of developing into a criminal. .Many a thief-boy may bp turned into a boy of honor by making clear to his mind the unfairness and mistiness of stealing. Another photograph shows a group of small boys in whose company is an older and bigger boy. slouchy of demeanor. He is manifestly their leader; to a great, extent he directs their thoughts and in tluences them in ibe formation of their ideals. It is obvious that he is not a good boy. and the mischief the little chaps suffer from his leadership is an infection of character which is liable to affect their future and lessen their pros pect of turning out useful citizens. Hoy fights are phenomena more than ordinarily interesting. At five or six years of age a boy tights whenever an other boy doo.s anything he does not like. \t ten or twelve if is time for him to think whether lighting is always right, or when, if ever, it is right to light. If a boy seeks instruction on this point from his elders, he is likely to be toid that it is always wrong to fight. But this is not true, and he knows it is not CepyriRht, 101ft, bv the Star Company. true. The instruction therefore, is worse, than wasted. What he ought to he told is that fighting without necessity is mean and muckerish, hut that there are occa sions when it would he shameful and do structive of his own character for a hoy not to fight?as. for example, if attacked or in defense of a weaker hoy assailed by a bully. A photograph shows two brothers quar reling. The younger has done something the elder brother did not like. After chasing him two blocks, the bigger boy has caught the smaller one an.l pounded him till ho whimpered Quarrels between brothers are surely wrong and dis graceful. Most boy tights are wrong anil foolish. If two men behaved so, other men who might chance to be witnesses would be ashamed and disgusted. There is no rea son why the code of decent men in such matter.- should :.ot be the code of decent boys. In another uiciure a gang bully is pes tering a newsboy and trying to drive him away from his chosen business corner. This i? the kind of bully who, to, elicit the laughing applause of his companions, will make fun of a lame old man, or knock a market basket from the hand of a poor old woman. He is a coward, whose specialty is malicious mischi? I a: the e:; [irii.-" r other, weaker that! hunsclf. When he fight.; he expecis his gang to be ready to "pile on." The difference between a real joke and a cruel Joke is that the latter is not a joke at all; it is simply malice. A hoy should bo taught, that mean jokes are Great Prttnln Rights Reserved. "1 The hoy and older girl are leading ihi> smaller child between them, hand in hand. This they do to protect the little one from the dangers of the street. This little group of three, hand in haivd, the youngest in the centre, is not an accidental grouping?these chil dren have been brought up hy proper character education until it has become an instinct with the older brother and sister to defend the weak. never amusing: never otherwise tlwn disgusting ami shameful. A snapshot shows a poor dog with n broken leg, hobbling along. A boy did it with a stone. How cowardly tho net, considering the fact that the dog could not "throw back." It is worth any boy's while to fight to save a dog a hroken leg. Suppose that a boy's own dog is at tacked. Should he not defend his faith ful four footed comrade with all his uiicht ? Schools (says Mr. Kairehildi should de velop the spirit of work in every child as far as possible, and not a lazy bone should be left in the child's body when When the Street Bully Says, "Gim-me That Bag o' Apples or I'll Punch Yer Nose!"?What Is the Smaller Boy Expected to Do? But Suppose in This Case the Big Boy, the Bully, Happens to Be Your Boy. Have You Instructed Y our Boy Firmly and Definitely, Until He Realizes How Contempt ible It Is to Be a Bully or a Cheap Leader of a Little Gang of Street Ruffians? character education has done Its com plete work. Even tlie intellectual educa* tion given in schools is dependent for Us success on the character development of the pupils, because without serious purposes the child does not progress in tellectually. Mr. Fairchild is the head of the Na< tional Institution for Moral Instruction (located in Washington), the whole ob ject of which is to devise means for pro moting the character education of chil dren. Through this organization, which has the backing of many educators and other influential men all over the coun try. a business man has anonymously offered a prize of $5,000 for "the best code of morals suitable for use by teachers and parents in the training of children." It is not. in the ordinary sense an open competition. Seventy codes are to be of fered?at least, one from each State of the Union. Tho writers of them have been selected by tho State superinten dents of education. One of the five New York contributors to the symposium is Mrs. Henry Osgood Holland, of Buffalo. Massachusetts will be represented by Mrs. Ella Lyman Cabot, of Boston. One of the contributors from California will be Mrs. Roger J. Sterrett. of Los Angeles. From Illinois will como a code prepared by J. Howard Moore, of Chicago. All seventy codes will eventually be bound together in the form of a text-book. Some foolish persons, having learned of the competition, have in all serious ness offered tho Ten Commandments as the best possible code. But (says Mr. Fairchild) the Ten Commandments are written for adults. The first half of them deals with religious duties exclu sively and not with moral problems. How about the latter half? "Honor thy father and thy mother" is appropriate for children. Likewise, "Thou shalt not kill," if there is question of using a knife in a tight?a thing hap 1'ily rare among boys. The/sevi nth com mandment can have, no appiietaion to children. "Thou shalt not steal" i? a much-needed commandment in the child world. But. to children, what significance has "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house"? Most children never think of doing such a thing. A boy Is usually well satisfied with his own house, and to cast a slur on It means a fight. "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife." Why should a child covet a wife? What does a girl child want of a wife? A neighbor's wife would bo some other child's mother, and all children want their own mothers. "Nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant." But in the homes of nine out of ten children who go to the public schools thorn is no servant at all. Unfortunately, a child has to wait to grow up before the moral ideas of adults are of any use. to him. It is just this lack of a definite moral code for children that, through the prize competition above described, the National Institution lor Moral Instruction hopes to supply. Motorists Safest WHAT are the factors which make a motor car safe'.' In the first place, is speed a danger or a safety factor? At first thought, one would i>e inclined to say "danger," but \V. E Stalnaker, a well-known automobile man nfacturer, makes the statement that speed is one of the most pronounced contribu tors to safety that a motor car possesses, provided ahvavs other essential condi tions nre right. Ho cites, for example, the number of accidents in motor-car racing when motors were slow, as com pared to the comparative freedom from accidents in the recent high-speed events, where the speed ran higher than one hun dred miles per hour. "I do not mean," ho says, "that this tremendous speed would not have been extremely hazardous when cars were built poorly, but with modern construc tion. which is designed with speed con stantly in mind, the element of speed has very little awe for the average spec tator. The railway has not run away from ill 1 motor car in the development of safety devices, Wltilo the motor car has a great deal harder conditions to combat than When Speeding? does the railway, it has met them quite successfully. Then, too, there is not the matter of soft resilient pneumatic tires to contend with in the case of the railway train. The tire-maker has done as much to make motoring safe as any on'"*. Then comes the spring-maker and the high grade specialist, who is responsible for the little steering knuckles, which dare not give way. You seldom hear of a broken steering knuckle these days?it used to be quite common. But while enumerating the parts mak ers have contributed to safety, don't for get the man who makes the motor itself. A wild, unbalanced motor is one of the most dangerous things that might enter into tho construction of a motor car. It will rack a car from rear to front. It will work on every bolt and loosen it in spite* of fate and high water. There is nothing which weakens a motor car throughout its whole chassis so much as a vibrant and poorly balanced power plant. Vibration has been the antisafer.y in fluence which all engineers have been striving to conquer. And the battle was won when the multiple cylinder mo tor attained a state of ?>erfo<jtioD.